Assessing Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders - Vanderbilt

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Assessing Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

TRIAD SOCIAL SKILLS ASSESSMENT Second Edition Wendy Stone Lisa Ruble Elaine Coonrod Susan Hepburn Malinda Pennington Courtney Burnette Nicolette Bainbridge Brigham

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD) Vanderbilt Kennedy Center All rights reserved. 230 Appleton Place  PMB 74  Nashville, TN 37203-5721 No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission. To order copies of this manual, contact TRIAD at 1-877-273-8862 or [email protected]

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements ............................................................................................... iii Forward ................................................................................................................ iv INTRODUCTION Overview................................................................................................................ 2 How to Use This Manual ........................................................................................ 3 Description of Components .................................................................................... 4 Parent Rating Forms ......................................................................................... 4 Teacher Rating Forms ...................................................................................... 4 Direct Child Interaction ..................................................................................... 5 ADMINISTRATION General Administration ........................................................................................... 8 Characteristics of the Examiner......................................................................... 8 Parent and Teacher Rating Forms..................................................................... 8 Administration of the Direct Child Interaction Protocol ............................................. 9 Materials Needed.............................................................................................. 9 Assessment Set Up ........................................................................................ 10 Establishing Rapport ....................................................................................... 10 Specific Administration of Test Items ............................................................... 11 INTERPRETATION AND REPORT PREPARATION Interpretation and Report Preparation ................................................................... 15 Sample Report ..................................................................................................... 21 APPENDICES Appendix 1 Parent Rating Forms ....................................................................................... 33 Appendix 2 Teacher Rating Forms .................................................................................... 41 Appendix 3 Child Protocol ................................................................................................. 49 Appendix 4 Question Cards............................................................................................... 69 Appendix 5 Picture Stimuli ................................................................................................ 73

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are grateful to the many individuals who supported the development of this manual. In particular, we would like to thank Patty Abernathy for her skills in compiling and formatting manual revisions and Kylie Beck for her inspired graphics. Wendy Stone, Ph.D. Lisa Ruble, Ph.D. Elaine Coonrod, M.S. Susan Hepburn, Ph.D. Malinda Pennington, M.Ed. Courtney Burnette, Ph.D. Nicolette Bainbridge Brigham, Ph.D.

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FORWARD The Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD) was established within the Department of Pediatrics at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in 1998 by Dr. Wendy Stone. Dr. Stone recognized a need in the community for outreach and intervention services for children with autism. Since its inception and through its evolution, TRIAD has provided services to thousands of children and families throughout the state of Tennessee and beyond. TRIAD programs address community needs for cutting-edge information, high-quality support, and innovative interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. In 2005, TRIAD became a partner with the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development in order to continue to develop larger and more integrated autism research, training, and clinical programs. The TRIAD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA) was developed originally by TRIAD autism specialists to address the need for a relatively brief, easy-to-administer tool for evaluating the complex social profiles of children with autism spectrum disorders, identifying strengths and challenges in the social domain, and providing recommendations for intervention planning through individualized goals and specific strategies. Used in-house for 10 years, the TSSA recently has been updated for use in a variety of settings, including the school and community.

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INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW The social difficulties that children with autism experience are pervasive and lifelong. With direct intervention, children with autism can acquire the tools necessary for getting along with peers. Many researchers, in fact, have documented the beneficial effects of teaching social skills to children with autism and training their peers. For all of us, effective social skills are essential for successful and productive interactions in home and community settings. Children with autism experience specific social difficulties that are different from children with other developmental disabilities. Understanding their own and others emotions, understanding how to communicate their feelings and recognize other’s feelings, knowing how to start and maintain interactions appropriately, and understanding other people’s perspectives are some examples of difficulties experienced by children with autism. Because of their specific social problems, many of the tools available today to assess social skills do not address the level of detail needed for generating program plans for children with autism. In order to teach social skills, we need to determine what each child’s individual needs are in order to monitor the effectiveness of our teaching plans. Although they all experience social difficulties, every child with autism is unique, and thus, each child’s social skills must be assessed individually.

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HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL This assessment is designed for children ages 6-12 years who have basic reading skills at the 1st grade level. It is criterion-based and assesses knowledge and skills in three areas: (a) cognitive, (b) behavioral, and (c) affective. The cognitive areas assess the child’s ability to understand other people’s perspectives. The behavioral aspects determine the child’s ability to initiate and maintain interactions, and respond appropriately to other people. The affective components evaluate the child’s abilities to understand basic and complex emotions. Four sources of information are incorporated into the assessment: (1) parent report, (2) teacher report, (3) observation, and (4) direct child interaction. The parent information provides descriptions of the child’s social skills in home and community settings. The teacher information provides descriptions of social skills in the school setting. Parents and teachers also both rate interfering behaviors exhibited by the child. Finally, the direct child assessment provides additional information of the child’s skills as observed during interaction with a clinician. The information from the various sources should be interpreted in terms of the child’s strengths and weaknesses. A sample report is provided. The report can be used to identify teaching goals for school, home, and clinical settings.

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DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS P ARENT R ATING FORMS The Parent Rating Forms (Appendix 1) consist of three components: (1) Problem Behavior Rating Scale, (2) Social Skills Survey, and (3) Social Skills Rating Form. The Problem Behavior Rating Scale contains descriptors of behaviors that the respondent rates on a fourpoint scale, ranging from “not at all problematic” to “very problematic” for the child. The rater is also asked to indicate which of these behaviors interfere with the child’s ability to make and keep friends. The Social Skills Survey provides an opportunity for parents to develop a personal profile of their child’s interests and opportunities for making friends. Questions target number of friends, number of peer interaction opportunities, and preference for different types of social activities. The Social Skills Rating Form contains descriptors of social behaviors in areas that include affective understanding, perspective taking, initiating interactions, and maintaining interactions. The respondent rates the child’s ability to perform each behavior on a fourpoint scale, ranging from “not very well” to “very well.” Follow-up questions give parents the opportunity to indicate their specific concerns and goals for their child’s social skills development.

TEACHER RATING FORMS The Teacher Rating Forms (Appendix 2) consist of three components that parallel the Parent Forms: (1) Problem Behavior Rating Scale, (2) Social Skills Survey, and (3) Social Skills Rating Form. The Problem Behavior Rating Scale contains descriptors of behaviors that the respondent rates on a four-point scale, ranging from “not at all problematic” to “very problematic” for their child. The rater also is asked to indicate which of these behaviors interfere with the child’s ability to make and keep friends. The Social Skills Survey provides an opportunity for teachers to develop a personal profile of the child’s interests and opportunities for making friends in the school setting. Questions target number of friends, number of peer interaction opportunities, and preference for different types of social activities. The Social Skills Rating Form contains descriptors of social behaviors in the areas of affective understanding, perspective taking, initiating interactions, and maintaining interactions. The respondent rates the child’s ability to perform each behavior on a fourpoint scale, ranging from “not very well” to “very well.” Follow-up questions give teachers the opportunity to indicate their specific concerns and goals for the child’s social skills development.

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DIRECT CHILD INTERACTION The Direct Child Interaction component (Appendix 3) is conducted in a one-on-one setting. This portion of the assessment is composed of several parts: (1) conversation, (2) social understanding, (3) role plays, and (4) social motivation. Activities provide information useful for social skills goal planning and also assess the child’s ability to understand various intervention strategies such as role-playing and using a rating scale. 1) Conversation: This activity consists of four open-ended questions designed to help the examiner build rapport with the child and to assess the child’s informal conversational skills. A checklist at the bottom of the page describes the child’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors used during the conversation with the examiner. 2) Social understanding: This portion of the assessment is composed of four activities to assess the child’s social understanding skills in a variety of contexts. a) Joint attention activity: Question cards are used which require that the respondent, in this task, the examiner, be able to see the picture on the card in order to answer the question. This item is used to assess whether the child establishes joint attention and /or recognizes the need for the examiner to see what is on the card in order to answer the question. b) Feelings/situations pictures: Photos are used to assess the child’s recognition of emotions as portrayed in the pictures, as they relate to his/her own emotions, and to others emotions. Photos of interpersonal problem situations assess the child’s ability to recognize the problem and identify possible solutions. c) Perspective-taking activity: Questions about an unexpected item (e.g., dollar bill or candy) in an adhesive bandage box are used to assess whether the child can take the perspective of someone not in the room. d) Use of surrounding context activity: A picture of a complex scene is used to determine if the child can use the surrounding context of information in the picture to answer various questions. Also, it can be noted whether the child focuses on irrelevant aspects of the picture or becomes overly focused on one part of the situation, not considering the whole context.

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3) Role plays: This activity is designed to assess both the child’s ability to initiate and respond appropriately to interaction and to perform role plays. 4) Social motivation activity: This item is designed to assess the types of activities that the child enjoys and the child’s interest in interactions with other children. The child completes a checklist indicating if s/he likes to participate in the activity “not at all,” “a little,” or “a lot.” From the checklist, the examiner asks the child further to decide whether s/he prefers to do the activity “alone,” “with other kids,” or “with family.” Cards for each activity and involvement level are placed on a 5-point rating scale ranging from likes “not at all” to “a lot.”

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ADMINISTRATION

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GENERAL ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXAMINER This assessment tool does not require specific training or a degree. However, the examiner should have knowledge of autism characteristics, communication, and social skill development. The intent is that this instrument be administered by special educators, speech-pathologists, licensed therapists (e.g., occupational therapist, physical therapist), or school psychologists.

P ARENT AND T EACHER RATING FORMS Characteristics of the respondents: The respondent for the Parent Rating Form must be the parent or guardian who is most familiar with the behavior of the child being evaluated. Similarly, the respondent for the Teacher Rating Form must be the teacher who is most familiar with the behavior of the child being evaluated. In most cases, this will be the child’s classroom teacher from either general or special education. It is essential that respondents for both forms have sufficient opportunities to witness the behavior of the child in a variety of social situations. Instructions to the respondents: Since the Parent and Teacher Rating Forms are similar in design, their administration is discussed together. When the forms are given to the respondents, explain why the child is being evaluated. Explain that the purpose of the TRIAD Social Skills Assessment is to determine the child’s interactive skills and to develop an individualized instructional plan based on this information. Copies of the forms should be sent to respondents at least 2 weeks prior to the scheduled direct child interaction with the examiner. Encourage respondents to return forms prior to the child’s appointment. However, parent and teacher forms being returned at the time of the appointment is acceptable.

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ADMINISTRATION OF THE DIRECT CHILD INTERACTION PROTOCOL MATERIALS NEEDED        

TSSA protocol Adhesive bandage (i.e., Band-Aid) box with a dollar bill or candy placed inside Question cards Folder with pockets and rating scale (1 to 5) at the top Picture stimuli photo set Context picture 3x5 cards listing “likes” 4x6 cards for role-plays

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ASSESSMENT SET UP The preferred environment for the direct child interaction should be quiet, private, and free from auditory or visual distractions. The examiner and child should be able to sit across from each other at a small table. The height of the table and chairs should be comfortable for the child. Assessment materials should be within reach of examiner and out of direct reach of the child.

ESTABLISHING R APPORT Good rapport is essential for optimal performance during the assessment. Children may be slow to warm-up to an unfamiliar person and an unfamiliar task. The following suggestions should be helpful for establishing and maintaining rapport.

 Schedule the assessment for early in the day so that the child is rested.  Greet parent or caregiver first, then introduce yourself to the child. Show the child where the testing will occur and where the parent/caregiver will wait. If the parent/caregiver will be observing through a one-way mirror, demonstrate to the child that s/he will be watched during the assessment.  Refer to the child by name as often as appropriate and smile frequently.  Adopt a relaxed and playful approach. Present the assessment as an enjoyable experience.  Begin the session with conversation. Guiding questions are provided on the protocol.  Give clear directions and describe basic expectations of child’s participation.  If necessary, provide a visual schedule of the activity sequence during the assessment.  Provide general encouragement without specific praise for a certain response. Examples of these statements include “I can see that you’re really trying hard” or “Good job.”  Encourage the child to respond even when the activity is difficult.  Provide reinforcement for participation if necessary and as appropriate for the individual. For example, after completion of an activity, the examiner may give the child a sticker or allow the child to play with a motivating toy.  Provide opportunities for brief breaks if needed. A timer or schedule may be useful to provide visual representation of how long the child needs to work before a break.

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SPECIFIC ADMINISTRATION OF T EST ITEMS

1) Conversation: Materials:

 TSSA protocol Have a semi-structured conversation with the child using the questions provided. Keep questions open-ended or make statements that the child can respond to and make additional queries based on child’s responses. During the interaction, check observed features of verbal and nonverbal behaviors used by the child. Mark the items at bottom of protocol page.

2) Joint attention activity: Materials:

 Question cards Select cards for this item that require that the child show the examiner the card for that person to be able to answer the posed question. Thus, this item requires establishing joint attention and recognizing the other person’s need to see the card. Present cards to child and say, “I’ve been asking you a lot of questions. Now it’s time for you to ask me some. Pick a card and ask me all the questions on it.” If the child does not show the card to the examiner, test the limits by telling the child that you need to see the picture on the card in order to answer the question. Let the child choose another card or two and note whether s/he shows you the card in response to the feedback. Do not model the correct behavior.

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3) Feelings/situations pictures: Materials:

 Picture stimuli photo set

For each item, show the picture to the child and ask the set of questions. Record the child’s responses on the protocol. Be careful not to label the emotion or situation before the child gives a response.

4) Interests and motivation activity: Materials:

 “Things I like” questionnaire  Pen or pencil  3x5 cards pre-made with each activity at each interest level, for example, separate cards for “I like to watch TV alone”, “I like to watch TV with family,” and “I like to watch TV with other kids.”

 Rating scale positioned at top of folder, score from 1 “not at all” to 5 “very much.” Present rating worksheets to child. Read instructions aloud to the child to check understanding and complete the example items. After the child completes the questionnaire, select items that the child rated as highly desirable. Next, ask the child to tell you how much s/he likes engaging in each highly rated (“a lot”) activity alone, with family, or with friends. Present activity cards for these items and ask the child to place them physically one at a time on a rating scale. The rating scale should be positioned across the top of a folder and ranked 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much).

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5) Bandage box activity: Materials:

 Bandage box  Dollar bill or piece of hard candy While out of sight of child, place an object such as a dollar bill or piece of candy in an empty bandage box before presenting to child. Ask child what s/he thinks is in the box. After s/he responds, show her/him what is in the box. Then ask child what s/he thinks someone who is outside of the room, such as parent, will say is inside of the box. Record all responses on the protocol.

6) Context picture activity: Materials:  Birthday picture Present child with birthday picture scene. Ask questions and record responses on protocol.

7) Role play activities: Materials:

 4x6 cards with one role-play written on each  SSA protocol Before starting the role-plays, ask the child the background questions on the protocol. Read the Introduction aloud to the child. Present one role-play card at a time. Read aloud or ask child to read to you. Record the child’s responses on the protocol. Note the observed verbal and nonverbal behaviors used by the child during the role-play on the protocol checklist. Also record any prompts or cues for participation provided by the examiner.

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INTERPRETATION AND REPORT PREPARATION

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INTERPRETATION AND REPORT PREPARATION The TSSA is an integrated assessment that provides valuable information about a child’s social and behavioral strengths and concerns. The information you obtain from each section of the TSSA is meant to be a subjective and qualitative guide about the child’s functioning in multiple contexts, including home, school, and the direct assessment setting. There are currently no research studies that provide normative or quantitative information about a child’s individual performance on the parent and teacher questionnaires or specific testing items. However, very important and helpful information can be gathered from each section of this assessment that will guide recommendations for treatment interventions. The assessment report should include the following sections: Background and referral information, a description of the assessment instrument, participation and effort, interaction style, interfering behaviors, summaries of parent and teacher reports, summaries of direct child interaction, and recommendations for goals and interventions. A guideline for the interpretation and content of each section is specified below.

REFERRAL INFORMATION Provide a description of relevant background and referral information leading to the administration of this assessment.

ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW Include a description of the assessment instrument. The following sample statement may be used: The TRIAD Social Skills Assessment is based on information obtained from parental and teacher report as well as from direct interactions with the child. The child assessment consists of a structured, interactive, activity-based evaluation of several aspects of social development, including affective understanding and perspective-taking, social motivation, ability to initiate interactions and respond to social bids, social reciprocity, and interpersonal problem-solving. Parental report of social behaviors is obtained through an interview as well as written questionnaires. Teacher information of social behaviors is obtained through written questionnaires.

CHILD ASSESSMENT Participation: Provide a description of the child’s willingness to participate in the assessment and any factors interfering with administration, such as limited attention span, hyperactivity, © 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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distractibility, receptive and expressive language difficulties, and willingness to separate from the parent(s). Other factors may be involved as well, so be sure to comment on those in this section. Interaction style: Describe the interactive manner of the child during the assessment. Include a general description of observed verbal and nonverbal behaviors as noted throughout the assessment protocol. Provide information about the child’s eye contact, use of gestures to supplement verbal communication, and conversational style. Note how the child responds to questions. For example, does he typically respond with a few words or can he expand on his answers as a way of engaging the examiner in the activity. Does she tend to redirect the interaction to her topics of interest or is she able to flexibly transition between new conversations and activities throughout the assessment? Additional behavioral observations may be included in this section. Interfering behaviors: Provide details concerning the presence or absence of any child behaviors interfering with the assessment administration. Examples of these behaviors might include frequent need to move around, engaging is self-stimulatory activities, or distress with assessment situation. Preferred activities: Summarize the child’s choices indicated during the “things I like” activity. Also characterize whether the child generally preferred to participate in activities alone, with friends, or with family. Affective understanding/perspective-taking: Incorporate information from the question cards activity, the feelings and situations pictures, the bandage box activity, and the birthday picture to summarize skills in this section. Describe the child’s ability to understand emotions, recognize and solve social problems, take the perspective of others, and use contextual clues. Role play skills: Describe the child’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors during the role-play activities. Also, note the child’s interest and level of participation.

P ARENTAL AND T EACHER REPORTS Current concerns: Summarize parent and teacher concerns regarding the child’s social skills as obtained through the questionnaires and direct interviews.

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Preferred activities and interests: Indicate the child’s variety of interests at home and school as provided on the parent and teacher social skills survey. Problematic behaviors: Summarize the concerns reported by parents and teachers on the Problem Behavior Rating scale. Items rated as 1 or 2 should be considered not problematic and those rated 3 or 4 should be considered very problematic. Social skills: Provide a summary of parent and teacher responses to Social Skills Rating Scale questions about the child’s abilities in the areas of emotion understanding and perspective taking, initiating and ending interactions, responding to others, maintaining interactions and problem solving, and following social rules. Items rated 2 or less by the respondents are considered areas of weakness. Items rated as 3 or above by the respondents are considered areas of strength.

SUMMARY Describe the child’s overall relative strengths and weaknesses based on the direct child interaction and the parent and teacher reports. Use this section to indicate the areas that will need direct intervention. Integrate the parent and teacher questionnaires with the direct child observation. Indicate the similarities and differences in the child’s observed and reported behavior across settings and speculate why they might occur. For example, are there specific supports in place that allow a child to function more appropriately in one setting over another? Does the child interact better with adults than peers?

INTERVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the summary of the child’s strengths and weaknesses, choose appropriate objectives and goals from the list provided to develop an intervention plan. 1) Social behaviors to be targeted in a social intervention plan: OBJECTIVE #1: AFFECTIVE UNDERSTANDING /PERSPECTIVE TAKING : Specific goals: •

Understanding what other people’s facial expressions mean



Understanding what other people’s “body language” means



Using conventional facial expressions to express his/her feelings (for example, raised eyebrows to express surprise; a scowl to express anger)

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Using gestures or “body language” to communicate (for example, use an “OK” hand sign; cross arms when angry)



Understanding that other people can have thoughts and feelings that are different from his/her own



Understanding other people’s perspectives (i.e., putting him/herself “in another person’s shoes”)



Understanding what makes other people feel basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, or fear



Understanding what makes other people feel complex emotions such as surprise, guilt, or embarrassment

OBJECTIVE # 2: INITIATING INTERACTIONS: Specific goals: •

Initiating greetings to familiar people on his/her own



Inviting others to play with him/her



Joining a group of children who are already playing



Asking others in a direct manner for something he/she wants



Asking others for help when he/she needs it



Starting conversations with others



Getting the attention of others before talking to them



Offering to assist others when they need help



Offering comfort to others when they are upset or hurt



Apologizing in a sincere way for hurting someone, without being reminded



Complimenting or congratulating other people for their accomplishments or good fortune

OBJECTIVE # 3: RESPONDING TO INITIATIONS: Specific goals: •

Responding in a friendly manner when he/she is greeted by others



Responding in a friendly manner when others invite him/her to play

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Responding in a friendly manner to questions or requests from others



Responding in a friendly manner when others try to start conversations with him/her



Responding in a positive way to compliments

OBJECTIVE # 4: MAINTAINING INTERACTIONS: Specific goals: •

Playing cooperatively with other children (e.g., sharing, taking turns, following rules)



Having conversations about a wide range of topics



Talking about topics that interest the other person



Maintaining a conversation by sharing information and asking the other person questions



Staying on the topic during conversations



Listening to what others say and using this information during conversations



Sharing a conversation by talking and listening for about the same amount of time



Maintaining eye contact with others during interactions



Speaking in an appropriate tone of voice during interactions (e.g., not too loud or soft)



Smiling to be friendly or to indicate to others that he/she likes something



Respecting the personal space of others during interactions (i.e., not standing too close or too far away)



Not interrupting and waiting until someone finishes what he’s saying before offering information

2) Intervention formats that may be beneficial in working with this child: •

Individual goal-focused social skills training



Peer pairing in the classroom



Participation in a small, structured social skills training group with peers on a weekly basis

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Cooperative peer activities in the classroom that allow the child to share areas of interest and expertise

3) Recommended intervention strategies: •

Role playing



Teaching social scripts



Using written materials that the child can read (e.g., books that illustrate social themes; checklists that serve as behavioral cues)



Using visual materials and cues (e.g., pictures)



Using a visual schedule to convey the sequence of activities



Having a predictable routine



Providing repetition and practice



Involving many adults and peers in the child’s social environment in the intervention



Using nonverbal activities such as sorting (e.g., facial expressions) and completing rating scales (e.g., anxiety thermometer)



Generating rules for social situations

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SAMPLE REPORT

Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD) SOCIAL SKILLS ASSESSMENT SUMMARY Child: Date of Birth: Date Seen: Age: Examiner:

REFERRAL INFORMATION X was referred for a social skills assessment in order to identify areas of strength and weakness and to obtain recommendations for treatment planning.

ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW Our social skills assessment is based on information obtained from parental and teacher reports as well as from direct interactions with the child. The child assessment consists of a structured, interactive, activity-based evaluation of several aspects of social development, including affective understanding and perspective-taking, social motivation, ability to initiate interactions and respond to social bids, social reciprocity, and interpersonal problem-solving. Parental report of social behaviors is obtained through an interview as well as written questionnaires. Teacher information of social behaviors is obtained through written questionnaires.

CHILD ASSESSMENT Participation: X came to the assessment with the examiner willingly and seemed to give his best effort during the session. He actively participated in all the tasks. X had no difficulties separating from his parents, but frequently asked when he would see them next. He actively participated in all the tasks, but was often distracted by other items in the testing room. When X was redirected to the activities presented, he willingly complied and responded to the examiner’s prompts and questions.

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Interaction style: X seemed interested in each activity as observed in his willingness to participate. He was able to respond to queries from the examiner and offered additional information about topics of interest such as his family, preferred activities, and favorite games and toys. In general, X’s verbal behavior was clear and understandable to the listener, relevant to the topics, and reality based. X had more difficulty with lengthy verbal instructions, but was able to follow a series of short commands. He had difficulty with making eye contact. X demonstrated emerging abilities with using gestures and maintaining appropriate physical proximity. Interfering behaviors: X demonstrated no interfering behaviors during the examination. Preferred activities: This task involves presenting the child with a list of activities of “things to do” and “places to go” and asking the child to rate how much he or she likes each one (i.e., not at all; a little; a lot). The child’s preference for engaging in each activity alone, with friends, or with family members also is assessed. X expressed interest in going to many places from the mall or McDonald’s to a friend’s house. He also reported many activity interests from playing outside to playing video games to artistic endeavors. On all of his activities, he rated a preference for participating with friends or family very highly. On items such as playing computer or video games, doing puzzles, playing with toys, watching TV and reading, X selected that he enjoyed doing these activities by himself as well as with others. Affective understanding/perspective-taking: X’s affective understanding and perspective-taking skills were assessed in a variety of tasks. During the first activity, X was given a question card and instructed to ask the examiner all the items on the card. The questions are structured so that the examiner could answer the question In the second activity, X was shown feelings and situations pictures. X was able to identify basic emotions and describe something that would make him feel that way. For example, X expressed that he would feel happy when he gets all his homework done and sad or mad when he gets frustrated. He had more difficulty with identifying what would cause another person such as his Dad or Mom to feel those emotions. However, X was able to say that Dad would be happy if he listened to him and mad when he didn’t. X had difficulty identifying complex emotions such as surprise or depression. However, he was able to suggest that the depressed boy could feel better if he could talk about it with his mom. When presented with pictures of social problems, X cooperated well but frequently commented that these were “tough.” He was able to provide a basic description of most of the picture problems such as the boy fell, the boy wants the ball, and the girl wants the boy’s bike. He had difficulty recognizing teasing. X identified the individual basic emotions of the people in the pictures but had difficulty describing their interactive relationships. However, he was able to make suggestions for how to solve the problems, such as put a band-aid on © 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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the injured boy, have the upset girl talk to mom, and try to see who could go first on the bicycle. Specifically, he said that the kids fighting over the bike should be “flexible.” During the third activity, X was asked to predict what was in a closed band-aid box, observe that the box contained a one dollar bill, and then predict what his father would think was in the closed box. He was able to accurately predict that his father would say that band-aids were in the box. Role play skills: X responded well to the role-play activities. His participation and quality of interaction continually improved as he became comfortable with the task. During the first role-play, “initiating a greeting,” he made relevant statements with an appropriate tone of voice and coordinated facial expression but had difficulty maintaining the conversation without prompts. During the second role-play, “responding to initiations from others,” he made a friendly response to requests, asked a relevant question, and commented on the partner’s statement. By the third role-play, “initiating play,” X demonstrated appropriate use of physical proximity and was able to maintain the conversation with creativity. During the last role-play, “responding to an invitation,” he successfully used some appropriate gestures during the interaction. Throughout the role-play, X continued to have difficulty with greetings and making eye contact.

P ARENTAL AND T EACHER REPORTS Information about X’s social behaviors was collected from his parents using a questionnaire and interview. X’s current teacher, Z, also completed a questionnaire. The following is a summary and comparison of X’s current difficulties with, interest in, and opportunities for social interactions according to parent and teacher report. Current concerns: Parent report: W, X’s mother, reported that she is most concerned with her son learning how to approach other children to initiate interactions, sustaining interactions, and understanding that other people have different thoughts and feelings. In addition to these concerns, she would like to see X learn: How to initiate play and discover what the other person wants to do so that play is reciprocal; and how to tell by facial expressions and body language whether another child is receptive to his overtures. Teacher report: X’s speech teacher, Z, has known X for 10 months. She would like to see him able to understand others’ perspectives and learn how to initiate.

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Interactions with others and participation in activities with peers Parent report: X’s mother reports that he interacts with only one close friend. He interacts with his friends outside of school or invites others to play with him less than once a week. When such interactions are suggested by his mother, X wants it to happen right away and doesn’t understand that his friend may not be available or willing at this time. X participates in karate classes, a hiking group, and his after school program regularly. Teacher report: X shows much interest in interacting with his peers. He probably identifies 1 to 5 classmates as his friends. In speech class, he particularly enjoys role-playing, interviewing, and other games. Preferred activities and interests Parent report: X’s special interests include swimming, tae kwon do, Pokemon, hiking, Legos, Game Boy, reading, and foreign languages. On his own, he likes to swing, play with toys, and verbally repeat portions of TV shows and books. With others, his favorite activities at home and in the community include Pokemon battles, tag, playground chases, board games, walking the dog, helping in the garden, and family outings. His mother also noted that encountering flying insects while outdoors can be upsetting for X. Teacher report: X’s special interests include writing, reading, story telling, karate, Pokemon, and Legos. During free time, he likes to read, use the computer, and discuss Pokemon. At recess, he enjoys playing with his close friends. His favorite activities in the classroom include game time, role-playing, and interviewing. Problematic behaviors: The following is a list of behaviors that could be problematic for X. Checks indicate a current area of concern.

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Behavior

Parent Report

Acting impulsively or carelessly without regard for consequences Hitting or hurting others

X

Teasing or bullying others

X

Teacher Report

Damaging or breaking things that belong to others Screaming or yelling

X

Having sudden mood changes, demonstrating mood swings

X

Having temper tantrums

X

Being overly bossy or stubborn own way

X

Having a low frustration tolerance

X

X

Crying easily with minor provocation Making negative statements about him/herself Being overly quiet, shy or withdrawn

X

Acting sulky or sad Being underactive or lacking in energy, sedentary Expressing worry about many things Engaging in behaviors that may be distasteful to others, such as nose picking Touching him/herself inappropriately Engaging in compulsive behaviors; repeating certain acts over and over; having to do the same behavior in a specified way many times Being overly concerned with making mistakes; being perfectionist

X (verbal)

Having toileting accidents Hitting or hurting him/herself Becoming overly upset when others touch or move his/her belongings Laughing or giggling at inappropriate times Ignoring or walking away from others during interactions or play Becoming upset if routines are changed Touching others inappropriately

X

Asking the same questions over and over

X

Engaging in unusual mannerisms such as hand-flapping or spinning Having to play or do things in the same exact way each time

X

Having difficulty calming him/herself down when upset or excited

X

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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Social skills: X’s mother and his teacher also responded to questions about X’s social skills in the areas of emotion understanding and perspective taking, initiating and ending interactions, responding to others, maintaining interactions and problem solving, and following social rules. Items rated as 2 or less by the respondents are considered areas of weakness. Items rated as 3 or above by the respondents are considered areas of strength. Relative strengths and weaknesses for X in these areas are given below. EMOTION UNDERSTANDING AND PERSPECTIVE TAKING SKILLS

PARENT REPORT

T EACHER REPORT

Understanding what other people’s facial expressions mean

Weakness

Strength

Understanding what other people’s “body language” means

Weakness

Strength

Using a wide range of facial expressions

Strength

Strength

Using a wide range of gestures or “body language” to communicate Understanding that others may have thoughts and feelings different from his/her own Understanding another person’s perspective or point of view Understanding what makes other people feel happy, sad, angry, or afraid Understanding what makes other people feel surprised or embarrassed

Strength

Strength

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Strength

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

PARENT REPORT Strength

TEACHER REPORT Weakness

Inviting others to play with him

Weakness

Weakness

Joining a group of children who are already playing

Weakness

N/A

Asking others in a direct manner for something he wants

Strength

Strength

Asking others for help when he needs it

Strength

Strength

Starting conversations with others

Strength

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Offering to assist others when they need help

Strength

Weakness

Offering comfort to others when they are upset or hurt

Strength

N/A

Apologizing in a sincere way for hurting someone, without being reminded Complimenting or congratulating someone

Strength

N/A

Strength

Strength

INITIATING INTERACTIONS Spontaneously greeting familiar people

Getting the attention of others before talking to them

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PARENT REPORT Strength

TEACHER REPORT Strength

Strength

Strength

Weakness

Strength

Weakness

Strength

Strength

Strength

PARENT REPORT

TEACHER REPORT

Playing cooperatively with other children

Weakness

Strength

Having conversations about a wide range of topics

Weakness

Weakness

Talking about things that interest the other person

Weakness

Weakness

Keeping a conversation going by sharing information and asking the other person questions Staying on the topic during conversations

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Listening to what others say and use this information during conversations Sharing a conversation by talking and listening for about the same amount of time Maintaining eye contact with others during interactions

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Weakness

Strength

Speaking in an appropriate tone of voice during interactions Smiling to be friendly or to indicate to others that he likes something Respecting the personal space of others during interactions

Weakness

Strength

Strength

Strength

Weakness

Strength

PARENT REPORT

TEACHER REPORT

Strength

Strength

Weakness

Weakness

Ability to initiate social interactions

Strength

Weakness

Ability to respond to the initiations of others

Strength

Strength

Ability to maintain social interactions

Weakness

Weakness

Ability to understand and use nonverbal behaviors appropriately

Weakness

Strength

RESPONDING TO INITIATIONS Responding in a friendly manner when others greet him Responding in a friendly manner when others invite him to play Responding in a friendly manner to questions or requests from others Responding in a friendly manner when others try to start conversations with him Responding in a positive way to compliments

MAINTAINING INTERACTIONS AND SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

GENERAL SOCIAL COMPETENCIES Ability to understand and express feelings Ability to understand the perspective of another person

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SUMMARY The following is a summary of X’s social skills performance as observed during the assessment and reported by his parents and teachers. Strengths: Generally, X is doing well understanding and expressing basic feelings and responding to the initiations of others. He used a wide range of facial expressions and gestures to communicate. X imitates to request things he needs and to ask for help. He offers comfort to others who are hurt or upset, apologizes sincerely, and compliments or congratulates others. X mostly uses an appropriate tone of voice, smiles to be friendly, and respects others’ personal space. Weaknesses: Overall, X has difficulty understanding the perspectives of others and maintaining social interactions. He demonstrates emerging skills in the areas of initiating social interactions and understanding or using nonverbal behaviors appropriately. Specifically, X has difficulty understanding what makes others feel simple and complex emotions and understanding that others may have different thoughts or opinions from his own. He has problems staying on topic and keeping a conversation going. X appears to be better able to engage in social interactions and conversations with adults than same age peers because adults will typically engage him more on his topic of interest and ask questions rather than relying on him to spontaneously offer information. This observation may explain why X is more willing to initiate interactions with adults but tends to withdraw from interactions with peers.

INTERVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS 1) It is recommended that the following social behaviors be targeted in a social intervention plan: OBJECTIVE # 1: AFFECTIVE UNDERSTANDING / PERSPECTIVE TAKING : Specific goals: •

Understanding what other people’s facial expressions mean



Understanding what other people’s “body language” means



Understanding that other people can have thoughts and feelings that are different from his own



Understanding other people’s perspectives (i.e., putting himself “in another person’s shoes”)



Understanding what makes other people feel basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, and fear

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Understanding what makes other people feel complex emotions such as surprise, guilt, and embarrassment

OBJECTIVE # 2: INITIATING INTERACTIONS: Specific goals: •

Initiating greetings to familiar people on his own



Inviting others to play with him



Joining a group of children who are already playing



Starting conversations with others



Getting the attention of others before talking to them



Offering to assist others when they need help

OBJECTIVE # 3: MAINTAINING INTERACTIONS: Specific goals: •

Playing cooperatively with other children (e.g., sharing, taking turns, following rules)



Having conversations about a wide range of topics



Talking about things that interest the other person



Keeping a conversation going by sharing information and asking the other person questions



Staying on the topic during conversations



Listening to what others say and using this information during conversations



Sharing a conversation by talking and listening for about the same amount of time



Maintaining eye contact with others during interactions

2) The following intervention formats may be beneficial in working with this child: •

Individual goal-focused social skills training



Peer pairing in the classroom



Participation in a small, structured social skills training group with peers on a weekly basis

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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Cooperative peer activities in the classroom that allow the child to share areas of interest and expertise

3) The following intervention strategies are recommended: •

Role playing



Teaching social scripts



Using written materials that the child can read (e.g., books that illustrate social themes; checklists that serve as behavioral cues)



Using visual materials and cues (e.g., pictures)



Using a visual schedule to convey the sequence of activities



Having a predictable routine



Providing repetition and practice



Involving many adults and peers in the child’s social environment in the intervention



Using nonverbal activities such as sorting (e.g., facial expressions) and completing rating scales (e.g., anxiety thermometer)



Generating rules for social situations

For more information or for questions regarding this report, please contact the Vanderbilt TRIAD office at (XXX) XXX-XXXX.

_______________________________ Educational consultant

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

___________________________ Clinical psychologist

30

APPENDICES

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

31

APPENDIX 1

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32

PROBLEM BEHAVIOR RATING SCALE – Parent Child’s Name:_______________________ Age: ______ Birth Date:_____________ Person completing form:__________________________ Date:________________

A. Please use the following scale to indicate which of the following behaviors are problematic for your child: 1 Not at all problematic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

2

3

4 Very problematic

Acting impulsively or carelessly, without regard for consequences Hitting or hurting others Teasing or bullying others Damaging or breaking things that belong to others Screaming or yelling Having sudden mood changes; demonstrating mood swings Having temper tantrums or meltdowns Being overly bossy or stubborn; needing to have his/her own way Having a low frustration tolerance; becoming easily angered or upset Crying easily with minor provocation Making negative statements about him/herself Being overly quiet, shy, or withdrawn Acting sulky or sad Being underactive or lacking in energy; sedentary Expressing worry about many things Engaging in behaviors that may be distasteful to others, such as nose-picking or spitting Touching him/herself inappropriately Engaging in compulsive behaviors; repeating certain acts over and over; having to do the same behavior in a specified way many times Being overly concerned with making mistakes; being a perfectionist Having toileting accidents Hitting or hurting him/herself Becoming overly upset when others touch or move his/her belongings Laughing or giggling at inappropriate times (e.g., when others are hurt or upset) Ignoring or walking away from others during interactions or play Becoming upset if routines are changed Touching others inappropriately Asking the same questions over and over Engaging in unusual mannerisms such as hand-flapping or spinning Having to play or do things in the same exact way each time Having difficulty calming him/herself down when upset or excited

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

B. Please star the behaviors above that interfere with your child’s ability to make and keep friends.

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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SOCIAL SKILLS SURVEY - Parent

Child’s Name:______________________ Age: ______ Birth Date:__________ Person completing form:_______________________ Date:________________

1) How many close friends does your child have? ______ For each friend, please complete the following: First Name

Age

Gender (M/F)

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

2) How many times per week does your child invite friends to play? _____ 3) How many times per week do friends invite your child to play?

_

4) Please list all organized peer group activities that your child is involved in: ___________________________

_________________________

___________________________

_________________________

___________________________

_________________________

5) Please list your child’s special interests or talents: ___________________________

_________________________

___________________________

_________________________

___________________________

_________________________

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6) How interested is your child in spending time with peers? ____________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Not Extremely very interested interested ____________________________________________________ 7) How interested is your child in making new friends? ____________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Not Extremely very interested interested ____________________________________________________

8) Please complete the table below to indicate your child’s favorite activities:

At Home - Inside

When alone

At Home - Outside

In the Community

N/A

With other children

With parent(s)

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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Please use the following scale to indicate how well your child does each of the following: 1 Not very well

2

3

4 Very well

Affective Understanding/ Perspective Taking How well does your child… 9) Understand what other people’s facial expressions mean?

1

2

3

4

10) Understand what other people’s “body language” means?

1

2

3

4

11) Use a wide range of conventional facial expressions to express his/her feelings (for example, raised eyebrows to express surprise; a scowl to express anger)?

1

2

3

4

12) Use a wide range of gestures or “body language” to communicate (for example, use an “OK” hand sign; cross arms when angry)?

1

2

3

4

13) Understand that other people can have thoughts and feelings that are different from his/her own?

1

2

3

4

14) Understand other people’s perspectives in a variety of situations (i.e., put him/herself “in another person’s shoes”)?

1

2

3

4

15) Understand what makes other people feel basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, or fear?

1

2

3

4

16) Understand what makes other people feel complex emotions such as surprise, guilt, or embarrassment?

1

2

3

4

17) Initiate greetings to familiar people on his/her own?

1

2

3

4

18) Invite others to play with him/her?

1

2

3

4

Initiating Interactions How well does your child…

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1 Not very well

2

3

4 Very well

How well does your child… 19) Join a group of children who are already playing?

1

2

3

4

20) Ask others in a direct manner for something he/she wants?

1

2

3

4

21) Ask others for help when he/she needs it?

1

2

3

4

22) Start conversations with others?

1

2

3

4

23) Get the attention of others before talking to them?

1

2

3

4

24) Offer to assist others when they need help?

1

2

3

4

25) Offer comfort to others when they are upset or hurt?

1

2

3

4

26) Apologize in a sincere way for hurting someone, without being reminded?

1

2

3

4

27) Compliment or congratulate other people for their accomplishments or good fortune?

1

2

3

4

28) Respond in a friendly manner when he/she is greeted by others?

1

2

3

4

29) Respond in a friendly manner when others invite him/her to play?

1

2

3

4

30) Respond in a friendly manner to questions or requests from others?

1

2

3

4

31) Respond in a friendly manner when others try to start conversations with him/her?

1

2

3

4

32) Respond in a positive way to compliments?

1

2

3

4

Responding to Initiations How well does your child…

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1 Not very well

2

3

4 Very well

Maintaining Interactions How well does your child… 33) Play cooperatively with other children (e.g., sharing, taking turns, following rules)?

1

2

3

4

34) Have conversations about a wide range of topics?

1

2

3

4

35) Talk about things that interest the other person?

1

2

3

4

36) Keep a conversation going by sharing information and asking the other person questions?

1

2

3

4

37) Stay on the topic during conversations?

1

2

3

4

38) Listen to what others say and use this information during conversations?

1

2

3

4

39) Share a conversation by talking and listening for about the same amount of time?

1

2

3

4

40) Maintain eye contact with others during interactions?

1

2

3

4

41) Speak in an appropriate tone of voice during interactions (e.g., not too loud, soft, mechanical, or sing-songy)?

1

2

3

4

42) Smile to be friendly or to indicate to others that he/she likes something?

1

2

3

4

43) Respect the personal space of others during interactions (i.e., not stand too close or too far away)?

1

2

3

4

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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Please use the following scale to rate your child’s ability in each of the following areas: 1 Not very competent

2

3

4 Very competent

44) Ability to understand and express feelings

1

2

3

4

45) Ability to understand the perspective of another person

1

2

3

4

46) Ability to initiate social interactions

1

2

3

4

47) Ability to respond to the initiations of others

1

2

3

4

48) Ability to maintain social interactions

1

2

3

4

49) Ability to understand and use nonverbal behaviors appropriately (e.g., eye contact, smiling, body language)

1

2

3

4

_________________________________________________________________ 50) Which aspects of your child’s social skills development are you most concerned about?

51) What would you like your child to learn in a social skills intervention program?

Thank you!

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

39

APPENDIX 2

©1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

40

PROBLEM BEHAVIOR RATING SCALE – Teacher Child’s Name:____________________________ Age: ______ Birth Date:_____________ Teacher completing form:______________________________

Date:________________

How long teacher has known child: _____________________________________________ A. Please use the following scale to indicate which of the following behaviors are problematic for this child: 1 Not at all problematic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

2

3

4 Very problematic

Acting impulsively or carelessly, without regard for consequences Hitting or hurting others Teasing or bullying others Damaging or breaking things that belong to others Screaming or yelling Having sudden mood changes; demonstrating mood swings Having temper tantrums or meltdowns Being overly bossy or stubborn; needing to have his/her own way Having a low frustration tolerance; becoming easily angered or upset Crying easily with minor provocation Making negative statements about him/herself Being overly quiet, shy, or withdrawn Acting sulky or sad Being underactive or lacking in energy; sedentary Expressing worry about many things Engaging in behaviors that may be distasteful to others, such as nose-picking or spitting Touching him/herself inappropriately Engaging in compulsive behaviors; repeating certain acts over and over; having to do the same behavior in a specified way many times Being overly concerned with making mistakes; being a perfectionist Having toileting accidents Hitting or hurting him/herself Becoming overly upset when others touch or move his/her belongings Laughing or giggling at inappropriate times (e.g., when others are hurt or upset) Ignoring or walking away from others during interactions or play Becoming upset if routines are changed Touching others inappropriately Asking the same questions over and over Engaging in unusual mannerisms such as hand-flapping or spinning Having to play or do things in the same exact way each time Having difficulty calming him/herself down when upset or excited

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

B. Please star the behaviors above that interfere with this child’s interactions with others.

©1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

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SOCIAL SKILLS SURVEY – Teacher Child’s Name:______________________________

Age: ________________

Teacher completing form:_____________________ Date:________________ School:___________________________________

Grade:_______________

Type of classroom:_________________________________________________ How long teacher has known child:____________________________________

1) How much interest in interacting with classmates does this child show? ___________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Very little Extremely interest interested ___________________________________________________ 2) How often does this child interact with classmates? ____________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 As little As much as possible as possible ____________________________________________________

3) How well does this child interact with classmates? ____________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Not Very very well well ____________________________________________________

4) How many friends in the classroom does this child have? __________________ 5) What types of activities does this child participate in with classmates? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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6) Please list any special interests, skills, talents, or areas of expertise that this child has demonstrated: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7) How does this child usually spend his/her free time in the classroom? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8) How does this child usually spend his/her time during recess? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 9) What are this child’s favorite classroom activities? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Continued on next page…

©1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

43

Please use the following scale to indicate how well this child does each of the following: 1 Not very well

2

3

4 Very well

Affective Understanding/ Perspective Taking How well does this child… 10) Understand what other people’s facial expressions mean?

1

2

3

4

11) Understand what other people’s “body language” means?

1

2

3

4

12) Use a wide range of conventional facial expressions to express his/her feelings (for example, raised eyebrows to express surprise; a scowl to express anger)?

1

2

3

4

13) Use a wide range of gestures or “body language” to communicate (for example, use an “OK” hand sign; cross arms when angry)?

1

2

3

4

14) Understand that other people can have thoughts and feelings that are different from his/her own?

1

2

3

4

15) Understand other people’s perspectives in a variety of situations (i.e., put him/herself “in another person’s shoes”)?

1

2

3

4

16) Understand what makes other people feel basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, or fear?

1

2

3

4

17) Understand what makes other people feel complex emotions such as surprise, guilt, or embarrassment?

1

2

3

4

18) Initiate greetings to familiar people on his/her own?

1

2

3

4

19) Invite others to play with him/her?

1

2

3

4

Initiating Interactions How well does this child…

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44

1 Not very well

2

3

4 Very well

How well does this child… 20) Join a group of children who are already playing?

1

2

3

4

21) Ask others in a direct manner for something he/she wants?

1

2

3

4

22) Ask others for help when he/she needs it?

1

2

3

4

23) Start conversations with others?

1

2

3

4

24) Get the attention of others before talking to them?

1

2

3

4

25) Offer to assist others when they need help?

1

2

3

4

26) Offer comfort to others when they are upset or hurt?

1

2

3

4

27) Apologize in a sincere way for hurting someone, without being reminded?

1

2

3

4

28) Compliment or congratulate other people for their accomplishments or good fortune?

1

2

3

4

29) Respond in a friendly manner when he/she is greeted by others?

1

2

3

4

30) Respond in a friendly manner when others invite him/her to play?

1

2

3

4

31) Respond in a friendly manner to questions or requests from others?

1

2

3

4

32) Respond in a friendly manner when others try to start conversations with him/her?

1

2

3

4

33) Respond in a positive way to compliments?

1

2

3

4

Responding to Initiations How well does this child…

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45

1 Not very well

2

3

4 Very well

Maintaining Interactions How well does this child… 34) Play cooperatively with other children (e.g., sharing, taking turns, following rules?

1

2

3

4

35) Have conversations about a wide range of topics?

1

2

3

4

36) Talk about things that interest the other person?

1

2

3

4

37) Keep a conversation going by sharing information and asking the other person questions?

1

2

3

4

38) Stay on the topic during conversations?

1

2

3

4

39) Listen to what others say and use this information during conversations?

1

2

3

4

40) Share a conversation by talking and listening for about the same amount of time?

1

2

3

4

41) Maintain eye contact with others during interactions?

1

2

3

4

42) Speak in an appropriate tone of voice during interactions (e.g., not too loud, soft, mechanical, or sing-songy)?

1

2

3

4

43) Smile to be friendly or to indicate to others that he/she likes something?

1

2

3

4

44) Respect the personal space of others during interactions (i.e., not stand too close or too far away)?

1

2

3

4

©1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

46

Please use the following scale to rate this child’s ability in each of the following areas: 1 Not very competent

2

3

4 Very competent

45) Ability to understand and express feelings

1

2

3

4

46) Ability to understand the perspective of another person

1

2

3

4

47) Ability to initiate social interactions

1

2

3

4

48) Ability to respond to the initiations of others

1

2

3

4

49) Ability to maintain social interactions

1

2

3

4

50) Ability to understand and use nonverbal behaviors appropriately (e.g., eye contact, smiling, body language)

1

2

3

4

_________________________________________________________________ 51) Which aspects of this child’s social skills development are you most concerned about?

52) What would you like this child to learn in a social skills intervention program?

Other comments:

Thank you!

©1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

47

APPENDIX 3

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

48

SOCIAL SKILLS PROTOCOL Child’s Name:_________________________________

Age: _______________

Examiner:____________________________________

Date:_______________

1) CONVERSATION To the examiner: Use these questions to help build rapport. Note responses and observed behaviors below.

“Tell me about some of the things you like to do at home (e.g., favorite TV show).”

“Tell me about some of the things you do at school.”

“Tell me about your family.”

“Do you have any questions for me?”

Score: Check whether the child’s verbal behavior was:

Check which of the following nonverbal behaviors were used appropriately:

____ Clear and understandable to the listener

____ Eye contact

____ Of appropriate duration ____ used single words ____ used phrases ____ used sentences ____ appropriate use of pronouns

____ Tone of voice ____ Physical proximity ____ Gestures ____ Facial expression

____ Relevant and on-topic ____ Reality-based

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2) Joint Attention Activity: QUESTION CARDS To the examiner: This item assesses whether the child establishes joint attention and/or recognizes the need for the other person to see what is on the card in order to answer the question.

“Let’s take turns asking each other questions now. You can go first. Pick a card and ask me all the questions on it.” Score:

Shows card appropriately? Comments:

Y

N

If no, you can test the limits by telling the child that you need to see the picture on the card in order to answer the question. In this case, let the child choose another card or two and note whether he/she shows you the card in response to this feedback.

3) FEELINGS/SITUATIONS PICTURES To the examiner: The following pictures/items assess the child’s understanding of emotions and ability to understand others emotions. Be careful not to label feelings during instructions to the child. However, it is o.k. to clarify once the child has identified the emotion. For example, child says, “He looks sad”; examiner says, “So you’re saying he looks sad.”

“Here are some pictures for you to look at.” Picture 1: a) “How does this child feel?” (If first response is not appropriate, ask “What else might she be feeling?”)

b) “What is one thing that makes you feel _________?”

c) “What’s one thing that might make your mom (or dad, or sibling) feel ________?” (Use the name of someone not in the room)

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Picture 2: a) “How does this child feel?” (If first response is not appropriate, ask “What else might he be feeling?”)

b) “What is one thing that makes you feel _________?”

c) “What’s one thing that might make your mom (or dad, or sibling) feel _________?” (Use the name of someone not in the room)

Picture 3: a) “How does this child feel?” (If first response is not appropriate, ask “What else might she be feeling?”)

b) “What is one thing that makes you feel ________?”

c) “What’s one thing that might make your mom (or dad, or sibling) feel _________?”

Picture 4: a) “How does this child feel?” (If first response is not appropriate, ask “What else might she be feeling?”)

b) “What is one thing that makes you feel ________?”

c) “What is one thing that makes you feel ________?”

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Picture 5: a) “How does this child feel?” (If first response is not appropriate, ask “What else might he be feeling?”)

b) “What do you think might make him feel this way (name the emotion)?”

c) “What do you think he could do to feel better?”

Picture 6: a) “Tell me what’s happening in this picture.”

b) “How do you think this girl (on the right) is feeling?”

c) “What might she be thinking?”

d) “What could this child (on the left) do to make the girl feel better?”

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Picture 7: a) “Tell me what’s happening in this picture.”

b) “How do you think this boy/girl (on the right/left) is feeling?”

c) “What might she/he be thinking?”

d) “What could she/he do to feel better?”

Picture 8: “Here’s a picture of a problem.” a) “Tell me what you think the problem is.”

b) “How do you think each of these children is feeling?”

c) “How could they solve the problem?”

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4) Interests and Motivation Activity-THINGS I LIKE To the examiner: Present cards one at a time and remove once used. Have child place card for each item on 1-5 rating scale script to indicate how much s/he likes the item. Record answers below.

ITEM

ALONE

OTHER KIDS

FAMILY

1. Play on a playground 2. Play sports 3. Ride a bike 4. Play inside games 5. Play Nintendo or other video games 6. Play on the computer 7. Do puzzles 8. Play with toys 9. Build things with Legos or blocks 10. Draw or paint pictures 11. Make things with clay or Play-doh 12. Cook or bake 13. Listen to music 14. Watch TV or videos 15. Read books or magazines 16. Other:

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5)

Perspective-Taking Activity- BANDAGE BOX To the examiner: Place an object such as a dollar bill or piece of candy in an empty bandage (Band-Aid) box. This should be done out of sight of the child and prior to presentation. “What do you think is in this box?” ________________________________________ “Look inside and tell me what’s in it” ______________________________________

“If _______________ (choose family member not in the room) saw this box sitting on a table, what would s/he think is in the box?” ______________________________________________________________________ 6) Use of surrounding context- BIRTHDAY PICTURE “Look at this picture. Whose birthday is it?”________________________________ “What is the weather like outside?” _______________________________________ “What does this family do in their free time?” _______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 7) ROLE PLAYS (see attached sheets)

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THINGS I LIKE Child’s Name:

Age:

Date:

Examiner:

Administration #:

INSTRUCTIONS

Today you are going to tell us about how much you like different things. You will read some questions about things you like to do and places you like to go. If you don’t like to do the thing at all, circle the . If you like to do the thing a little, circle the . If you like to do the thing a lot, circle the . Here are some examples to show you how to do it.

How much do you like to: Eat ice cream or candy?

Eat bread?

Eat spinach?

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

Not at all

A little

A lot

  

  

  

56

THINGS TO DO How much do you like to:

Not at all

1. Play on a playground (like swinging or climbing)?

2. Play sports (like kickball or basketball)?

3. Ride a bike?

4. Play inside games (like Sorry, checkers, or Crazy 8’s)?

5. Play Nintendo or other video games?

6. Play on the computer?

7. Do puzzles?

8. Play with toys?

9. Build things with Legos or blocks?

10. Draw or paint pictures?

11. Make things with clay or Play-doh?

12. Cook or bake?

13. Listen to music?

14. Watch TV or videos?

15. Read books or magazines?

Other:

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

               

A little

               

A lot

                57

PLACES TO GO How much do you like to:

Not at all

16. Go to a friend’s house?

17. Go to a party?

18. Go to a movie?

19. Go to McDonald’s?

20. Go bowling?

21. Go to a swimming pool?

22. Go to a park or playground?

23. Go play Putt-Putt?

24. Go to a place like Discovery Zone or Chuck-E-Cheese?

25. Go to a museum like Adventure Science Center?

26. Go see animals (like at the zoo or Humane Society)?

27. Go hiking or fishing?

28. Go to the library or bookstore?

29. Go to the mall?

30. Go to a special store (like a pet store or a toy store)?

Other:

© 1998, 2010 Vanderbilt TRIAD

               

A little

A lot

               

                58

ROLE PLAYS Child’s Name:

Age:

Examiner:

Date:

Before starting the role plays, ask the child the following questions: “What are the names of some kids who live near you?” ___________________________________________________________________

“What are the names of some of the kids in your class?” ___________________________________________________________________

“What are some of your favorite toys or games?” ___________________________________________________________________

Note: Use same-gender names and pronouns for the role-plays. Continue the role-plays as appropriate to elicit conversational skills.

Introduction: “We’re going to do some role-playing now. I’m going to pretend to be different people that you know. I want you to show me what you would say and do in some pretend situations.”

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1) INITIATING A GREETING “One of your classmates (use a name the child has provided) hasn’t been in school for many days. One morning you walk into your classroom and you see him/her sitting at his/her desk.” “Pretend I’m (name). Show me what you would say and do.” Record the child’s response here:_____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Check which of the following verbal behaviors were used appropriately: ____ Making a relevant statement ____ Asking a relevant question ____ Maintaining a conversation

Check whether the child’s verbal behavior was:

Check which of the following nonverbal behaviors were used appropriately:

____ Clear and understandable to the listener

____ Eye contact

____ Of appropriate duration ____ single words ____ phrases ____ sentences ____ appropriate use of pronouns

____ Physical proximity

____ Tone of voice

____ Gestures ____ Facial expression

____ Relevant and on-topic ____ Reality-based

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2) RESPONDING TO INITIATIONS FROM OTHERS “It’s lunch time at school and you’re sitting at a table in the cafeteria.” “Pretend I’m a kid from your class (use a name the child has provided).” Walk up to the child and say, “Hi (child’s name). Is anyone sitting here?” “Can I sit here?” “Guess what I did last night!” Record the child’s response here: Is anyone sitting here? ______________________________________________ Can I sit here?_____________________________________________________ Guess what I did last night? __________________________________________

Check which of the following verbal behaviors were used appropriately: ____ Greeting ____ Making a friendly response to request ____ Asking a relevant question ____ Commenting on child’s statement ____ Maintaining a conversation

Check whether the child’s verbal behavior was:

Check which of the following nonverbal behaviors were used appropriately:

____ Clear and understandable to the listener

____ Eye contact

____ Of appropriate duration ____ single words ____ phrases ____ sentences ____ appropriate use of pronouns

____ Physical proximity

____ Tone of voice

____ Gestures ____ Facial expression

____ Relevant and ontopic ____ Reality-based

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3) INITIATING PLAY “One day you’re at home and you go outside to play. You see a kid you know (use a name the child has provided) and he/she is playing with a cool toy (use a toy the child has described). You want to play with him/her.” “Pretend I’m (name). Show me what you would say and do.” Record the child’s response here: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Check which of the following verbal behaviors were used appropriately: ____ Greeting/getting attention

Check whether the child’s verbal behavior was:

Check which of the following nonverbal behaviors were used appropriately:

____ Clear and understandable to the listener

____ Eye contact

____ Of appropriate duration ____ single words ____ phrases ____ sentences ____ appropriate use of pronouns

____ Physical proximity

____ Tone of voice

____ Asking to play ____ Commenting on the other child’s activity ____ Asking a relevant question ____ Maintaining a conversation

____ Gestures ____ Facial expression

____ Relevant and ontopic ____ Reality-based

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4) RESPONDING TO AN INVITATION “You’re home on a Saturday and you can’t think of anything to do. A kid from the neighborhood whom you like (use a name the child has provided) knocks on your door and invites you to come over to play.” “Pretend I’m (name).” “Hi, (child’s name), What are you doing?” “Want to come over and play?” Record the child’s response here: What are you doing?________________________________________________ Want to come over? ________________________________________________

Check which of the following verbal behaviors were used appropriately: ____ Greeting ____ Giving a relevant response to the question ____ Making a friendly response to the invitation ____ Asking a relevant question ____ Maintaining a conversation

Check whether the child’s verbal behavior was:

Check which of the following nonverbal behaviors were used appropriately

____ Clear and understandable to the listener

____ Eye contact

____ Of appropriate duration ____ single words ____ phrases ____ sentences ____ appropriate use of pronouns

____ Physical proximity

____ Tone of voice

____ Gestures ____ Facial expression

____ Relevant and ontopic ____ Reality-based

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SS Interview Questions Tell me about some of the things you like to do at home.

Do you have any hobbies?

What is your favorite thing to watch on TV?

What kinds of things do you and your family do together?

What are some of the rules that you have at your house?

What are your favorite toys? What do you like to do with them?

• • • • • • Tell me about your friends.

What kind of things do you and your friends do together?

What makes someone a friend?

Tell me your favorite joke.

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• • • • • • Tell me about something that happened this week that made you feel: Happy

Sad

Angry

Nervous

Proud

Embarrassed

What kind of things make your mom feel: Happy

Sad

Angry

Proud • • • • • • Show me what you look like when you’re feeling: Happy Sad Surprised Scared Angry

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• • • • • • I’ve got a sentence that I want you to say in different ways: The sentence is: “The train is coming” Say this sentence so it sounds like you feel: Angry Sad Excited Scared

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TASK ENGAGEMENT Child’s Name:___________________________ Age: ______ Date: ___________________ Examiner:______________________________ Observer:___________________________ Activities observed:__________________________________________________________

Please circle the number that best describes this child’s engagement with the tasks and activities presented:

1 – Very Inactive Child is observed to be very slow-moving, lethargic, and/or passive; a great deal of prompting and redirection are needed to motivate the child to attend and respond; participation in activities is significantly impeded by inactivity and inattention.

2 – Somewhat Inactive Child is observed to be somewhat slow-moving, lethargic, and/or passive; some prompting and redirection are needed to motivate the child to attend and respond; participation in activities is mildly impeded by inactivity and inattention.

3 – Appropriately Inactive Child is not observed to be unusually inactive or active; can be described as animated, responsive, and attentive to tasks; minimal prompting or redirection are needed to control the child’s behavior or motivate the child to attend and respond; participation in activities is not impeded by difficulties with activity or attention.

4 – Somewhat Overactive Child is observed to be somewhat distractible and restless; may show some extraneous movements; some prompting and redirection are needed to control the child’s behavior or motivate the child to attend and respond; participation in activities is mildly impeded by overactivity or inattention.

5 – Very Overactive Child is observed to be very active and distractible; engages in frequent extraneous movements, such as climbing , hopping, jumping , and fidgeting; a great deal of prompting and redirection are needed to control the child’s behavior or motivate the child to attend and respond; participation in activities is significantly impeded by overactivity or inattention.

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APPENDIX 4

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QUESTIONS Which do you wear on your head?

Which animal builds a nest?

Which one do you read?

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1

QUESTIONS Which one do you eat?

How many fingers am I holding up?

How many spots on the leopard?

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2

QUESTIONS Which ball is the smallest?

How much money is this?

Which kid is wearing a blue shirt?

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3

APPENDIX 5

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FEELINGS/SITUATIONS PICTURES USING THE TSSA PICTURE STIMULI PHOTO SET To the examiner: The following pictures/items assess the child’s understanding of emotions and ability to understand other’s emotions. Be careful not to label feelings during the instruction to the child. However, it is ok to clarify once the child has identified the emotion. For example, child says, “He looked sad”; examiner says, “So you’re saying he looks sad.” There are several different photo choices for each picture item. The photos have been identified by letters. It is recommended that the labeling response sought not be written on the photo. Choose one photo to use for each picture response category on the Child Protocol.

Item

Photo Set

Description: FEELINGS:

Picture 1

A-D

Happy

Picture 2

E-H

Sad

Picture 3

I-K

Mad, angry

Picture 4

L-N

Surprised SOLVING SOCIAL PROBLEMS:

Picture 5

O-Q

Interpretative-Lonely, depressed, upset, etc.

Picture 6

R

Responding to a child who is hurt, offering comfort

Picture 7

S, T, U

Exclusion from activity, bullying, teasing *May need to alter gender and location references in protocol question depending on photo used

Picture 8

V, W, X

Arguing over a toy or game

Picture 9

V, W, X

Arguing over a toy or game

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1-A

Photo by Nicole S. Young, istockphoto.com

1-B

Photo by Ekaterina Monakhova, istockphoto.com

1-C

Photo by daaron j, istockphoto.com

1–D

Photo by Aman. Khan, istockphoto.com

2–E

Photo by Darren Wise, istockphoto.com

Photo by Isabel Massé istockphoto.com

2–F

2-G

Photo by Arvind Photography, istockphoto.com

2–H

Photo by Elieen Hart, istockphoto.com

3–I

Photo by Scott Griessel, istockphoto.com

3–J

Photo by Darren Wise, istockphoto.com

3–K

Photo by Alexander Hafemann, istockphoto.com

4–L

Photo by Bela Tibor Kozma, istockphoto.com

4–M

Photo by Kim Gunkel, istockphoto.com

4–N

Photo by Mike Sonnenberg, istockphoto.com

5–O

Photo by Leah-Anne Thompson, istockphoto.com

5–P

Photo by Bonnie Jacobs, istockphoto.com

5–Q

Photo by Zhang Bo, istockphoto.com

6–R

Photo by Eliza Snow, istockphoto.com

7–S

Photo by Mandy Godbehear, istockphoto.com

7–T

Photo by Thomas Gordon, istockphoto.com

7–U

Photo by Claudia DeWald, istockphoto.com

8–V

Photo by studiovancaspel, istockphoto.com

8–W

Photo by Konstantin Grebnev, istockphoto.com

8–X

Photo by Francis Twitty, istockphoto.com

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Assessing Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders - Vanderbilt

Assessing Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders TRIAD SOCIAL SKILLS ASSESSMENT Second Edition Wendy Stone Lisa Ruble Elaine Coonrod Susan Hepburn ...

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