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International Conference on Food Safety and Food Security

Editors : Edhi Martono (Entomology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Masahiro Yamao (Agriculture Economics, Hiroshima University, Japan) Muh. Nurcahyanto (Food Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Siti Subandiyah (Phytopatology, Universitas Gadjah mada, Indonesia) Teruo Maeda (Animal Science, Hiroshima University, Japan) Wayan T. Artama (Vetirenary Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Widodo (Food Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Xue Bai (Animal Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, China) Yont Musig (Fishery, Kasetsart University, Thailand) Yuny Erwanto (Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Retno Indrati (Food Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Jamhari (Agriculture Economics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Jangkung Handoyo Mulyo (Agriculture Economics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Amir Husni (Fishery, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Triyanto (Fishery, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Witjaksono (Entomology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Tri Joko (Phytopathology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Azis Purwantoro (Agronomy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Mirwan Ushada (Food Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Andriati Ningrum (Food Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Dini Wahyu Kartika Sari (Fishery, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Indah Istiqomah (Fishery, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Senny Helmiyati (Fishery, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Dyah Weny Respatie (Agronomi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia) Endang Wahyuni (Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia)

Published by : Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia March, 2011

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Preface From Chairman of Organizing Committee Food problems remain the main constrain on human development as the increasing of human population requires sustainable food supply and better nutrition. It is therefore of our interest thatimprovement of research, education and policy on food including for production, processing and handling are of the main priorities. Lack of food‘s availability in some location in developing countries is contrasting with some cases on obesity in some other part of the world, and this reflecting the inequality of research and technologies concerning with food security and safety. This international conference on Food Safety and Food Securityis organized by agro-complex faculties of Universitas Gadjah Mada with the mission of assembling the greatest number possible from the international research community, regulatory agency representatives, and industrial leaders with specific expertise on food security and food safety to exchange the latest information, knowledge, ideas and conceptsregarding with food production, processing, and distribution. We also want to venue for increasing international collaboration to deal with better food sustainability. The theme of this conference on Food Safety and Food Security is Functional Food for Better Life indicating that we need food for the function to improve our life quality. After few months preparation started in May 2010 with some constrains of the eruption of mount Merapi that damaged thousand hectares of the agricultural area closed to this venue the committee of the FSFS conference has been working and today this work is realized with the opening of this conference. The total number of 154 participants participated to join this conferencecoming from Australia, China, Malaysia, Thailand, Japan and Turkey.The director of Agency for Food Security, the Ministry of Agriculture and the director of National Food Logistic Agency (BULOG) of Indonesia join the conference as the key note speakers. The participants consisting of 5 oversea invited speakers from Hiroshima University, Kasetsart University, Sichuan Agricultural University, International Islamic University, and CSIRO. The number of 131paper presentationsconsisting of papers from overseas and the rest papers are from Indonesian. This event also encourages young generation to be concern with global food safety and security issue, therefore there are 34 postgraduate and 37 undergraduate students participating to present their research in this conference. Those comference presentations are grouped into Food Production, Food Processing, and Food Supply Chain Management. Finally the committee and me myself as the chair woman hope that this little thing we have organized to conduct this international conference on food safety and food security will be fruitful to improve our better life through global networking and collaboration on research, education and policy concerning with sustainable supply of safety food for our nations. We would like to gratefully thank you for every one involved to make this event happen, the Indonesian government especially the Ministry of Agriculture through Prof. Dr. Achmad Suryana, M.S and Dr. Sutarto Alimuso, the rector of UGM through Prof Dr Retno Sunarminingsih MSc Apt and the Deans of agrocomples faculties of UGM, the whole personals of conference committee.

Prof.Dr. Siti Subandiyah

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Welcome Address of Senior Vice Rector for Education, Research and Community Services Universitas Gadjah Mada On The International Conference on Food Safety and Food Security Yogyakarta, December 1-4, 2010 Honorable guest, The Director of National Food Logistic Agency Distinguish guest speakers from abroad, either from Hiroshima University, Japan; Sichuan Agricultural University, People Republic of China, Kasetsart University, Thailand, and others (so sorry that I cannot mention the names one by one); Distinguish guest speakers from Indonesia; and Speakers from Gadjah Mada University; Participants, ladies and gentlemen Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb. and Good Morning, First of all I would like to warmly welcome you all to our campus Gadjah Mada University. Secondly, I would ask your apology that the Rector of Gadjah Mada University cannot join to this International Conference this morning due to his duty. Participants, ladies and gentlemen, It is a great opportunity for Gadjah Mada University, which is now celebrating the 61 st Anniversary, to be the host of theInternational Conference on Food Safety and Food Security. We are all here admits that problems on food safety and security which must be solved become more and more complex. On one side is due to the persistently increase of the world population, and the other side is because of the fast global climate change (which is interfering the local climate) and reducing of the best area for cultivating strategic food plants. These bad conditions even become worse due to the unsustainable progress or development resulted by unsustainable business activities that causes environmental deteriorating and degradation (for example illegal logging), produce pollutants and unsafe wastes, produce abundantly CO2 emission (that causes global greenhouse effect), etc. Concerning those issues, it is really important therefore that we should stop that unsustainable development through campaigning on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in any aspects, such as business ethics and activities, governmental regulations and policies, science and technology development, education programs and curricula, people ways of life or livelihood, etc. Participants, ladies and gentlemen, Based on that reason therefore Gadjah Mada University always supports to this kind of meeting or seminar which will discuss about poverty alleviation, improving and empowering people for implementing sustainable/green programs and activities, such as: - Supporting programs on food safety and security, - Conserving clean water, diversity, biodiversity, environment and natural resources, - Discovering science and technologies for green energies, - Zero waste production technologies, etc. -iii -

I do hope that there will be a lot of ideas, knowledge and good practices exchanged and accepted by the participants in the meeting or conference. I believe those idea, information, discussion, and conclusion resulted in this conference will be very useful and inspiring to all the participants. Ladies and gentlemen, Before closing my speech, I would express my great gratitude to the all distinguish guest speakers who are willing to come and give their presentations in this meeting (especially speakers from Hiroshima University, Japan; Sichuan Agricultural University, People Republic of China, and Kasetsart University, Thailand); and I would also extent my gratitude to the Organizing Committee from the Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, who have successfully conducted this conference. Finally, have a fruitful discussion in the conference, and enjoy staying in Yogyakarta. Thank you, Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb. Retno S. Sudibyo Senior Vice Rector for Education, Research and Community Services Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Table of Contents Editors ................................................................................................................................... i Preface from Chairman of Organizing Committee .......................................................... ii Welcome Address of Senior Vice Rector for Education, Research and Community Services, Universitas Gadjah Mada ................................................................................. iii Table of Contents ................................................................................................................ v Keynote Speakers Minister of Agriculture Republic of Indonesia ................................................................ 1 President Director BULOG .............................................................................................. 4 Invited Speakers Food Safety and Food Security in East Asia Teruo Maeda .................................................................................................................. 12 Aquaculture Industry in Thailand: Status and Trend Yont Musig ..................................................................................................................... 14 The Impact of Technology on Food Security Lim Jung Lee .................................................................................................................. 16 Safety Issues of Fishery Products in China Xue Bai ........................................................................................................................... 17 Understanding Food Safety Concerns Associated with E. Coli in Red Meat Production Narelle Fegan ................................................................................................................. 20 Carotenoids for Food and Nutraceutical Application Irwandi Jaswir and Dedi Noviendri ............................................................................... 25 Agroforestry Moving Forest Toward Food Security Program M. Sambas Sabarnurdin ................................................................................................. 37 International Trade and Food Security Implication Masyhuri......................................................................................................................... 38 Local Food as Functional Food Ingredient to Promote Health Eni Harmayani .............................................................................................................. 39 Public Health of Animal Food in Indonesia Bambang Sumiarto ......................................................................................................... 44 Food Security on Animal Products in Indonesia Adiarto ............................................................................................................................ 48 Production Climate Modeling for Determining Rice Planting Time in East Java Armi Susandiand Mamad Tamamadin ........................................................................... 55 An Ecological Perception of Small Farmers Dilemma to Plant Corn for Food or Feed : A Case Study of Small Farmers Community inSubang – West Java Carolina, Fithria Novianti, and Mirwan A Karim ......................................................... 61 Assessment of Seedling Certified of Mas Kirana Banana in The Farmer Group of Efficient Dwi Setyorini, K.B. Andri, P.E.R. Prahardini and Ajun Prayitno................................. 67 Subtitution Fertilizer Sp-36 by Nitro Phosphate on Shallot at Kepuhharjo, Karangploso, Malang Dwi Setyorini and Zainal Arifin ..................................................................................... 72 -v -

B Absorption by Peanut on Ultisol as Affected by Boric Acid and Organic Matter Applications Eko Hanudin, Astika Rusmayani, andNasih Widya Yuwono ......................................... 79 Identification of Drought Tolerance Gene Gmdreb2 in Drought Tolerant and Susceptible Varieties of Soybean (glycine max l. merr) Estri Laras Arumingtyas, Andy Sugianto, andMReza Pahlevi....................................... 85 The Effort to Increase Productivity of Dry Land Rice Through Empowering Plant and Resource Management F.Kasijadi and Wahyunindyawati .................................................................................. 91 Increasing The Quality of Chocolate Production Through Sanitation of Small-Scale Enterprise In Poso Pesisir, Poso Regency And Central Sulawesi Fithria Novianti andSavitri Dyah ................................................................................. 97 The Pests and Diseases on Kedang Sweet-Orange at Lembata District in East Nusa Tenggara Province F. X. Wagiman and R. C. Hidayat ................................................................................ 101 Effectiveness of Some Major Control Components in Integrated Management of Club-Root on Cabbage Practiced by The Builder Farmers in Karanganyar Central Java1 Hadiwiyono, Sholahuddin, S. Widono, M.K. Himawati, and R. Wijayanti .................. 104 Argemone Mexicana (l.) Moench as a Botanical Pesticide for Fungus Colletotrichum sp. And Ralstonia solanacearum Hingdri, Aldy Wahyu P., Roni Hartanto, Rizqi Laila A., andIntan Fahni T ................ 110 Indonesian Banana Cultivars Purwodadi Botanic Garden‘s Collections Lia Hapsari .................................................................................................................. 115 The Assessment of Fertilization Efficiency of Corn on Lowland in Dry Season With Site Specific Irrigation Mulyadi and Sarjiman .................................................................................................. 120 Composted and Uncomposted Rice Straw as Potassium Source Fertilizer and Their Effect on Nutrients Uptake Mulyadi......................................................................................................................... 127 The Attempt to Estimate The Maximum Growth Rate of Sweet Corn Plant Ni Wayan Surya Wardhani ........................................................................................... 134 Development Strategy of Paddy Commodity to Enhancing Food Security in Floods Gristle Regions in Bojonegoro Nuning Setyowati .......................................................................................................... 138 Fruit Maturity Indices Based on Skin Colour (A Review) Qanytah and Indrie Ambarsari .................................................................................... 144 Effect of Cultivation Technology Improvement for Income Escalation of Hybrids Corn (Zea Mays) Farming S. Yuniastuti,Suhardi, and E. Retnaningtyas ................................................................ 151 Fertilizing Advancement Assessment to Increase Basil (Ocimum Basilicum L) Production S. Yuniastuti and Lilik Amalia ...................................................................................... 157 Correlation Between Citrus Fruit (Citrus Suhuiensis) Quality and Peatland on West Sulawesi S. Satya Antarlina and M. Noor .......................................................................................... 164

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The Effectiveness of Chinese Cabbage as a Pathogen Trap Crop to Control Cabbage Club-Root Disease Salim Widono, Hadiwiyono, Sholahuddin, Endang Sulastri, R. Wijayabti, and M.K. Himawanti .................................................................................................... 174 Isolation and Identificationo Staphylococcus Intermedius from Canine Dermatitis Cases in Yogyakarta Soedarmanto, I., Yanuartono, Purnamaningsih, H., Raharjo, S. Ikliptikawati, D., and Sakan, G ................................................................................ 179 Response of Some Shallot Cultivars Toward Twisted Disease (Fusarium Oxysporumf. Sp. Cepae) Sri Wiyatiningsih, Arif Wibowo, and Endang Tri Wahyu Pangestuti .......................... 183 Baculovirus Expression of All the Mycoreovirus 1 Genome Segments and Identification of the Core Particle-Encoding Segment Supyani, Bradley I. Hillman, and Nobuhiro Suzuki ..................................................... 190 Effects of Soil Mineralogy on Phosphorus Availability in Red Soils of Indonesia Syamsul A. Siradz ......................................................................................................... 195 Biology and Ecology of Mite Attacking Mushroom in Yogyakarta Tri Harjaka, Suryanti and Sakti Widya Pratama ......................................................... 203 Susceptibility ofLepidiota Stigma (f.) (Coleoptera :Scarabaeidae) to Metarhizium Anisopliae (Metch.) (Hypocreales : Clavicipitaceae) Tri Harjaka ................................................................................................................... 208 Evaluation of Api 20e and Api 20 Ne in Comparison with Conventional Methods for Identification of Vibrio Spp Zahirotul Hikmah Hassan ............................................................................................ 213 Assesment Production and Characteristic Sumenep Local Varieties Onion Zainal Arifin and Amik Krismawati ............................................................................. 220 Relationship of Basal Rotof Garlic in Tawangmangu to Basal Plate Rot of Shallot From Some Area in Java Zainal D. Fatawi and Hadiwiyono ............................................................................... 228 Post Harvest and Processing Effect of Supplementation of Herbal-Protein Mix Concentrate on Dairy Milk Quality and Production Ali Agus, Andriyani Astuti and Sigit Bintara ............................................................... 231 Improving The End Used Properties of Instant Coconut Milk PowdersBy Fluidized Bed Agglomeration Alwani Hamad,andManop Suphantharika ................................................................... 237 Food Safety And Food Security in The Young Lamb Slaughtered: Case Study in Brebes Regency Abattoir Amrih Prasetyo and D. Nugraheni ............................................................................... 243 The Assessment of Fattening Sheep Fed Concentrate Ingredients with Environmentally Sound Amrih Prasetyo, Kendriyanto and Sarjana .................................................................. 248 Potential Danger of Traditional Salads of West Java Darmadi Goenarso ....................................................................................................... 254 The Making of Edible Film From Filtrated Liquid Waste of Rice Powder from Noodle Industry and Its Application for Various Food Powder Packaging Diyan Febri Prabowo, Haryadi and Arita Dewi Nugrahini ........................................ 259 -vii -

Meatball Processing Services of Traditional Markets in Yogyakarta Edi Suryanto ................................................................................................................. 267 The Estimation of Fish Production Using Primary Productivity inSelorejo Reservoir, Malang Hendri Kurniawan........................................................................................................ 273 Degree of Substitution Value as Substituted Starch Modification Standard in the Advanced Food Products Heny Herawat and Sri Wahyuni................................................................................... 275 The Assessment of Stick Yellow Pumpkin Product Processing at Boyolali District Heny Herawati, Budi Utomo and Sri Wahyuni ............................................................ 282 The Effect of Fermentation on Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Goat Milk Indratiningsih, Soemitro Djojowidagdo, Zaenal Bachruddin, and Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto ................................................................................................................... 287 Identification Fukosantin from Brown Algae (Sargassum Filipendula) Using Chromatographycolumn with Ftir Spectroscopy Testing Kartini Zaelanie ........................................................................................................... 292 The Anti-Oxidant Activity of Non-Volatile Component of Curcuma Longa Mia Bunai, Martanto Martosupono, and Budhi A. Prasetyo ....................................... 295 The Potential of Black Vegetable (Rungia Kloosii)as a Medicinal Plant Mia Bunai and Martanto Martosupono........................................................................ 299 Effect of Angkak Concentration to Inhibit Mold on Minced Tuna Jerked Products Murniyati, Ninoek Indriati dan Ijah Muljanah ............................................................ 304 Effect of Heating on Breadfruit (Artocarpus Altilis) with Oven to Polyphenol and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity and Its Effect on Flavor of Product Made byPreheated Breadfruit Flour Nanit Annisaa Nuur Ragadewe, Sutardi, and Eni Harmayani .................................... 311 The Effect of Oral Administration of Pectin From BananaPeel on Digesta and Lipid Profile Of Hypercholesterolemia Rats Nur Kholis, Mesa Dewi Puspita, Sayidatul Siti Jamilah, Hafiz Iqbal Maulana, and Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih .................................................................................... 318 The Study of HACCP Implementation: Motivation, Barriers, and Benefits Nur Metasari and Sik Sumaedi..................................................................................... 326 Characterization of Indonesian Traditional Alcoholic Beverages by Near Infrared Spectroscopy with Neural Network Analysis Puji Kuswanti, Andreas Setiawan, and Ferdy S. Rondonuwu ..................................... 331 Study on Merah Delima Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry) Storage Qanytah and Indrie Ambarsari .................................................................................... 337 The Study of Iso 9001 Implementation in Food Industry: Motivation, Barriers, And Benefits Sik Sumaedi, and Nur Metasari.................................................................................... 343 The Effects of Soaking Time of Cassava Chips on Quality of Cassava Crumbs and Optimization of Mixed Rice Formula Sutardi, Bambang Priyanto and Murdijati Gardjito .................................................... 348 Production of Goat Milk Powder: A Strategy for Improving The Quality and Diversifying Milk Products of Etawah Crossedbred Goats -viii -

Widodo, Nosa SeptianaAnindita, Evi Agustina Wulandari and I Gede Suparta Budisatria ..................................................................................................................... 356 Microbiological, Physicochemical and Starch Digestability Properties of Spontaneous Fermented Sorgum Flour Yudi Pranoto, Tyas Utami, Priyanto Triwitono andZulianatul Hidayah ..................... 365 Effects of Hurdle Preservation Techniques on The Bacterial Contaminants in Shrimps Zahirotul Hikmah Hassan ............................................................................................ 371 Social and Economics Risk Analysis of Supply Chain Management System: a Case Study on Corn in the District Sragen Agus S. Somantri, Miskiyah and Wisnu Broto ............................................................. 377 Farmer‘s Adoption Level On Rice Post Harvest Technology in Districts of Indramayu and Tasikmalaya, West Java Province Akmadi Abbas and Rita Nur Suhaeti ............................................................................ 384 Analysis of Food Security in Central Java Case Study of Pemalang District Jangkung Handoyo Mulyo, Jamhari, and Arini Wahyu Utami .................................... 389 Improved Technologies in Vegetable Production to Support Food Safety and Food Security: a Case Of Chili Farming in Central Java, Indonesia Joko Mariyono, Anna Dibiyantoro,Madhusudan Bhattarai, and Paul Gniffke ........... 397 Supply Chain Performance of Eucalyptus Oil Industry Based on the Dynamic Capability of Leaves Pickers Kuncoro Harto Widodo, and Pramudito Adhi ............................................................. 403 Planting Delay Factors on the Dynamics of Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L) Supply System in Producing Centre, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Kuncoro Harto Widodo, and Dewi Rembulan ............................................................. 410 Correlation between Traditional Food Availability and Vendor‘s Distance with Teenager‘s Food Preferences Mahmudiono T. and Pratiwi, R.D. ............................................................................... 416 Assuring Quality Corn for Feed throughAppropriate Technology Implementation A Case Study in Sumedang Agroecosystem of West Java MirwanArdiansyah Karim, Carolina, and Cahya Edi W.A ......................................... 419 Rice Farming Efficiency and It‘s Risk on Irrigated Paddy Field in Kulon Progo Regency Rinawati Zailani, Any Suryantini, and Masyhuri ......................................................... 424 Soil Database Management Software Development for Optimizing Land Resource Information Utilization to Support National Food Security Rizatus Shofiyati and Saefoel Bachri ........................................................................... 430 The Impact of The Technology Adoption of Corn-Chips Processing by Village Agro-Industry in Kediri Regency, East Java Yuniarti and Pudji Santoso .......................................................................................... 436 Appendix List of Participants ....................................................................................................... 441 Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... 448 Index ............................................................................................................................ 449

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61st Universitas Gadjah Mada Anniversary

KEYNOTE SPEECH MENTERI PERTANIAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA Assalamu‘alaikum warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh; Distinguished: Rector of Gadjah Mada University, Dean of Faculty of Agriculture of Gadjah Mada University, International Speakers from Japan, Thailand and China, All guests and participants. First of all, in this opportunity I would like to offer our praise and thanks to the Almighty God, Allah Subhanahu Wata‘ala, for His Grace and Mercy that makes us gathering here in International Conference on Food Safety and Food Security as a part of the 61st Anniversary of Gadjah Mada University. I would like also to convey my great appreciation for the Rector of Gadjah Mada Universtiy for inviting me as the keynote speaker for the conference. This conference is very important because it can give a significant contribution to the development of the national food security policy which also includes food safety component. Ladies and Gentlemen, Food is a basic need for human‘s life, so that its fulfillment is part of everbody‘s basic rights, as well as, basic element for achieving high quality of human resources. Food security is the main pillar in the national security. Historical evident shows that lack of food have negative impact either on socio-economic condition, or on political stability, and even can also give negative influence on the national security. Law No. 7/1996 on food defines food security as the condition when food is sufficient to fulfill every household‘s need, in terms of quality, safety, accessibility and affordability. Whereas, food is defined as all kind of plants and animals products, water, processed and unprocessed, as meal or drink, for human consumption include food additives, raw material and other substances used in the preparation, processing, and/or food and drink production. Distinguished Guests, Global energy crisis in recent years has triggered global food problems. The high price of fuel, at that time, gave the incentive to convert some of food commodities to biofuel. This caused shortage in the world‘s food supply, which lead the soaring of world food prices. Besides, the impact of global climate change has caused unsuccessful harvesting in many food producers. These two conditions has negative impact to the net importing countries and cause food accessibility decreased especially for the poor population. During the global food crisis, on the other hand, food security situation in Indonesia tend to be relatively stable. This can be showed from our capability in minimizing the negative impact of global food crisis happened in last two years. The hike of food price in the international market has already been coped, and therefore, price stability in domestic market has been reached. A systematic and comprehensive national rice enhancement program has been able to decrease the effect of international rice price escalation. This

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effort, therefore, should be continued in order to achieve the sustainability of the selfsufficiency condition. Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, In this opportunity, I would like to emphasize that the target of national food security development is the achievement of food resilience. Furthermore, food resilience can be reach among others, through achieving self-sufficiency of some strategy food commodities, accelerating food diversification, and strengthening of local government and community food reserve. As food is a strategic commodity that could have effect on social economy and politic situation, the dependency of food supply form other countries has the potential to endanger our political stability and even more nation unanimity. For that reason, government places five strategic commodities which include rice, corn, soybean, sugar and beef as the target for self-sufficiency program. In order to ralize food security at household level, policy that is applicable at grass root level should be formulated. Some of the policies include: 1. Continuation increase in production and productivity of strategic food commodity to reach food resilience; 2. Improvement in efficiency and effectiveness of food distribution through monitoring and stabilization of staple food price and development of community food reserve/‖Lumbung Pangan” and government food reserve; 3. Empowerment of farmer and rural communities, among others, through the development of the Village Agribusiness Development Program (PUAP), development of the Food Self-Reliance Village Program (Desa Mandiri Pangan), improvement of the Community Food Distribution Institution (LDPM), and advancement of the Self-help Community Institution (LM3); 4. Acceleration of Food Consumption Deversification (P2KP); and 5. Improvement of Food Vulnerability Management which is implemented by development of early warning system through Nutrition and Food Awareness System (SKPG) and Emergency Response Program such as food provision, seeds and other agricultural production inputs provision for harvest failure and transient food vulnerability area. Another important component that should be noted in achieving national food security is food safety matter. This aspect is important due to its correlation with economic and health elements. Form economic point of view, unsafe food can decrease competitive power of product that will cause rejection of agricultural product especially in the international market. From health point of view, unsafe food can harm human health either in short or long term. The problems on food safety in Indonesia include low quality of agriculture production process (pre and post-harvest); excessive use of pesticides among vegetable such as utilization of formalin, borax, textile coloring agent for food; and tendency of import escalation in which the safety of the food product cannot be guaranteed. In order to handle such problems, policy that is related to food safety matter should be implemented, which includes: 1. Strengthening of food safety institution such as Central and Region Competent Authority of Food Safety (OKKP-P and OKKP-D); 2. Increasing capacity and capability of Civil Servant Investigators (PPNS), Food Safety Inspectors (PPC), and Food Auditors; 3. Implementing Food Safety Management System (ISO-22000) in the food production chains; and 4. Increasing public awareness of producers and consumers.

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Community awareness for consuming safe food is the key to success of food safety management program. For that reason, campaign and extension through dissemination of food safety information and knowledge are part of the priority for increasing public awareness about safe food. Considering the problems and effects of low monitoring on food safety, WHO and FAO give special attention for problems related to food safety management. In the Uruguay Round discussing about Multilateral Trade Negotiation facilities by World Trade Organization (WHO) two agreements have been set, namely Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement. In order to follow up such agreements, some European and Asian Countries has been formed Food Safety Authority which was followed by implementation of food safety standards such as Codex on Hygiene, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), ASEAN-GAP, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), and other standards. Distinguished Guests, All policies that have been formulated need to be supported by many stakeholders such as central government, local government, university, entrepreneur, NGO‘s, and community. No matter how good is the policy, if it is not appropriately implemented, it will not achieve the target. That is why preparation in the form of increasing capacity of all stakeholders (including central and local officers) is important for implementing the policy. In this respect, I do hope that this very important conference will give significant contributions to the national food safety policy and its implementation. As a closing remark, I would like to remain us that, we have to be confident that we enable to reach our objectives, and I believe that the God will bless our efforts. We have to commit and to be serious on our work. I thank you for your attention, awareness, and support for the development of food security and safety. Wassalamu‘alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh. Minister of Agriculture,

SUSWONO

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KEYNOTE SPEECH FOOD SECURITY IN INDONESIA SUTARTO ALIMOESO PRESIDENT DIRECTOR PERUM BULOG Delegates, Honored Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am extremely pleased to be able to welcome you to the International Seminar on Food Safety and Food Security which is held to celebrate the 61st anniversary of the Gadjah Mada University, the university where I finished my bachelor degree 36 years ago. Before I turn to the issues that I wish to address today, let me welcome those of you from other countries to Indonesia and to Yogyakarta. Even though, Yogyakarta has experienced rains of volcanic ash due to eruption of Mount Merapi, the city remains safe to visit. The eruption has passed and the mountain has not been a threat to Yogyakarta. I hope you are able to enjoy the beauty of our surroundings in Indonesia and Yogyakarta. As many of you know, Indonesia is a country endowed with tremendous beauty and a wide variety of cultures. I hope the occasion of the conference will allow each of you the opportunity to experience some of its richness. I would like also to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to the conference organizers for the selection of the issues and topics of the conference. In particular, I am pleased with the selection of the conference theme considering that food safety and food security issues remain very important in the growing world population with the remained unpredictable and unstable world food markets, volatile food production, and increasingly interdependent food trading world. Ladies and Gentlemen, Since the mid-1960s, Indonesia has made a remarkable progress in improving its national food security. During the period, the country‘s food policy has been persistently directed towards promoting rice self-sufficiency, food diversification and higher incomes for its small-scale farmers. The Indonesian major food policy objective is to provide a greater degree of food security, improved nutritional well-being, and food safety for all citizens. The improvements of the food security and nutritional dimensions of food policy during the last four decades have generally been driven by pro-poor economic growth. Indonesia‘s agricultural trade and marketing policy has been those that require government interventions. Interventions into the food system have been done in order to provide food security to society at large and to its most vulnerable households. Food security, always articulated as self-sufficiency in domestic rice production, remains an economic and political issue. Therefore, only good economic policies are able to ensure food security on a sustainable basis for both the country as a whole and for millions of households individually. Rice is the single most important commodity. For most Indonesians, rice is life itself. Therefore, getting the right rice policy is very urgent. In the rice markets, Government controls external trade. BULOG, a government food marketing agency, plays a key role in stabilizing domestic prices for rice and holds the largest stocks in the country. The ultimate goal of Indonesian rice policy is not just to increase rice production but, more importantly to provide sufficient food for the people at affordable prices, especially to its most vulnerable citizens. Therefore, maintaining rice reserve is still considered prudent strategy to enhance the implementation of food policy, particularly to ensure price stability and providing adequate stock for anticipating emergency. It underlined, however, that rice reserve to foster food 4

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security should be supported by reasonable policy on international trade and encouraging private sector to play a significant role in rice trade which support efficient marketing system. Ladies and Gentlemen, Rice is the single most important commodity in Indonesia since its price contributes to food security, poverty, macroeconomic stability and overall growth. Rice and food security have also always been a political issue. Given the above reasons, rice price stability is always the main objective of the Indonesian government policy since rice price stability and the development of the rice sector could significantly affect the stabilization and growth of the country as a whole. Therefore, formulating a rational rice policy is very important. Rice plays such important role that the rice pricing commodity has been a central issue in the formulation of agricultural policy. Rice price stabilization strategy should be an important component of overall Indonesian food and agricultural development plan since the price supports can add to economic efficiency through a reduction of uncertainty. Generally, the Indonesian food policy has the following specific objectives, namely: First, to increase food production in order to meet domestic demand; Second, to increase farmers‘ incomes; Third, to ensure the availability of food supplies at all times for all members of society, at reasonable and affordable prices; Fourth, to improve nutritional status of the people. In order to achieve these objectives the Indonesian Government has been launching programs to increase food crop production, and at the same time to distribute food commodities throughout the country to ensure the availability of adequate supply. On the demand side, the aim has been to control consumption to encourage diversification of the staple food, and to improve the nutritional status of the people. Thus, healthy and safe food has to be made available for all people at all times. People have to have enough access physically and economically to food. Otherwise they experience food insecure conditions. Recognizing rice‘s strategic role, Government of Indonesia takes necessary steps to protect the poor and low income families by, among others, establishing national rice reserve. Rice reserve has been considered as one of the most suitable solutions to overcome shortage of rice supply, to protect the poor from excessively high price of rice due to failure in production. Rationale behind this strategy is that rice reserve can be a good mechanism to absorb rice during the harvest season to avoid excessive supply that causes downward pressure to price in the market. In one hand, guaranteeing market for farmers will have positive impact on rice production since the farmers will be encouraged to produce more rice and to improve quality for obtaining a better price which can be a good incentive for utilizing new technology. On the other hand, affordable rice prices are especially important for the poor who spend most of their income on starchy food staples. A rational rice policy and availability of rice are necessary conditions in maintaining food security and rice price stability. Food security is defined as a situation in which all households have both physical and economic access to adequate food for all members, and where households are not at risk of losing such access. Stability refers to minimizing the probability that, in difficult years or seasons, food consumption might fall below consumption requirement. The 1996 World Food Summit emphasizes that guaranteeing that the poor have an income sufficient to purchase an adequate diet is the principle mechanism by which governments can forge lasting food security. Given the significant welfare implications of the rice price policy, the management of the policy is very important issue which makes rice the focal point of actions undertaken by the government. In this respect, BULOG as a parastatal agency, operates as a classic buffer-stock authority in the rice market. The agency employs food policy effectively to manage adequate stock inter-temporally and inter-spatially.

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Ladies and Gentlemen, Considering that rice is the most strategic food commodity in Indonesia, the Government takes necessary steps to protect the poor and low income families by, among others, establishing national rice reserve. In order to protect rice farmers, every year the Government set-up a guaranteed price so farmers can sell their rice to BULOG. The procured rice then stored in BULOG storages throughout the country as national reserve, and later the rice is released for various purposes such as rice distribution for the poor and market operations. The national stock is also used to meet emergency rice requirement in case of emergency due to natural calamity or man-made disaster. In this respect rice reserve functions as a buffer-stock to balance the supply and demand to avoid declining price during harvest, that make farmers suffer due to the falling of price of rice. To carry out the tasks and anticipate the possibility of upcoming rice problems, BULOG implemented various policies and operational strategy consisting of: First, defending government purchasing price (HPP) and optimizing domestic procurement; Second, maintaining stock adequacy to meet operational requirements and government rice reserve for emergency and price stabilization purposes; Third, maintaining an even stock distribution all across regions; Fourth, maintaining a well-run rice distribution to poor families (RASKIN) every month; Fifth, keeping people belief and trust towards government ability to guarantee food security, distribution and price stabilization. In exercising its responsibilities, BULOG is presently aided by 26 regional divisions at provincial level and 105 sub regional divisions at district level throughout the country. The sub regional divisions are the main points of contact with farmers, traders and village cooperatives. BULOG has adequate storage infrastructure which is very important technical element in BULOG operations. BULOG is managing 1,575 units of warehouse with the total capacity around 3.9 million MT of rice located all over the country including remote islands. In rice producing regions BULOG set up 132 grain processing units (UPGB) equipped with mechanical grain dryers and rice processing units. These units are used to support BULOG domestic paddy procurement and to help the farmers to process their grain whenever necessary. The government procurement price for rice (HPP) is increased almost every year, by taking into consideration, among others, increased costs of production, the inflation rate and international rice price. If we look at the average seasonal price for un-husked rice, the market price received by farmers was always above the HPP. Statistical data shows that the rice domestic procurement tended to increase, whereas the rice imports tend to decline significantly. Rice domestic procurement in 2007 was 3.2 million metric tons in 2008 and it reached 3.8 million metric tons in 2009. It‘s expected that BULOG can absorb 2 million metric tons this year. Rice imports in 2008 and 2009 were 30 thousand MT and 0 MT respectively. However, we have to import around 600 thousand tons this year in order to hold ending stocks of 1.5 million metric tons. By procuring domestically of 2 million metric tons of milled rice in 2010, it means that during the 6 months procurement period BULOG has channeled fund of almost IDR 10 trillion (or USD 1 billion) to rural areas. The impact of the monetization on the rural economy is significant. With rural multiplier of 1.4, the total impact on the rural economy would be more than IDR 14 trillion (or USD 1.4 billion), a rate that is quite significant to boost rural development. During the last 15 years BULOG quite successfully stabilized the farm markets in which the paddy and milled rice prices at the producer markets are generally above the government procurement prices, especially during the last 5 years. Ladies and Gentlemen, The Government of Indonesia consistently protects the poor rice consumers. In response to sharp rise in poverty during 1998 economic crisis, the Government launched a series of social safety net program. One of these was a rice subsidy program targeted to poor and vulnerable households, called RASKIN Program. The main objectives of RASKIN Program are to augment the purchasing power of poor and vulnerable families so as to 6

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improve food security and household welfare. It should be noted that for many poor consumers and small-scaled farmers, rice still constitutes a substantial share of their expenditures (for net buyers) or income (for net sellers). BULOG has been given tasks to provide and deliver rice under this program. It has evolved from an anti-crisis emergency response measure into a more routine part of the Government‘s toolkit to provide social protection services to poor and vulnerable households. In the program number of poor households, their eligibility, quantity of ration & the selling price were determined by the Government. The rice of the program was provided by Perum BULOG. In 2010 BULOG delivers 3.29 million metric tons to nearly 50 thousand distribution points which scattered throughout the country. The program benefits 17.4 million poor households. The ratio is 15 kg per household per month (which is nearly 30% of monthly consumption of beneficiaries) and sold at Rp. 1,600,-/kg (which is nearly 30% of the normal market price). This program will overcome the problem of deficits in energy & protein, and reduce poverty gap of the beneficiaries‘ income. The RASKIN program also has impacts on rice price stabilization by neutralizing the interspatial & inter-seasonal price differences. This program will increase in its usefulness when the price of rice or other foodstuffs is high and unstable, and when inflation is high. The average distribution of RASKIN rice is 274 thousand MT per month or 10 percent of the total monthly national demand. Since the establishment of BULOG in 1967, the agency has been successfully stabilizing rice prices. This price stability was due to 3 significant factors, namely: First, expansion of the domestic procurement which led to an adequate level of BULOG stock, so traders were never intended to hoard excessive stock for the purposes of speculation; Second, the size of the monthly distribution of RASKIN, which spread throughout the country and fulfilled approximately 10 percent of monthly rice consumption, could neutralize the price difference inter-seasonally and inter-spatially; and Third, a fairly good level of rice production, continuing harvesting and the support of relatively good and even rainfall, not only in Java but also outside Java. In domestic markets, during the last two years price of rice was also more stable than the prices of other food commodities. It showed that rice prices were much more controllable. The government does not have effective price stabilization program for non-rice food commodities, such as sugar, corn and soybean, so that the government has difficulties to stabilize the domestic prices of those non-rice food commodities. Indonesia has also been successful in managing the domestic prices relative to international market prices, especially during 2008 global rice crisis. The skyrocketing price of rice in international market in 2008 had brought about nearly food crisis in most of the developing countries but such crisis had only slight impact on Indonesian domestic rice prices. Indonesia has successfully insulated rice domestic markets from unstable and unpredictable world markets. Thus, rising prices which could lead to inflationary upsurges could be avoided. There are a number of factors attributable to the current states of the international market of rice. On the supply side, the sharp increase in rice production cost led by fuel and fertilizer prices, the decrease in yield and productivity resulting from climate change and higher cost of storing this product coupled with the drawing down of global rice stock, among others; contribute substantially to the increase of rice price. On the demand side, steady rise in rice demand due to population and income increase, embodied with market speculation and panic buying had brought about the soaring rice price. Ladies and Gentlemen, Statistical data indicated that rice prices in Indonesia in 2008 were amazingly stable as compared to international rice price. Soaring rice price in the international market commenced in January/ February 2008 and increased reaching nearly USD 1,000/metric tons in May/June. In contrast, the price of rice in domestic market at the same period were stable at the average of USD 500/metric tons for medium quality of rice at wholesale

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market. Indonesia price stability over time in 2008 can be indicated by coefficient of variation where the price instability in the world market was 41% (as shown by Thai and Vietnam rice prices of 25% brokens) as compared to 6% in Indonesia for medium quality rice at whole sale market. These figures clearly depicted that rice price in Indonesia was far more stable than international market. This situation certainly contributed to the strength of individual poor household food security and national food security as a whole. The ability of Indonesia to neutralize the impact of 2008 global food crisis could not be separated from the success of BULOG in maintaining rice price stability, securing the availability of rice throughout the country and strengthening household food security of the poor through RASKIN program. The success of BULOG in carrying out its operations was among others, contributed by availability of adequate stock in 2007 and 2008. BULOG stock in the last two years had been very adequate in which most of the stock was absorbed through domestic procurement program. Indonesia is one of the few developing countries that have been able to significantly increase rice production during the last 3 years, by nearly 5.5 percent in 2008, 6.75 percent in 2009 and 2.46 percent in 2010. In 2010, total production of un-husked rice was 65.98 million MT, representing approximately 9 percent of total world paddy production. The predominant reason for the growth in production during the last 4 years was an improvement in productivity. This was due to the extensive use of labeled seed and some hybrid seeds as well as the use of balanced fertilizers, supported by fairly widespread rainfall during the dry season. Maintaining the beginning stock is important for BULOG. When the beginning stock is too small it will give an opportunity for private traders to speculate, leading to price instability inter-seasonally and inter-spatially. The beginning stock in 2010 reached 1.6 million tons and at the commencement of 2011 BULOG is expected to hold 1.6 million metric tons. It was sufficient for more than 3 months BULOG‘s routine distribution. It was also quite enough to stabilize the potential price increase during the peak lean season in January or February. With the adequate stocks, the price of rice was stabilized easily. It should be noted that when the price of rice is stable, not only is there a positive impact on rice consumption but also on the stability of the price of other foodstuffs. Ladies and Gentlemen, The role of government in ensuring food security is still crucial considering there are uncertainty factors that can affect rice production. Maintaining rice reserve is still considered prudent strategy to enhance the implementation of food policy particularly, to ensure rice price stability and providing adequate stock for anticipating emergency. Recognizing the adverse effect of global food crisis, financial turmoil, climate change and the importance of food security for the poor and vulnerable groups, the Indonesian government realized that economic growth should also be well-entrenched with long-term objective of sustaining food and agricultural development to strengthen food security and poverty reduction. In this respect efforts have been geared toward increasing domestic rice production to increase rice self-sufficiency as a part of strategies to strengthen food security. Indonesia has been able to significantly increase rice production in the last four years. A much bigger domestic procurement made farmers better-off, created more employment opportunities in rural areas, reduced the incidence of rural poverty & promoted rural development. The policy has built confidence among farmers and led to some gains in efficiency and production. It has enhanced food security based on domestic resources. Indonesia has successfully insulated domestic markets from unstable and unpredictable world markets. Rice crisis in 2008 was due to rising demand, declining world stocks, panic buying & speculations by traders. Transmission of higher world prices into domestic markets has sparkled social unrests in many countries. Many expected that prices would remain high for some time, and cheap rice imports for price stabilization was over. Many governments anticipated the anomaly of the unstable international market by protecting their domestic

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markets. Many countries announced quotas, banned on exports or reduced or suspended their import duties. Even prices already calmed down at the end of 2008, the rice importing countries had learned that world markets is still thin, fragile and very sensitive which characterized by restricted availability. The government learned that near or full self-sufficiency should be achieved. Strengthening cooperation among rice reserve and marketing agencies in South East Asia region should also be done as a means to ensure sharing knowledge and expertise to strengthen food security and improving welfare of vulnerable groups. Making consensus among exporting & importing countries to create fair & orderly trade would also be benefited. Creating global coordination of stocks among countries will send positive signal to global markets. It would help to neutralize the negative effects of global food crisis. In the context of regional food security BULOG accomplishment in maintaining price stability of rice has contributed significantly to the ASEAN food security. Moreover the soaring prices of rice and food in general in 2008 have brought serious concern on possible socio-economic impacts of ASEAN member states. In response to this situation ASEAN member states have tried to dampen the impact on particularly, the most vulnerable group in the society through various measures such as export restrictions, price controls, price subsidies etc. As a country with huge population escaping from rice import and maintaining price stability domestically have given positive signals to the rice market which has been known relatively thin. Therefore, by Indonesia not entering the rice market, it has prevented the possible upward trend of demand for rice that could prevent additional price increase in international market. Collaborative works can also be conducted among rice marketing and rice reserve agency to tackle common issues on food security, poverty alleviation or disaster management by utilizing the existing infra-structures, network and systems which have been developed or maintained by each agency. The anomaly of soaring rice price in 2008 can be a good triggering factor for rice marketing agencies to have a closer cooperation. Perhaps a regional comprehensive program on food shortage management would foster the capability of those countries to forecast and anticipate possible food shortage, improve the readiness of the region in terms of food shortage awareness and response preparedness, and plan to mitigate hazard impacts. Reduction of disaster risks in a hazard vulnerable region would bring more gains to its development efforts. Ladies and Gentlemen, While Indonesia‘s food security has been well managed, its problem has by no means disappeared. In one hand, there are still nearly 17.4 million poor households scattered throughout the country who are food insecure. On the other hand, the global rice markets are still considered unstable and thin, and politically malleable to be relied-upon. Therefore, rice buffer stocks, traditional safeguard against shortfalls should continue to be maintained. But rather than having the Government to continue to operate large and costly stocks, it may be possible for the stockpile procurement to be maintained at a comfortable level. In addition, storage also becomes expensive due to rapid deterioration of grain stocks. The major pay-off to food security type interventions have already been largely achieved, however the budgetary and economic costs of the policies call into question the continued rationale for the agricultural market interventions. The instability of the world rice market causes Indonesia to protect its domestic economies from such shocks. It has also an impact on decisions of choosing an appropriate size of government buffer stock, and on government budget devoted to price subsidies. Consequently, managing domestic rice price policy requires setting and maintaining a border price relative to international market prices. To be efficient, domestic prices should be linked to the long-run world rice price movement. To deal with wide short term fluctuations in world market prices, BULOG might use a trade and stock management policy as the appropriate instruments. These rice stocks should be part of an integrated food security that also makes use of market mechanism. This policy should be well

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managed, so that when there exists a production surplus, this surplus is still competitive in the world markets. In addition, to be more efficient stock level should be optimal, as a percentage of consumption or production. It can be concluded that there should be lower Government‘s budgetary costs. It means that there would be less but still reasonable buffer stocks for the purpose of price stabilization program. With less buffer stocks, the inter-seasonal and inter-spatial price difference would be larger. The larger the price difference, the more incentives for private traders to participate in the rice marketing system. There would also be more opportunities for private investment in food grain storage and marketing facilities. However, in some regions where there are inter-regional barrier to agricultural trade, Government intervention is necessary to integrate food agricultural markets and to make those markets more contestable. When markets are competitive and integrated, national food price stability leads automatically to local price stability. Thus, there are challenges, namely: how to maintain a comfortable level of buffer stocks, and how to maintain reasonable costs of effective stabilization program. Understanding the complexity and multi-dimensional challenges faced by food policy makers, a comprehensive and rational food policy is needed in order to ensure long-term food security leading to long term price stabilization and improvements of livelihoods of the poor. Strong cooperation among food marketing agencies in the same region can be used as a means to ensure sharing knowledge and expertise to strengthen food security and improving welfare of the vulnerable groups. Ladies and Gentlemen, Indonesia, as an open archipelago-economy and with volatile production, both the country and particular islands remain vulnerable to shortage of food. The government has considered implementation of stabilization policy to require a physical presence in the market, and buffer stocks has figured prominently in the stabilization policy. Therefore, these buffer stock operations reflect a geographically comprehensive infrastructure of purchasing, storage and distribution facilities. Rice reserve plays a key role to smooth-out impacts of erratic fluctuation in supply and price of rice, and in turn strengthening food security. In this respect BULOG plays an important role particularly in safeguarding rice price stability by increasing its stock through domestic procurement. Stable rice price amidst soaring rice price in the world market has been able to strengthen household food security particularly for the poor which in turn contributing to strength of national and regional food security. Stable, not high, rice prices gave farmers confidence which led to productivity growth, and allowed consumers access to additional rice produced. Global rice crisis of 2008 demonstrated the risks when a country has a heavy reliance on external trade. Politically & economically would be very costly to be relied-upon imports. This significantly greater instability in world prices has increased the opportunity cost of rice to the Indonesian economy. The crisis showed that global markets for rice are not free market in any sense. The markets will remain unstable since its size has remained thin and small relative to volume of consumption of major importing countries. Considering the unstable global markets, adequate but reasonable reserve holdings should be necessary. However, since the financial costs of stabilization were not small, there should be a comfortable level of buffer stocks. Furthermore, each country should promote food production to achieve and sustain self-sufficiency to provide a greater degree of food security and minimize political and social costs at time of scarcity. Even some economists argue that Government market interventions are costly and inspire inefficiency, however, since rice remains the most important commodity in Indonesia both economically and politically, and food security underpins domestic law-and–order, then Government has a legitimate reason to be concerned about adequacy of food supply. Given the above reasons, a desirable future option would be a rice policy which meets the

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Indonesian government‘s objective of economic efficiency and the other two fundamental goals of food policy – equitable distribution of income and adequate food security. To anticipate the possibility of rice crisis in the world markets, rice marketing agencies and rice reserve agencies should create global coordination to respond to potential threats to food security. It will send positive signal to global markets. Ladies and Gentlemen, These are the issues and challenges of food security that are faced by Indonesia and by most developing countries. I hope the issues I have raised will stimulate discussion over the next few days and I hope that yours deliberations will shed light on the issues confronting all of us. Thank you for your kind attention. I look forward to participating in the interesting and stimulating discussions that await us. Yogyakarta, December 1, 2010

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FOOD SAFETY AND FOOD SECURITY IN EAST ASIA Teruo Maeda Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-4-4, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8528 Japan, Email: [email protected]

The Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, has organized two International Symposia in the past. The first symposium in 2008 was held with two main important agenda. The first agendum involved ―Strategies towards an environment of safe and secure food production, and the establishment of a responsible food chain/ system.‖ The second emphasis concerned the ―Development of food safety technology and the strengthening of food functionality for consumers‘ demands.‖ In the second symposium in 2010, entitled ―The Environment of Food Security and Food Safety in East Asia: Towards Further Development of International Collaborative Education and Research,‖ we had the following objectives: 1) To identify the latest challenges and stateof-the-art topics in specific fields; 2) To design feasible plans for collaborative education and research; and 3) To propose overall strategies toward the improvement of the food security and food safety environments in East Asia. We believe that the activities have been quite successful. The Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University is therefore very glad to help this International Conference in Indonesia entitled ―Food Safety and Food Security.‖ Not only in Japan but also throughout the rest of the Asian region, there needs to be a new awareness concerning the importance of a low-carbon food chain among those who are involved in the food industry. Eventually, it will be imperative to improve capacity among food chain managers who would adopt and monitor comprehensive food safety approaches. Consumers all over Asia are anxious and concerned about food safety. The food chain currently in effect in Asia has extended its capital, technological, marketing, and knowledge networks all over the world through the distribution of trained and efficient manpower. There is a greater need for all educational and research institutions to develop comprehensive and collaborative methods and projects. In the developed world, the rapid growth of new types of food businesses, like restaurants, fast food chains, and supermarkets, has created a new type of food system which has greatly changed the process from production to consumption. East Asia is the largest center of the food industry in the world along with an ever-increasing demand in the developed world for value-added food such as ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook products. Japan has so far provided a great impetus to capital accumulation and technological development of the food industry in East Asia. It now depends heavily on the value-added products imported from China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and so on, where exportoriented food industries have grown exponentially. The huge consumer markets in the EU and the USA import food products from this region, too. The mass production system and stable distribution of standardized products in East Asia have been accepted widely. A strong, societal commitment for the standardization of food production technology works effectively in agricultural, fisheries and all kinds of frozen products. Environmental standards, safety and hygienic technologies should be applied to the whole process of production, distribution, and consumption. ―Farm to Fork‖ management in East Asia should be designed and implemented in the proper way. Food safety and security in Japan are assured only if there is an uncompromised environment of food safety and security elsewhere in East and Southeast

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Asia, and vice versa. As a part of this mission, Hiroshima University is responsible for educating professionals who can manage agriculture, fisheries, and the food manufacturing industry. These professionals become the leaders in establishing the sustainable use of food resources, an environmentally friendly food industries network, and the whole system of the food chain at local, national and regional levels. They are expected to change the paradigm of the food chain currently in effect in East Asia into a responsible and safe system. The words ―Food safety and Food security‖ are the keywords in any relevant discussion of agricultural production, including animal production. A multitude of infection diseases can bring a devastating impact upon agricultural production. The frequency of these diseases will increase due to environmental changes such as global warming and borderless people movement. The avian influenza appearing in East Asia is one of the most dangerous infections for all animals, including human. Foot-and-mouth disease has also often appeared worldwide, and leads to much loss in animal production. Unfortunately, Japan was also contaminated by the virus this year. The disease broke out especially in Miyazaki Prefecture in southern Japan. The cause is not clear; however, there is a strong possibility that people have propagated the virus. Miyazaki Prefecture has suffered huge financial losses due to the disease. It appeared on April 20 th and ended on August 27th. In the end, about 300,000 animals (mainly cows and pigs) had to be destroyed. New technology, for example artificial insemination using frozen semen, embryo transfer with stocked embryos, and cloning work using somatic cells will contribute to the recovery. Hopefully, safe animal production in Miyazaki Prefecture will improve gradually because of financial support from the government, farmers‘ individual efforts, and the application new technology. With lessons learned from this incident, the Japanese again has recognized the importance of safe food production. Recently, for example, Hiroshima University has instituted strict measures against infection diseases. The preventive actions were as follows: 1) We sponsored a seminar by professional veterinarians so that staffs and students could learn more about infection diseases; 2) We published guidelines to prevent these diseases in the future; 3) We installed disinfection equipment (like a machine and a bath) at the gate of the university farm; and 4) Hiroshima University increased the thoroughness of disinfection at the university farm, the experimental farm and in all rooms used for breeding animals. Consequently, crisis-management awareness of diseases (food safety) has increased among staffs and students at Hiroshima University. In conclusion, let me say that Hiroshima University hopes to continue and increase collaboration with its MOU-based partner universities in East and Southeast Asia, such as Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia), Kasetsart Universality (Thailand), and Sichuan Agricultural University (China) to achieve food safety and food security in East and Southeast Asia for the benefit of all nations and people.

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AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY IN THAILAND: STATUS AND TREND Yont Musig Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand ABSTRACT Aquaculture is the world fastest growing animal food-producing sector with per capita supply from aquaculture increasing from 0.7 kg in 1970 to 7.8 kg in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 6.9 percent. Aquaculture production increased from less than 1 million tons per year in the early 1950s to 51.7 million tons in 2006, representing an annual growth rate of nearly 7 percent. Aquaculture in Thailand has been developed considerably since the beginning of the century both in freshwater areas and in coastal zone. At the very beginning, with the exception of walking catfish which was raised intensively using trash fish as a feed, extensive and semi-intensive culture system with low production per unit area were practiced for fish, shrimp and mollusk culture. Aquaculture plays an increasingly important role in food security and the economy of Thailand when intensive shrimp farming has been developed and expanded very rapidly during the mid 1980s, supported by the technological breakthrough in shrimp feed development and successful production of shrimp larvae in 1986. After that aquaculture production of Thailand steadily increased with impressive increasing rate mostly due to the increase in farmed shrimp production. Without proper planning together with the lack of understanding of the farmers about the relationship of aquaculture and environment, rapid expansion of aquaculture industry created serious environmental problems which later backfired to its own industry. During the mid 1980s, a large portion of mangrove areas were converted to shrimp farms. Without any regulation and control of aquaculture farm effluents, intensive farming of fish and shrimp generated a big input of organic matter in the form of left over feed and feces into the ecosystem resulting in high loading of organic matter and its decomposed products including nutrients and toxic metabolites. The deteriorated aquatic ecosystem directly backfired to the aquaculture industry. Mass mortality of culture species were normally observed in almost every culturing area, after three years of intensive farming. Diseases out brake become regular phenomenon. This problem severely affected aquaculture industry especially shrimp farming in which culturing areas had to move around the coastal zone to maintain production level in the early state of intensive shrimp farming development. The use of chemicals and drugs for the prevention and control of fish and shrimp diseases was also created contamination problem of farm products which created marketing problem. Realizing the real cause of the problems the industry was readjusted toward sustainable and environmental friendly farming practices with lower production per unit area and proper management of pond effluents. Closed and semi-closed water recirculation systems with modest production per unit area were adopted by most farmers. Several measures are also introduced to reduce the use of chemicals and drugs including prevention and control of disease carriers, the use of pathogenic free shrimp larva, and intensive management of pond environment. Direct dumping of pond sediment into public water is prohibited. Pond effluent standard was established and medium size to large size farms are required to have effluent treatment pond. The Royal Thai Governmentalso prohibited the use of forest land including mangrovein 1991 Poaching mangrove areas were confiscated and replanted. In 2008, aquaculture production of Thailand was around 1.33 million tons contributing around one quarter of the total fisheries production. Freshwater aquaculture produced 485,100 tons of fishes and 33,200 tons of giant freshwater prawn while coastal

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aquaculture produced 506,600 tons of shrimp, 285,700 tons of mollusks, and 16,000 tons of fishes. Major species for freshwater aquaculture are tilapia, hybrid catfish, silver barb, and giant freshwater prawn and major species for coastal aquaculture are pacific white shrimp, seabass, grouper, green mussel, blood cockle, and oyster. The exports of fisheries and aquaculture products have been expanding continually and Thailand has been one of the world's leading exporters of fisheries products since 1993. In order to in crease the social and environmental responsibility of the farmers and to improve the quality of aquaculture products, farmers are encourage to adopt farming standard such as GAP (Good Aquaculturing Practice) or CoC (Code of Conduct). Farm product traceability is also carrying out by the cooperation of government agencies and private sectors.

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THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON FOOD SECURITY Lim Jung Lee PT Syngenta Indonesia Perkantoran Hijau Arkadia, Tower C, 9th Floor Jl T.B. Simatupang Kav 88, Jakarta 12520, Indonesia ABSTRACT The world population will increase from 6 to 8 billion by 2030. The majority of the population growth is in Asia. In Indonesia, there will be an extra 50 million more people to feed in the same period. Land for agriculture, however, is not growing in tandem with population growth. Food security is further compounded by climate change. The growing wealth in Asia also means that there will be accelerated demands for better quality food, which adds further pressure on how food is grown and produced, In short, there is an urgent need to produce more with less. Technology holds the key to meet this challenge and this paper discusses the impact of technology in crop protection, crop stress and genetics on food security. It well known that crop loss caused by weeds, pests and diseases can be reduced by a significant 30-50% with crop protection products. Even if crops are well protected and adequate technology is adopted in land preparation, irrigation and nutrition, there is still significant potential for improving yields in crops. In the case of rice and corn, more than one third of the theoretical maximum yield is yet to be realized. Crop stress management and genetics are the keys to unlock the unrealized yield potential in crops. Crops are subjected to a wide variety of stress, due to drought, extremes of temperatures, malnutrition and pest/disease infestations. Under stress, plants produce ethylene, resulting in wilting, senescence and yield loss. Early trials with ―Invinsa‖(1MCP), competitive inhibitor of ethylene receptor binding, revealed that it can mitigate stress in rice resulting in better root and vegetative growth and an average of 10% increase in yields. The step change in food productivity is in crop genetics and biotechnology. Increasing investment in the understanding of fundamental plant science has led to the introduction of important tools for improving crops through GM and precision breeding. With GM, beneficial traits from other species could be incorporate to create plants that could not be developed just through breeding. There are many examples of transgenic crops that have been introduced over the past 2 decades that have benefited millions of growers and crop productivity around the world. In an afford to provide better nutrition, ―Golden‖ rice is an example where it was developed to reduce Vitamin A deficiency, which affects 33% of the population in SE Asia. Precision breeding links markers on the genome to useful effects and allows the efficient breeding of desirable traits into the crop species. It is particularly well-suited to complex, multi-gene traits that are native to the crop species. The result is accelerated varietal selection and introduction of new varieties. High yielding hybrid corn and vegetables with better tastes and color are end results of the application such breeding technology.

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SAFETY ISSUES OF FISHERY PRODUCTS IN CHINA Xue Bai Sinchuan Agricultural University Risks of fishery products exist in every linkage in fish farming, processing, and preservation. Each of the risks can seriously imperil human health, even lead to death. To ensure quality and safety of fishery products, we must explore the possible causes of the safety problem which comes about from farm to table. This paper outlines the safety issues of fishery products which exist in every linkage before, during and after processing. SAFETY ISSUES OF FISHERY PRODUCTS BEFORE PROCESSING Pathogenic bacteria and parasite Fishes, spiral shell, prawns and crabs can be affected by pathogenic bacteria and parasites during rearing. Bacteria like Hepatitis A Virus, vibrio cholera and vibrio parahacmolyicus can cause hepatitis A, cholera and hemolytic toxicosis. Vibrio parahemolyticus are the most common bacteria responsible for bromatoxism of fishery products. Heavy metal pollution Heavy metals on fishery pollution in China is very serious, especially mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic. Most of the heavy metals can be deposited in human body, causing acute or chronic poisoning of people. Some even cause abnormalities, cancer, and mutation. Investigation in 2005 found serious mercury pollution in Gehu Lake in Jiangsu Province, and serious Pb enrichment around the Bohai Bay. Another survey revealed that the exceeding rate of Hg in commercial seafood in Qingdao was 15.6%. According to the limits of contaminants in food in China(GB 2762 - 2005), the arsenic in fishery products must not be more than 0. 1 mg / kg. Hormones Clenbuterol, a neural stimulant of β-adrenal, may deposit in animal muscle and giblets with high concentration, causing bad effect on liver, kidney and nervous system of human via food chain. Clenbuterol and other β-agonists have been banned since 1997 in China, but the clenbuterol poisoning accidents in fishery products happened many times in Guangdong and Anhui province. The use of sex hormones for improving fish growth was common. Estrogen was proved to be carcinogenic and therefore was banned in China. Antibiotics Antibiotics can promote animal performance and therefore are widely used as feed additives. Antibiotic additives may deposit in animal carcass, resulting in the chronic accumulation in human body which may lead to allergic reactions, bacteria resistance, teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic. The use of antibiotics should be strictly regulated by the rules and standards. The major problem is that some items of the rules such as off-drug period are not obeyed occasionally. Some drugs banned in other countries are still used in China. There is no definite evidence that the drug resistance of human is directly related to the antibiotics used in animal feed, but the long-term sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics has brought widespread anxious in society. Pesticide Residues

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Organophosphor pesticides were employed in fishery rearing in increasing amount and frequency, and become the most serious pollutants in fishery. They are hard to be degraded, easy accumulating, strong toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. These pesticides may ultimately enter human body via food chain and imperil human health. Carbamate and dimethrin pesticides, employed in plants, can transfer into human body via food chain and imperil human health, although they are low or medium mammalian toxicity. Sterilization Drugs Malachite had been used as sterilization drugs in fishery rearing, but was banned in China since 2002 due to easy accumulating, strong toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. Fish sterilized with malachite may keep tempting color and luster even dead. Formaldehyde is frequently used to prevent disease of fishes and carapace fisheries, causing formaldehyde residues in fishery products. Autotoxin from fish Histamine may produced from decarboxylation of histidine in the tissues of some kinds of fishes. Histamine induced food poisoning was most often occurred in mackerel, followed by sardine, Spanish mackerel, and tunny. Fish bile, used as traditional medicine in China, some times cause food poisoning. Spawn toxin in catfish can be poisonous if not well-cooked. CONTAMINATION DURING PROCESSING Microorganism The contamination of process water will directly pollute the edible part of fishery products. Process water should tally with the regulation of GB/T5749-2006 of China. Fishery products could be polluted with bacteria if dropped on ground during processing if ground was not sterilized enough. Bacteria in the air in workshop should be less than 1000/m3. Additive Nitrite is used in meat processing for anti-oxidation, sterilization, and for improving color and flavor. Excessive nitrite leads to liver poisoning, and is carcinogenic. The use of artificial pigments in fishery products was banned in China according to GB2760-1996 because of liver poisoning and carcinogenic. The use of phosphate in meat processing could not exceed 5 g/kg, according to GB2760-1996. Excessive use of phosphate for increasing productivity may lead to rickets of children. Formaldehyde was sometimes adulterated in fishery products during marinating in caustic soda for preventing rot and improving luster, which lead to the poisoning to liver and kidney. SAFETY ISSUES OF FISHERY PRODUCTS DURING STORAGE Low temperature storage Listeria diseases mainly happen in infancy and the mortality can reach 30%. Listeria monocytogenes may cause meningitis and fetal infection and even abortion. Rapid proliferation of bacteria and deteriorate of fishery products may happen even if stored under 4°C, in case of large population of initial bacteria, high oxidation-reduction potential, low quality packing materials and improper control in the process of transportation and retail. The preservation process includesor. Formaldehyde might be produced by microorganisms during freezing and refrigerating of fishery products.

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Preservation after heat treatment The proportion of processed fishery products accounted for about 5% of fishery output, of which over 1/3 were high temperature pasteurized. High temperature may kill microorganisms and inactivate the enzyme of bacteria in fishery products. Some times the pasteurization was not thorough, or secondary pollution happened after pasteurization, bacteria proliferate rapidly because of few competitions and lead to spoilage in fishery products. The risk of Modified atmosphere packaging Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) refers to the method of injecting certain gases into the package bags to extend the shelf life of fishery products. When fishery products are under anaerobic environment, Lactobacillus (LAB) could grow because of stronger CO2 tolerance than the bacteria that cause spoilage of fishery products. The growth of LAB can inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and therefore improve the food safety. However, when clostridium was found in fishery products in MAP, the safety of MAP was queried.

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UNDERSTANDING FOOD SAFETY CONCERNS ASSOCIATED WITH E. COLI IN RED MEAT PRODUCTION Narelle Fegan CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Werribee, Vic, Australia 671 Sneydes Road, Werribee, VIC 3030 Phone: +61 3 9731 3284 Fax: +61 3 9731 3201 email: [email protected] ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) have sometimes been associated with food borne disease. The main reservoirs of STEC are ruminant animals, particularly cattle, which shed STEC intermittently in their faeces. During the last 20 years STEC of serotype O157:H7 have been responsible for large outbreaks of food borne illness in many countries. Many of the outbreaks that have occurred in the USA have been linked to the consumption of beef and beef products leading to E. coli O157:H7 being declared an adulterant. Australia is a large producer of beef and exports to countries such as the USA, Korea and Japan where testing programs for E. coli O157 may be in place. Over the past 15 years research has focussed on understanding the factors that contribute to the contamination of cattle carcases with STEC to assist the meat industry in producing red meat which meets customer requirements in relation to food safety. This research has determined that E. coli O157 is present in Australian animals and has the potential to contaminate carcases during slaughter and processing. Different cattle production systems appear to have little impact as no significant differences were found in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle from feedlots or grazing land. Quantitative data has been collected which indicates the number of E. coli O157 shed by cattle has an impact on the likelihood of carcase contamination with animals shedding high numbers presenting the greatest risk. Transport of cattle to abattoirs and holding in pens prior to slaughter was not found to increase shedding of E. coli O157. Maintaining good hygiene practices during slaughter along with slow chain speeds and dry air chilling appear to limit the contamination of cattle carcases with E. coli O157 even when it is present. This information has been used to assist the Australian red meat industry in managing and controlling E. coli O157 to maintain the production of a safe, quality product. Keywords: Food safety, E. Coli, Red meat production INTRODUCTION E. coli O157 is a pathogenic E. coli that is capable of causing disease in humans ranging from mild diarrhoea to severe illness that can in rare occasions lead to death. The major reservoir of E. coli O157 includes ruminant animals, particularly cattle, which may intermittently shed E. coli O157 in their faeces. Humans may become infected with E. coli O157 from consumption of contaminated foods produced from animals, such as meat and dairy products, or from foods which may have become contaminated with animal manures or waters contaminated with animal wastes. E. coli O157 can also be transmitted through direct contact with animals and their environments and from person to person. E. coli O157 has caused large outbreaks associated with foods such as ground beef and fresh produce (Rangel et al., 2005). After a 1993 outbreak associated with ground beef the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) declared E. coli O157 to be an adulterant of ground beef (http://www.fsis.usda.gov). Countries which

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export beef to the US must now comply with directives associated with E. coli O157, including mandatory Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points for the slaughter and dressing of cattle and the absence of E. coli O157 in tested lots of beef that are destined for grinding (http://www.fsis.usda.gov). Australian red meat industry Australia is the world‘s second largest exporter of beef (http://www.mla.com.au) after Brazil with the majority of beef exported to Japan (38%), the US (27%) and Korea (12%) (Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2009). As beef is a valuable export commodity for Australia it was important to gain an understanding of the ecology of E. coli O157 in beef production in Australia to assist in meeting the requirements for US market. Research conducted over the past 15 years at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has focussed on understanding issues relating to E. coli O157 in beef including the prevalence of E. coli O157 in Australian cattle and the factors that may contribute to contamination of carcases during slaughter and processing. The findings of this research and implications are discussed below. Ecology of E. coli O157 in Australia One of the first steps in understanding the ecology of E. coli O157 in Australian beef production was to determine the prevalence in cattle on farm and at slaughter. Cattle from both beef (Midgley et al., 1999) and dairy (Cobbold and Desmarchelier, 2000) production systems were found to shed E. coli O157 in their faeces on farm. The number of animals shedding E. coli O157 varied from none to more than half depending on the time of sampling. Such intermittent shedding is commonly observed but the factors which may result in large numbers of animals shedding at one time are not fully understood. Cattle from both grass-fed (grazing on land) and grain-fed (feedlot) production systems were also sampled at the point of slaughter (Fegan et al., 2004b). A total of 310 animals (155 from each production system) were tested with E. coli O157 isolated from the faeces of 13%, with no significant difference between those which were grass-fed (10%) or grain-fed (15%). A more recent survey of both grass-fed and grain-fed animals at slaughter found a much lower prevalence (1.6% of 300 animals) of E. coli O157 in cattle faeces (Barlow and Mellor, 2010). The type of production system in Australia appeared to have no impact on the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle. Smaller surveys of other ruminant animals at slaughter indicated that goats and sheep also carried E. coli O157 (figure 1). 40% 35% 30%

25% 20% 15%

10% 5%

0% goats (n=67)

cattle (n=610)

sheep (n=165)

Figure 1. The prevalence of E. coli O157 in the faeces of goats, cattle and sheep at slaughter.

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Not only have the faeces of cattle been found to contain E. coli O157, but other sites such as the oral cavity and hides of cattle have also been reported to contain E. coli O157. In one survey of 100 cattle, E. coli O157 was isolated from 44% of hides, 24% of oral cavities and 10% of faeces (Fegan et al., 2005), indicating that oral cavities and hides may have greater potential for transmission of E. coli O157 to the carcase than the faeces of animals. E. coli O157 has been isolated from environments in which cattle come into contact, including transport vehicles used to move cattle between farms or feedlots and abattoirs, along with holding yards used to house animals prior to slaughter (Fegan et al., 2009). These environments may pose a potential source of contamination of cattle prior to slaughter and need to be considered in a whole of chain approach to the management of E. coli O157 in beef production. However, the transport of cattle from feedlots to abattoirs did not increase the prevalence or numbers of E. coli O157 present in cattle (Fegan et al., 2009). Although these results show that E. coli O157 were present in Australian cattle and in transport and holding yards, the extent of the risk was still unknown without quantitative information on the levels of E. coli O157 present. Such quantitative information would be useful for developing more informed risk management systems for controlling E. coli O157 in cattle. A combination of immunomagnetic separation and the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique was developed to enumerate E. coli O157 in cattle faeces (Fegan et al., 2004a). Low numbers of E. coli O157 (less than 1 log10 MPN/g) were shed by the majority of animals while only very few cattle shed high numbers (more than 5 log 10 MPN/g; Figure 2) (Fegan et al., 2004a; Fegan et al., 2004b). The cattle shedding high numbers of E. coli O157 (e. g. more than 4 log10 MPN/g) have been termed supershedders. Observational information from various studies (Fegan et al., 2009; Fegan et al., 2005) indicated that pre-chilled carcases were only contaminated when a supershedder animal (shedding greater than 4 log10 MPN/g) was present (e. g. groups 4 and 6 in Table 1). This supports the suggestion that the risk of carcase contamination is greatest when at least one animal in a group is shedding high numbers of E. coli O157. 60

% samples

50

40

30

20

10

0 <1

1-2

2-3

3-4

4-5

5-6

log MPN/g faeces

Figure 2. The range of counts of E. coli O157 in the faeces of cattle shedding E. coli O157 at slaughter (log10 Most Probable Number (MPN) per g of faeces)

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Even though E. coli O157 was present in cattle and their environments and on occasion has been transferred to pre-chilled carcases, it has not been isolated from retail meats in Australia. The results of a survey of 629 meat samples, comprising mostly ground beef and lamb chops, failed to isolate E. coli O157 (Barlow et al., 2006). The Australian red meat industry has several systems in place to ensure the safety of its products, including following Australian Standards, inspection by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, traceability programs and microbial monitoring programs (http://safemeat.com.au/meat-safety-systems/processing-distribution.htm). There are also various customer and country requirements the industry needs to meet to maintain its domestic and international customer base. Ongoing research into issues associated with pathogenic E. coli (including E. coli O157) is one key component to ensuring the sustainability of the red meat industry in Australia. Table 1. Prevalence and counts of E. coli O157 from the faeces, hides and carcases of seven different groups of animals Numb Anima er Faeces Hides Pre-chill carcases l group tested % +ve 1

25

NDc

2

25

10

3

25

NDc

4

25

28

5 6

30 30

9 23

a

Max. Count (MPN/g)b

430 7.5 x 105d

Max. Count (MPN/cm2)

% +ve

4

0.07

NDc

8

0.15

NDc

64

9.2

NDc

22

24

100

b

c

1,100 4.6 x 10

% +ve

7

b

0.12 c

ND 5d

Max. Count (MPN/cm2)

ND 0.071

7

<0.004 c

7 30 4 24 7 <0.006 ND the percent of samples which tested positive for E. coli O157 the maximum (highest) count (Most Probably Number – MPN/ g or cm2) obtained from samples in that group of animals c ND - E. coli O157 was not detected in samples d count indicated presence of supershedder a b

CONCLUSIONS The research reported here on E. coli O157 in Australian cattle has identified that this pathogen is present in animals and in their environments, and that it occasionally is transferred to carcases, but only when high numbers are shed by an animal. This suggests that identification of animals which shed high numbers of E. coli O157 and investigation of the triggers which may cause an animal to shed high numbers are important for future study. The Australian red meat industry has used the knowledge generated from this research to assist in understanding the issues associated with E. coli O157 in beef and to reinforce the need for good manufacturing processes to limit contamination and maintain a reputation for producing safe, quality beef.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research reported in this document is the collation of many projects which were supported by funding solely through CSIRO or though funding from Meat and Livestock Australia and matching funds provided by CSIRO. REFERENCES Barlow, R.S., Gobius, K.S., Desmarchelier, P.M., 2006, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef and lamb cuts: Results of a one-year study. I J Food Microbiol111, 1-5. Barlow, R.S., Mellor, G.E., 2010, Prevalence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotypes in Australian beef cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis7, 1239-1245. Cobbold, R., Desmarchelier, P., 2000, A longitudinal study of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) prevalence in three Australian dairy herds. Vet. Microbiol.71, 125-137. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2009. Red http://www.daff.gov.au/agriculture-food/meat-wool-dairy/quota/redmeat/red_meat_export_statistics_2008

Meat

Export

Statitistics.

Fegan, N., Higgs, G., Duffy, L.L., Barlow, R.S., 2009, The effects of transport and lairage on counts of Escherichia coli O157 in the feces and on the hides of individual cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis6, 1113-1120. Fegan, N., Higgs, G., Vanderlinde, P., Desmarchelier, P., 2004a, Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle faeces using most probable number technique and automated immunomagnetic separation. Lett Appl Microbiol38, 56-59. Fegan, N., Higgs, G., Vanderlinde, P., Desmarchelier, P., 2005, An investigation of Escherichia coli O157 contamination of cattle during slaughter at an abattoir. J. Food Prot.68, 451-457. Fegan, N., Vanderlinde, P., Higgs, G., Desmarchelier, P., 2004b, The prevalence and concentration of Escherichia coli O157 in faeces of cattle from different production systems at slaughter. J. Appl. Microbiol.97, 362-370. Midgley, J., Fegan, N., Desmarchelier, P., 1999, Dynamics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in feedlot cattle. Lett Appl Microbiol29, 85-89. Rangel, J.M., Sparling, P.H., Crowe, C., Griffin, P.M., Swerdlow, D.L., 2005, Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982-2002. Emerging Infect. Dis.11, 603-609.

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CAROTENOIDS FOR FOOD AND NUTRACEUTICAL APPLICATION Irwandi Jaswir1* and Dedi Noviendri1,2 Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2 Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Petamburan VI, 10260,Jakarta, Indonesia *To whom correspondence should be address: E-mail address: [email protected] 1

Abstract This paper discusses dietary carotenoids and their role in food and nutraceutical applications. Carotenoids are divided into two major classes based on their structural elements; carotene, constituted by carbon and hydrogen (e.g. -carotene, -carotene and lycopene), and xanthophylls, constituted by carbon, hydrogen, and additionally oxygen (e.g. lutein, -cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin). Carotenoids are biosynthesized by bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants, but not by animals, which must obtain them from their food. These compounds have good effects to promote human health, such as pro-vitamin A, antioxidant, anticancer, and antidiabetic effects. Currently, carotenoids are used commercially as natural food colorants, nutrient supplement, feed additives, animal feed supplements, and as nutraceuticals for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. Keywords: Carotenoids, food and nutraceuticals appllications INTRODUCTION Carotenoids, the basic source of yellow, orange, and red plant pigments, are widely distributed in nature (Sugawara et al., 2009). They are present in all living organisms, from bacteria, yeast algae to higher plants and animals (Basu et al., 2001; Sugawara et al., 2009).These compounds are group of more than 700 naturally occurring pigments (Godinho and Bhosle, 2008; Konishi et al., 2008) that are biosynthesized de novo by plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. Animals are incapable of producing carotenoids and must obtain them above source (Okada et al., 2008). Carotenoids are tetraterpenes with eight unconjugated double bonds and are made up of 40 carbon atoms. They are synthesized by a reductive dimerization of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) (Figure 2B). There are structurally divided into two major classes: carotenes, which are exclusively hydrocarbons (those without any oxygen molecule) (Aizawa and Inakuma, 2007), and xanthophylls, which are oxygenated (Britton, 1995) contain hydroxyl, methoxy, carboxyl, keto, or epoxy groups (Basu et al., 2001). The chemical structure of carotene (e.g. lycopene and βcarotene), and xanthophylls (e.g. lutein, β-criptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin) has been shown in Figure 1. The carotenoids are responsible for many of the colors of animals, plants, and microorganisms and play important biological roles as accessory light-harvesting components of photosynthetic systems, photoprotecting antioxidants, and regulators of membrane fluidity (Umeno et al., 2005). These compounds responsible for color ranging from light yellow through orange to deep red are biosynthesized in all of the photosynthetic organisms containing cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants, and also in some of non-photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts and fungi (Misawa, 2009). Carotenoids as accessory light-harvesting pigments play an essential role in the protection of plants against excess light and photooxidative stress (Demmig-Adams and Adams, 2002). Furthermore, carotenoids exhibit a long central chain of conjugated double bonds carrying acyclic or cyclic substituents (Stahl and Sies, 2007). The carotenoids of fruit, vegetables and animal products are usually fat-soluble and are associated with lipid fractions (Figure 2A). Due to the hydrophobic character,

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carotenoids are associated with lipid portions of human tissues, cells and membranes (ElQudah, 2008). Carotenoids are intracellular products and are usually located in membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts or endoplasmic reticulum (Margalith, 1999).

Lycopene

-Carotene

HO

-Cryptoxanthin OH

HO

Lutein OH

HO

Zeaxanthin O OH

HO O

Astaxanthin CH3COO H C

C

O O HO

Fucoxanthin Figure 1. Chemical structures of several selected carotenoids. SOURCES OF CAROTENOID Carotenoids are biosynthesized by bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants (Armstrong et al., 1996), but not by animals, which must obtain them from their food. Not only plants, (e.g. vegetables, fruits, cereals, etc.) (Table 1, Figure 3 and 4), carotenoids also produced by microorganisms are lycopene, -carotene, astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin (Bhosale, 2004), -cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin (Bhosale and Bernstein, 2005). Lutein, zeaxanthin, b-cryptoxanthin, -carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene are the most abundant in plasma (Aizawa and Inakuma, 2007). Besides of that carotenoid ( -carotene) production from micro algae, Dunaliella salina (Pisal and Lele, 2005). Furthermore, Astaxanthin is a red pigment included in red sea animals such as crab, shrimp and red fish (e.g., red sea bream and salmon). At present astaxanthin is manufactured mainly by chemical synthesis, but some processes for the biological production of astaxanthin have been developed in several sources such as a green alga Haematococcus pluvialis and yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (formerly classified as Phaffia rhodozyma) (Harada et al., 2009). Carotenoids as well as carotenoproteins are responsible for the color of crustaceans.

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When cooked, the body color of prawns becomes red and the depth of the color depends upon the carotenoid content (Okada et al., 1994).

IPP isomerase

GGPP synthase GGPP

IPP

Phytoene synthase Phytoene Phytoene desturase -Carotene 15-cis- -carotenoid isomerase -carotene desaturase carotenoid isomerase Lycopene

Lycopene ε-cyclase

Lycopene -cyclase

Lycopene -cyclase

Lycopene -cyclase

α-Carotene

-Carotene

-ring hydroxylase

-ring hydroxylase

ε-ring hydroxylase

-Cryptoxanthin -ring hydroxylase

Lutein Zeaxanthin Violaxanthin deepoxidase

zeaxanthin epoxidase

Antheraxanthin Violaxanthin deepoxidase

zeaxanthin epoxidase

Violaxanthin neoxanthin synthase Neoxanthin

Figure 2. (A). Carotenoids in mixed micelles. Carotenes are located in the triacylglycerol-rich, whereas xanthophylls are on the surface monolayer with proteins, phospholipids and partially ionized fatty acids (Canene-Adams and Erdman Jr, 2009). (B) Schematic of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. IPP, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate; GGPP, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (Yano et al., 2005; Diretto et al., 2006; Kato et al., 2007; Yamamizo et al., 2008; Apel and Bock, 2009). CAROTENOIDS AND HEALTH BENEFITS Carotenoids as provitamin A More than 600 natural carotenoids have been identified (Aizawa and Inakuma, 2007). Of the approximately 600 carotenoids found in nature, only about 50 have provitamin A activity (Okada et al., 2008), Furthermore, of 600 different carotenoids only three are important precursors of vitamin A in humans: α-carotene, β-carotene and βcryptoxanthin (Thane and Reddy, 1997; Park et al., 2009) (Table 2). β-Carotene are the major pro-vitamin A component of most carotenoid-containing foods. Moreover, in order

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to function physiologically as vitamin A, carotenoids containing food must be well digested to release the carotenoids from the food matrix (Carrillo-Lopez et al., 2010). Table 1. Common dietary sources of carotenoids in regular vegetable foods, g/100 fresh weight (Southon and Faulks, 2003). Food Lutein Lycopene βZeaxanthin Cryptoxanthin Carotene Carotene Carrot 7975 2186 271 Spinach 4489 6265 Broccoli 1580 2560 Lettuce 890 1250 Green peas 548 1840 Watercress 5919 10713 Tomato 608 77 4375 Orange* 250 200 120 700 Orange 375 1180 1980 juice* Mandarin* 275 50 1775 140 Sweet corn 45 60 520 440 Red pepper* 1700 30 270 250 600 Apricot* 3500 Trace 70 trace 120 Mango* 3100 800 Papaya* 640 30 3400 770 Watermelon 180 trace 20 4750 300 Note: *: carotenoid esters present

Fruits

Spices & condiments

Figure 3. Fruits, spices and condiments with potential to prevent cancer. Fruits include 1 apple, 2 apricot, 3 banana, 4 blackberry, 5 cherry, 6 citrus fruits, 7 dessert date, 8 durian, 9 grapes, 10 guava, 11 Indian gooseberry, 12 mango, 13 malay apple, 14 mangosteen, 15 pineapple, 16 pomegranate. Spices and condiments include 1 turmeric, 2 cardamom, 3 coriander, 4 black pepper, 5 clove, 6 fennel, 7 rosemary, 8 sesame seed, 9 mustard, 10 licorice, 11 garlic, 12 ginger, 13 parsley, 14 cinnamon, 15 curry leaves, 16 kalonji, 17 fenugreek, 18 camphor, 19 pecan, 20 star anise, 21 flax seed, 22 black mustard, 23 pistachio, 24 walnut, 25 peanut, 26 cashew nut (Anand et al., 2008).

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Vegetables

Cereals

Figure 4. Vegetables and cereals with potential to prevent cancer. Vegetables include 1 artichok, 2 avocado, 3 brussels sprout, 4 broccoli, 5 cabbage, 6 cauliflower, 7 carrot, 8 daikon 9 kohlrabi, 10 onion, 11 tomato, 12 turnip, 13 ulluco, 14 water cress, 15 okra, 16 potato, 17 fiddle head, 18 radicchio, 19 komatsuna, 20 salt bush, 21 winter squash, 22 zucchini, 23 lettuce, 24 spinach. Cereals include 1 rice, 2 wheat, 3 oats, 4 rye, 5 barley, 6 maize, 7 jowar, 8 pearl millet, 9 proso millet, 10 foxtail millet, 11 little millet, 12 barnyard millet, 13 kidney bean, 14 soybean, 15 mung bean, 16 black bean, 17 pigeon pea, 18 green pea, 19 scarlet runner bean, 20 black beluga, 21 brown spanish pardina, 22 green, 23 green (eston), 24 ivory white, 25 multicolored blend, 26 petite crimson, 27 petite golden, 28 red chief (Anand et al., 2008). Table 2. Abundant sources of carotenoids in fruit and vegetables (Thane and Reddy, 1997).. Carotenoid type Example Abundant sources Provitamin A -carotene Green leafy vegetables and -carotene Yellow-orange fruit and vegetables, e.g. carrot, broccoli, spinach, parsley, celery, tomatoes. Peaches, oranges, tangerins, mangoes, papayas cryptoxanthin Non-provitamin Lycopene Tomatoes, pink-red, grapefruit, red-fleshed A papayas, water melon Lutein Green and dark green, leafy vegetables-spinach, parsley, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, beans, peans. Zeaxanthin As for lutein, plus some fruits, e.g. mandarins, peaches, oranges Carotenoids as antioxidant/pro-oxidant In all organisms carotenoids may function as antioxidants and promote oxidative stress resistance (Tian et al., 2007). In the human organism, carotenoids are part of antioxidant defense system (Stahl and Sies, 2003). Carotenoids can quench single oxygen in a similar manner to tocopherols. They are also able to react directly with superoxide and other free radicals. Carotenoids (CAR) can form resonance-stabilised carbon-centred radicals, e.g. by reaction with lipid peroxyl radicals (ROO*) (Smirnoff, 2005): CAR + ROO* ROO-CAR* They can transfer electrons forming a radical cation (CAR *+): CAR + R* CAR*+ + R

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Allylic hydrogen abstraction, e.g. from lipid peroxyl radicals, could also occur: CAR + ROO* CAR* + ROOH Alternatively, they can accept electrons, e.g. from superoxide, forming a radical anion, in this case of lycopene: Lycopene + O2-* Lycopene-* + O2. Lycopene can function as an antioxidant (Erdman, 2008) by several mechanisms, and one of the best documented mechanisms is through the quenching singlet oxygen ( 1O2). Physical quenching of 1O2 by lycopene can occur as follows (Krinski, 1992): Lycopene + 1O23Lycopene + 3O2 Lycopene in the excited state (3lycopene) has insufficient energy to cause excitation of other molecules and generate reactive species. Therefore, more than one free radical can be quenched by a single lycopene molecule (Krinski, 1992). More than 80% of lycopene consumed in the United States is derived from tomato products, although apricots, papaya, pink grapefruit, guava, and watermelon also contribute to dietary intake. Lycopene content of tomatoes can vary significantly, depending on type of tomato and ripening (Stahl and Sies, 2007). Processing of food helps to release lycopene from the food matrix, thus improving accessibility of the lipophilic compound for the formation of lipid micelles together with dietary lipids and bile acids (Stahl and Sies, 2007). Cooking and food processing enhance the bioavailability of carotenoids; e.g., lycopene uptake is higher after ingestion of processed tomatoes (tomato paste) as compared to fresh tomatoes (Ga¨rtner et al., 1997). Carotenoids as anticancer Worldwide, about 10 million cancer diagnoses occur each year, and the number is increasing rapidly. It has been projected that if people were to eat plant-based diets rich in a variety of vegetables (broccoli, carrots, arugula, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, watercress) and fruits (apricots, cantaloupes, mangos, papayas, peaches and persimmons, legumes) and minimally processed starchy staple foods each day, the overall cancer rates could decline by as much as 20% (Basu et al., 2001). A diet that includes a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits, including those that are rich in carotenoids, is a scientifically supportable low-risk strategy that would enable the potential beneficial effects of carotenoids on the risk and progression of cancer to be realized (Rock, 2009). Carotenoids are ubiquitous pigments synthesized by plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria. Scientific interest in dietary carotenoids has increased in recent years because of their beneficial effects on human health, such as lowering the risk of cancer and enhancement of immune system function, which are attributed to their antioxidant potential (Das et al., 2007). Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation (Bhosale and Bernstein, 2005). Fucoxanthin is one of the most abundant carotenoids found in Undaria pinnatifida (Liu et al., 2009) and it distributed on the earth as abundantly as -carotene. Thus, it seems worthy to evaluate its biological activity (Nishino, 1998). There are many researches about this compound on anticancer activities. The apoptosis-inducing effect of fucoxanthin on human leukemia HL-60 cells was investigated (Hosokawa et al., 1999). Fucoxanthin has been shown tumor proliferation in vitro of the human hepatoma SK-Hep-1 cells and murine embryonic liver BNL CL.2 cells (Liu et al., 2009). Furthermore, it induces cells cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in human colon adenocarcinoma WiDr cells (Das et al., 2005), human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells (Das et al., 2008). In addition, fucoxanthin remarkably reduced the viability of human colon cancer cell lines, such as Caco-2, HT-29 and DLD-1 (Hosokawa et al., 2004). Carotenoid as antiobesity effect

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Obesity is defined as accumulation of body fat. Especially, the accumulation of fat around the internal organs is a major risk factor causing many kinds of diseases (Miyashita, 2006). A great deal of interest has been focused on adaptive thermogenesis by uncupling protein (UCP) families (UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3) as a physiological defense against obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes (Jezek, 2002). Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is usually expressed only in brown adipose tissue (BAT) (Maeda et al., 2007) and a key molecule for metabolic thermogenesis to avoid an excess of fat accumulation (Maeda et al., 2005). On the other hand, UCP1 is a key molecule for antiobesity (Miyashita, 2006). UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known as a significant component of whole body energy expenditure and its dysfunction contributes to the development of obesity (Lowel et al., 1993). Maeda et al., (2007a) reported that feeding with fucoxanthin (carotenoid) significantly reduce white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats and mice with a clear expreesion of UCP1 protein and mRNA in WAT, while there was little expression of UCP1 in WAT in mice fed control diet. In addition, the combination of fucoxanthin and fish oil is more effective for attenuating the weight gain of WAT than feeding with fucoxanthin alone (Maeda et a., 2007b). APPLICATION ON FOOD AND NUTRACEUTICAL Traditionally, carotenoids have been used in the feed, food and nutraceutical industries. The recent discoveries of health-related beneficial properties attributed to carotenoids have spurred great interest in the production of structurally diverse carotenoids for pharmaceutical applications (Lee and Schmidt-Dannert, 2002). Currently, carotenoids are used commercially as natural food colorants, nutrient supplement (Bramley, 2003) (Table 3), feed additives (Bhosale and Bernstein, 2005), animal feed supplements and, more recently, as nutraceuticals for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes (Lee and Schmidt-Dannert, 2002). Industrially, carotenoids are used in pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals, and animal feed additives, as well as colorants in cosmetics and foods (Das et al., 2007; Mortensen, 2009) (Table 4). Presently however, only a few carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, capsanthin, lutein, annatto, β-apo-8-carotenal, β-apo-8-carotenal-ester) can be produced commercially by chemical synthesis, fermentation or isolation from the small number of abundant natural sources (Johnson and Schroeder 1995). Commercial production of carotenoids from microorganisms competes mainly with synthetic manufacture by chemical procedures. Efficient stimulation of carotenoid biosynthesis is expected to promote accumulation of carotenoid by microbes (Bhosale, 2004). Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable importance in aquaculture for salmonid and crustacean pigmentation, and are of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical and food industries (Bhosale and Bernstein, 2005). Table 3. Examples of plant extracts used commercially (Bramley, 2003). Plant Carotenoids Use Bixa orellana seeds Bixin, norbixin (annatto) Food colouring Carrot root Carotenes, mainly -carotene Dietary supplement Capsicum annum fruit Capsanthin, capsorubin Food colouring (paprika) Crocus sativus petals Crocin, crocetin (saffron) Food colouring Marigold petals Lutein, zeaxanthin Dietary supplement Tomato fruit Lycopene Dietary supplement Palm oil carotenes Dietary supplement, colouring

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Table 4. Global market for Carotenoids in 2004 and estimatimated global market for 2009 (US$ Million) (Mortensen, 2009). Supplements Food Cosmetics Feed Total 2004 2009 2004 2009 2004 2009 2004 2009 2004 2009 -carotene 125.0 128.0 98.0 103.0 6.0 7.0 13.0 15.0 242.0 253.0 Lycopene 50.5 68.7 3.5 9.3 0 3.0 0 0 54.0 81.0 Astaxanthin 3.5 4.8 0 0 0 0 230.5 252.2 234.0 257.0 Lutein 54.0 85.0 18.0 20.0 0 0 67.0 82.0 139.0 187.0 Zeaxanthin 22.0 35.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22.0 35.0 Canthaxanthin 3.0 3.0 7.0 8.0 0 0 138.0 145.0 148.0 156.0 REFERENCES Aizawa, K and Inakuma, T. (2007). Quantitation of Carotenoids in Commonly Consumed Vegetables in Japan. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 13(3):247-252. Apel, W and Bock, R. (2009). Enhancement of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Transplastomic Tomatoes by Induced Lycopene-to-Provitamin A Conversion1[OA].Plant Physiol. 151: 59–66. DOI: 10.1104/pp.109.140533. Armstrong, G.A. and Hearst, J.E. (1996). Genetics and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis. FASEB J. 10:228-237. Anand, P., Kunnumakara, AB., Sundaram, C., Harikumar, KB.,Tharakan, ST., Lai, OS., Sung, B and Aggarwal, BB. (2008). Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes. Pharmaceutic. Res. 25(9):2097-2116. DOI: 10.1007/s11095-008-9661-9. Basu, HN., Vecchio, AJD., Flider, F and Orthoefer, FT. (2001). Nutritional and Potential Disease Prevention Properties of Carotenoids. JAOCS. 78(7): 665-675. Bhosale, P. (2004). Environmental and cultural stimulants in the production of carotenoids from microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 63: 351–361. DOI 10.1007/s00253-003-1441-1. Bhosale, P and Bernstein, PS. (2005). Microbial xanthophylls. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 68: 445–455. DOI 10.1007/s00253-005-0032-8. Bramley, P. (2003). The genetic enhancement of phytochemicals: the case of carotenoids. In: Phytochemical functional foods. Johnson, I and Williamson, G (Eds.). Ch. 13. Woodhead Publishing Limited. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-1754-1. pp 253-274. Britton, G. (1995). Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. FASEB J. 9: 1551–1558. Carrillo-Lopez, A., Yahia, EM and Ramirez-Padilla, GK. (2010). Bioconversion of Carotenoids in Five Fruits and Vegetables to Vitamin A Measured by Retinol Accumulation in Rat Livers. Am. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 5 (2): 215-221. Canene-Adams, K and Erdman Jr, JW. (2009). Absorption, Transport, Distribution in Tissues and Bioavailability. In: Carotenoids: Nutrition and Helath. Vol.5. Ch.7. Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, F and Pfander, H (Eds.). Birkhauser Verlag Basel, ISBN 978-3-7643-7500-3. pp. 115-148. Das, SK., Hashimoto, T., Shimizu, K., Yoshida, T., Sakai, T., Sowa, Y., Komoto, A and Kanazawa, K. (2005). Fucoxanthin induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in human colon carcinoma cells

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Konishi, I., Hosokawa, M., Sashima, T., Maoka, T and Miyashita, K. (2008). Suppressive Effects of Alloxanthin and Diatoxanthin from Halocynthia roretzi on LPS-induced Expression of Proinflammatory Genes in RAW264.7 Cells. J. Oleo.Sci. 57(3): 181-189. Krinsky NI. Mechanism of action of biological antioxidants. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med 1992;200:248–254. [PubMed: 1579590]. Lee, PC and Schmidt-Dannert, C. (2002). Metabolic engineering towards biotechnological production of carotenoids in microorganisms. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 60:1–11. DOI 10.1007/s00253-0021101-x. Liu, CL., Huang, YS., Hosokawa, M., Miyashita, K and Hu, ML. (2009). Inhibition of proliferation of hepatoma cell line by fucoxanthin in relation to cell cycle arrest and enhanced gap junctional intercellular communication. Chemico-Biol. Interac. 182:165-172. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.08.017. Lowell, BB., S-Susullc, V., Hamann, A., Lawitts, J.A., Himma-Hagen, J., Boyer, BB., Kozak, LP and Flier, JS. (1993). Development of Obesity in trabsgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue. Nature. 366:740-742. Maeda, H., Hosokawa, M., Sahima, T., Funayama, K and Miyashita, K. (2005). Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissue. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 332: 392-397. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.002. Maeda, H., Hosokawa, M., Sashima, T., Funayama, K and Miyashita, K. (2007a). Effect of Medium-chain Triacylglycerols on Anti-obesity Effect of Fucoxanthin. J. Oleo. Sci. 56(12): 615-621. Maeda, H., Hosokawa, M., Sashima, T and Miyashita, K. (2007b). Dietary Combination of Fucoxanthin and Fish Oil Attenuates the Weight Gain of White Adopose Tissue and Decrease Blood Glucose in Obese/Diabetic KK-Ay Mice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 7701-7706. Margalith, PZ. (1999). Production of ketocarotenoids by microalgae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 51: 431-438. Masetto, A., Flores-Cotera, LB., Diaz, C., Langley, E and Sanchez, S. (2001). Application of a Complete Factorial Design for the Production of Zeaxanthin by Flavobacterium sp. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 92(1): 55-58. Misawa, N. (2009). Pathway engineering of plants toward astaxanthin production. Plant. Biotechnol. 26: 93– 99. Miyashita, K. (2006). Seaweed Carotenoid, Fucoxanthin, with Highly Bioactive and Nutritional Activities. J. Mar. Biosci. Biotechnol. 1(1): 48-58. Mortensen, A. (2009). Supplements. In: Carotenoids: Nutrition and Helath. Vol.5. Ch.4. Britton, G., LiaaenJensen, F and Pfander, H (Eds.). Birkhauser Verlag Basel, ISBN 978-3-7643-7500-3. pp. 67-82. Nishino, H. (1998). Cancer prevention by carotenoids. Mutation Res. 402: 159-163. Nelis, JH and DeLeenheer, PA. (1991). Microbial sources of carotenoid pigments used in foods and feeds. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 70: 181-191. Okada, S., Nur-E-Borhan, SA and Yamaguchi, K. (1994). Carotenoid Composition in the Exoskeleton of Commercial Black Tiger Prawns. Fish. Sci. 60(2), 213-215. Okada, T., Nakai, M., Maeda, H., Hosokawa, M., Sashima, T and Miyashita, K. (2008). Suppressive Effect of Neoxanthin on the Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Adipose Cells. J. Oleo.Sci. 57(6): 345-351.

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Park, SY., Nomura, SMY., Murphy, SP., Wilkens, LR., Henderson, BE and Kolonel, LN. (2009). Carotenoid Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. J Epidemiol. 19(2): 63–71. Pisal, DS and Lele, SS. (2005). Carotenoid production from microalga, Dunaliella salina. Indian J. Biotechnol. 4: 476-483. Rock, CL. (2009). Carotenoids and Cancer. In: Carotenoids: Nutrition and Helath. Vol.5. Ch.13. Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, F and Pfander, H (Eds.). Birkhauser Verlag Basel, ISBN 978-3-7643-7500-3. pp. 269-286. Smirnoff, N. (2005). Ascorbate, tocopherol and carotenoids: metabolism, pathway engineering and functions. In. Antioxidants and Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants. Smirnoff, N. (Ed.). Ch.3. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN-13:978-1-4051-2529-1. pp. 53-87. Southon, S and Faulks, R. (2003). Carotenoids in food: bioavailability and functional benefits. In: Phytochemical functional foods. Johnson, I and Williamson, G (Eds.). Ch. 7. Woodhead Publishing Limited. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-1754-1. pp 107-127. Stahl, W an Sies, H. (2003). Antioxidant activity of carotenoids. Mol. Aspects Med. 24: 345-351. DOI: 10.1016/S0098-2997(03)00030-X. Stahl, W and Sies, H. (2007). Carotenoids and Flavonoids Contribute to Nutritional Protection against Skin Damage from Sunlight. Mol. Biotechnol. 37:26–30. DOI 10.1007/s12033-007-0051-z. Sugawara,T., Yamashita, K., Asai, A., Nagao, A., Shiraishi, T., Imai, I and Hirata, T. (2009). Esterification of xanthophylls by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Arch. Biochem. Biophy. 483:205–212. Sugiura, M., Kato, M., Matsumoto, H., Nagao, A and Yano, M. (2002). Serum Concentration of cryptoxanthin in Japan Reflects the Frequency of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu March.) Consumption. J. Health Sci. 48(4): 350-353. Tang, G and Russell, RM. . (2009). Carotenoids as Provitamin A. In: Carotenoids: Nutrition and Helath. Vol.5. Ch.8. Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, F and Pfander, H (Eds.). Birkhauser Verlag Basel, ISBN 978-3-7643-7500-3. pp. 149-172. Thane, C and Reddy, S. (1997). Processing of fruit and vegetables: effect on carotenoids. In. Nutrition and Food Science. MCB Univ. Press. ISSN 0034-6659. pp. 58.65 Tian, B., Xu, Z., Sun, Z., Lin, J and Hua, Y. (2007). Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of carotenoids from Deinococcus radiodurans through targeted mutagenesis, chemiluminescence, and DNA damage analyses. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1770: 902–911. Umeno, D., Tobias, AV and and Arnold, FH. (2005). Diversifying Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathways by Directed Evolution. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 69(1): 51-78. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.69.1.51–78.2005. Yamamizo, C., Kishimoto, S and Ohmiya, A. (2008). Carotenoid composition and carotenogenic gene expression during Ipomoea petal development. J. Experiment. Botany. 61(3): 709–719. DOI:10.1093/jxb/erp335. Yano, M., Kato, M., Ikoma, Y., Kawasaki, A., Fukazawa, Y., Sugiura, M, Matsumoto, H., Oohara, Y., Nagao, A and Ogawa, K. (2005). Quantitation of Carotenoids in Raw and Processed Fruits in Japan. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 11(1): 13-18.

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Hosokawa, M., Wanezaki, S., Miyauchi, K., Kurihara, H., Kohno, H., Kawabata, J., Odashima, S and Takahashi, K. (1999). Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Fucoxanthin on Human Leukemia Cells Line HL-60. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 5(3): 243-246. Yeum, KJ., Aldini, G., Russell, RM and Krinsky, NI. (2009). Antioxidant/Pro-oxidant Actions of Carotenoids. In: Carotenoids: Nutrition and Helath. Vol.5. Ch.12. Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, F and Pfander, H (Eds.). Birkhauser Verlag Basel, ISBN 978-3-7643-7500-3. pp. 235-268. Yonekura, L and Nagao, A. (2009). Soluble Fibers Inhibit Carotenoid Micellization in Vitro and Uptake by Caco-2 Cells. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 73(1): 196-199. DOI: 10.1271/bbb.80510.

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AGROFORESTRY MOVING FOREST TOWARD FOOD SECURITY PROGRAM M. Sambas Sabarnurdin Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada Email: [email protected], [email protected] ABSTRACT Food and fodder products constitute a minor but important contribution of forest to rural life. They demanding a better management handling to be part of attempts to secure national food security. It should be inter sectorally handled instead of forestry alone, since the national rural development is all sectors responsibility. Agroforestry with its characteristics is a suitable technique to serve the objective, while the undergoing social forestry approach is the proper entry point for the intervention. Experiences in Java showed that when we talk about forest anthropogenic disturbances, managing forest resource under heavy population pressure should be practicing an offensive management approach and left the defensive one behind. We always have to put a state forest resource management as part of or in line with national rural development program. Producing food and fodder should always be part of, or built in, the bigger forest management plan. The program should be carried out by cooperation of all sectors involved in rural development, and under good handling by well agroforestry-equipped human resources.

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INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FOOD SECURITY IMPLICATION Masyhuri Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada

ABSTRACT Food security can be defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Three dimensions of food security are food availability, accessibility and affordability. The sources of food availability are domestic production and import. The capability to import depend on the value of export, the amount of import, the availability of world traded food and food price. This paper discusses the international trade for food as a source for the availability of food for domestic consumption. In other words it discusses the relationship between international trade and food security. There are advantageous and disadvantageous of food import. In general, world traded food are thin compared to the domestic consumption, more volatile, subject to uncertain other country policy. It suggest that import can be as source of food security but at minimum level. Keywords: international trade, food security

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LOCAL FOOD AS FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENT TO PROMOTE HEALTH Eni Harmayani Faculty of Agricultural Technology Center for Food and Nutrition Studies Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281

ABSTRACT The term functional food has been defined as any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains. A functional food must remain food and it must demonstrate its effects in amount that can normally be expected to be consumed in the diet. Many chronic and infectious diseases are diet related and may be prevented by optimal food intake. The main categories of functional food ingredients used in functional today include nutrients as well as non-nutrients such as probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, mineral, antioxidants, protein, peptides and amino acids, dietary fibers and phytochemicals. Health beneficial effetcs of functional foods include improving gastro intestinal health, increasing the immune function, improving circulatory system, enhancing bone, teeth and gum health, lowering serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Ordinary food can be modified to become functional foods by addition of functional food ingredients. Functional food ingredients, which naturally present in food, can be produced through enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, extraction, physical and biochemical reaction, or combination of those processes. Our previous study indicated that some local foods are good sources of bioactive components and potential to be developed as functional foods. Thus, identifying, characterizing and developing local foods as functional food is very strategic research for increasing their utilization and improving quality of life of the local community. Recent advances on functional foods research have been specifically targeted to meet the need of pregnant mother, infant, children, adult and elderly. Keywords: functional food, local food, ingredients, processing, health benefits. Introduction The term functional foods was first introduced in Japan in mid-1980s.It refers to foods containing ingredients that aid specific body functions in addition to being nutritious.A foods can be regarded as ‗functional‘ if it is demonstrated to affect one or more target functions in the body either an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. The Institute of Medicine‘s Food and Nutrition Board defined functional foods as: ―any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains.‖Functional foods must remain foods. They are not pills or capsules.They must demonstrate their effects in amounts that can normally be expected to be consumed in the diet. Type of Functional Foods Type of health claims relevant to functional food were : 1. TYPE A: "Enhanced function" that refer to specific physiological, psychological functions and biological activities beyond their established role in growth, development and other normal functions of the body.

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2. TYPE B "Reduction of disease-risk" that might help reduce the risk of a specific disease or condition because of specific nutrients or non-nutrients contained within it The main categories of ingredients used in Functional Food are: Probiotics Prebiotics Vitamins Mineral Antioxidants Protein, peptides and amino acids Dietary fibers Phytochemicals. Color Code Groups of Fruits and Vegetables Color Phytochemical Red Lycopene Red/Purple Orange Orange/Yellow Yellow/green Green

Anthocyanins & Polyphenols Alpha & Beta carotene Beta-cryptoxanthin & Flavanoids Luteine & Zeaxanthin Glucosinolates & Indoles

White/Green

Allyl Sulphide

Fruits and Vegetables Tomatoesandtomatoes products Grapes, Purple sweet potatoes Carrots, Mangoes, Pumpkin Papaya Oranges Spinach, Avocado Brocoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower Onion, Garlic, Leeks

Food products regarded as Functional Foods 1. Carbohydrate modified products with low glycemic index 2. Low-fat products to reduce the risk of obesity 3. New food products enriched with antioxidants, such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids and polyphenols 4. Fatty acid composition (ω-3 fatty acids, sterols) to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis 5. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of pre- and probiotics) to improve the gut health Health Beneficial Effects of Functional Foods 1. Improving gastro intestinal health, 2. Increasing the immune function, 3. Improving circulatory system, 4. Enhancing bone, teeth and gum health, 5. Lowering serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Production Of Functional Foods A food product can be made functional by using any of these approaches: 1. Eliminating a component known to cause or identified as causing a deleterious effect when consumed (eg, an allergenic protein).

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2) Increasing the concentration of a component naturally present in food to a point at which it will induce predicted effects (eg, fortification with a micronutrient or a nonnutritive component to a level known to produce a beneficial effect) 3) Adding a component that is not normally present in most foods (eg, nonvitamin antioxidant or prebiotic fructans). 4) Replacing a component, usually a macronutrient (eg, fats), which has deleterious effects, by a component for which beneficial effects have been shown (eg, chicory inulin). 5) Increasing bioavailability or stability of a component known to produce a functional effect or to reduce the disease-risk potential of the food. How Foods Are Modified To Become Functional Foods Food modification

Examples of possible functionality

Addition of phytochemicals (as plant ingredients or extract)

Lower risk of heart attack, lower risk of some cancers, enhanced immune system

Addition of bioactive

Enhanced immune function, enhanced bioavailability of minerals, hypotensive

Addition of dietary

Prevention of constipation, lower risk of colon cancers, lowering of blood cholesterol

Addition of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

Antioxidant, lower risk of CHD, lower risk of cancer, lower blood pressure

Addition of probiotics

Improved gastrointestinal function, enhanced immune system, lower risk of colon cancer

Addition of prebioitics

Improved gastrointestinal function, enhanced immune system, lower risk of colon cancer

peptides

fiber

Most Likely to Buy FunctionalFoods In Europe? 1. 25% of Europeans buy organic milk regularly –Denmark tops regional ranking with 45% buying organic milk regularly 2. 38% of Belgians regularly purchase cholesterol reducing oils and margarines 3. 42% of Irish consumers regularly buy yogurts with acidophilus cultures/probiotics 4. 26% of Irish buy milk with added supplements/ vitamins regularly 5. Over 60% of Danish and Swedish consumers buy whole grain, high fibre products regularly 6. 25% of Germans and Austrians buy fruit juices with added supplements regularly (Nielsen, 2007)

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Functional Food Market In Indonesia Volume and value of inulin import in Indonesia 2004-2009

Nilai

Nilai Import Inulin Tahun 2004 - 2009 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 -

Nilai (US$)

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Tahun

(Source : Biro Pusat Statistik, 2010) Potential Utilization of Local Food for Functional Food Our previous study indicated that some local foods are good sources of bioactive components and potential to be developed as functional foods.Many kinds of tuber and root richs of complex carbohydrate and low GI. Contain of oligosaccharides and dietary fiber act as prebiotics. Prebiotics is defined asA non-digestible component that has beneficial effects by stimulating the growth of bacteria in the colon.Food ingredient to be classified as a prebiotic, it must not be hydrolyzed or absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract; be a selective substrate for one or a limited number of potentially beneficial bacteria in the colon, thus stimulating the bacteria to grow, become metabolically activated or both; and be able, as a consequence, to alter the colonic microflora toward a healthier composition.The most common prebiotic ingredients include : fructooligosaccharides (FOS), short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, oligofructose, other indigestible oligosaccharides and derivatives from lactitol, which is a hydrogenated lactose.Dietary fibers also act as prebiotics, as they resist absorption in the small intestine and can be hydrolyzed and fermented (partial or total) by the bacteria in the large bowel. Inulin and oligofructose show selective stimulation in the growth of beneficial gut flora, including lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Harmayani et al. (2009) evaluated Immunostimulation Effect of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L) and the results showed arrowroot starch enhanced IgM production of HB4C5 cells and obviously accelerated Ig and IFN- production of mice splenocytes in vitro. Kumalasari and Harmayani (2009) also evaluated the effect of diet supplemented with arrowroot flour on bacterial, physical and chemical properties in rats digesta. Results of the researh showed Water content depend on type and amount of dietary fiber. ARF &ARC containing higher soluble and insoluble fiber: the increasing viscosity was higher than water holding capacity increasing. Diet with the arrowroot flour decreased pH value of rat colon, enhanced concentrations and molar proportion of SCFA and

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increased water content of digesta. It can be concluded that supplementation of arrowroot powder in the diet improved physico-chemical properties of rat digesta toward healthy colon. Other Local Foods For Functional Foods 1. Spices and herbs: turmeric, ginger, garlic, onion, chili 2. Tropical Fruits: mango, papaya, banana, orange, 3. Soy and soy products 4. Roots and tubers: gembili, ganyong, sweet potato 5. Fermented food: tape, tempe, dadih, tempoyak 6. Vegetables Conclusions a. Development of Functional Food must based on reliable scientific evidence b. Consumers are increasingly seeking functional food for their health and well being c. Food consumption may not universal, need to consider local aspect and must be integrated to cultural and habitual dietary pattern. d. Local foods have potential utilization as functional food and beneficial to the public and food industry

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PUBLIC HEALTH OF ANIMAL FOOD IN INDONESIA Bambang Sumiarto Department of Veterinary Public Health Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia. Fax.: 62 274 560861, Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT Professional veterinary manpower is a primary importance for successful application of strategies, measures and methods to promote, protect, and restore for both health of animal human population. About 9/10 of known communicable disease of animals are not obligatorily notiffiable and therefore uncontrolled and could propagate feely. A shortage of qualified public service is affecting control of animal health and veterinary public health to the national livestock development. Establishing more holistic approaches the preventing epidemic disease and maintaining ecosystem integrity for benefit of humans, their domesticated animals, and the foundational biodiversity. Food products could transmit disease to human through microbial contaminants/residues (Food Borne Disease) and infections that is naturally transmissible from animals to humans (Zoonoses) via meat, milk, egg, and fish. Safety of products derived from food producing animals, begins which are from good of animal health, farm sanitary, food processing, and food market sanitary. Keywords: Animal food, Food safety, Zoonoses, and Food borne disease INTRODUCTION One of the important parameters relation to the progress of a country is not only measured by the ability to provide food (food security), but also a food guarantee (food safety). Public professional veterinary manpower is a primary principle in order to promote, protect, and restore the health of animal and human population. As we know, about 9/10 of known communicable disease of animals are not obligatorily notiffiable and therefore uncontrolled and could propagate freely. Major Changes in the World Affects of Animal Health and Veterinary Public Health is human population will be doubling in 2015 and people live in urban areas increased from 37 % (1990) to 52 % (2020). It has long been known that 60 % of known human infectious diseases originated from animals (whether domestic or wild), and about 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonoses (Abila and Stratton, 2010). The Veterinary Services should be set up, in order control livestock diseases in the animal population. There was an emphasis on prevention and control of the major epizootic diseases of livestock and of diseases that could affect humans (zoonotic diseases). The role of the veterinary services has traditionally extended from the farm to slaughterhouse, were veterinarians have a dual responsibility, that epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases and ensuring the safety and suitability of animal product. The education and training of animal health personnel and community, which includes both animal health (zoonoses) and food hygiene component, make them to play a central role ensuring food safety of animal origin (Slorach, 2008). Zoonotic Diseases

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Many of the world‘s newly recognized diseases are zoonoses. A zoonoses or zoonotic disease is one that normally exists in animals, but can infect humans. Human illness from a zoonotic disease agent is often accidental. Reports of some zoonoses have increased because the viral or bacterial disease agent was accidentally spread from one part of the world to another (Anonymous, 2010). World Health Organization estimates that more than 75 out of 100 possible human infections transmitted to humans directly or indirectly through a vector, or directly through food and water, or environmental contamination. Zoonotic pathogens, especially viruses and protozoa estimated 3 times greater incidence associated with the emergence of new zoonotic disease compared with non-zoonotic pathogens (Hathaway, 1991). Many factors led to the emerging and re-emerging of zoonotic diseases and generally can be categorized into four groups, namely 1) change of ways to breed, changing patterns of international trade in animals and their products, changing consumer habits, and pleasure trips. Examples are the digestive bacteria such as E. coli O157: H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, 2) changing in environmental conditions, including climate and natural disasters affect the reservoir, vector, and host. For example pathogens of arthropods, such as rift valley fever, Japanese encephalitis B, and Nipah virus infections, 3) new genetic pathogen, occurs through adaptation, mutation, recombination of new species. Examples of BSE and variant CJD, and 4) the factor of human population, including parents and children, pregnant women, people with immunosuppressive diseases. Examples of HIV/AIDS in developing country have a high risk of zoonotic disease infection (Anonymous, 2005). Veterinary Public Health activities in the future are influenced by fundamental changes in the demographic, social, political, economic, and environmental. These changes include an increasing population and urbanization. Human population expected to increase two times of the year 1990 - 2015, an increase in population especially in developing countries. In addition, it is estimated by 2020 over 50 % of the human population be resettled in urban areas. This displacement occurs continuously and can not be controlled. They move with the animal or bring habitual ways of preparing food. In addition, the expansion of the city led to a wild animal will affect human health (Anonymous, 2002). Development processing plant of animal origin is a cause of threat for the human food chain, especially the increase in the prevalence of bacteria that cause digestive disorders. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., E. coli O157: H7, or Listeria spp. become endemic in poultry and cattle. Budiharta research results (1988) showed that the cows are slaughtered in Yogyakarta abattoir 11 % reacted to one or more Leptospira serovar and isolation from the bladder to produce 10 % insulation level. Sumiarto (1990) research showed that the Leptospira javanica (3.8 %) at 1:100 solutions was found in workers who work more than 20 years. The use of drugs is to cause residue in milk and meat. Eradicate enteric bacteria from animals seem to be impractical for the current situation. But improved hygiene, biosecurity, food safety and vaccination strategy is supported by the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is required for food security (Anonymous, 2005). Nurwati (2000) reported that consumption of pasteurized milk, especially for the Yogyakarta community should caution against the threat of infection of E. coli O157: H7. This is due to local isolates of E. coli O157: H7 in milk is more heat resistant than isolate the United States. Animal Production Food Safety in Indonesia Increased revenue in many countries significantly lead to increased trade in food of animal origin and animal feed. Increased trade has led to the spread of zoonotic pathogens, toxins, drug residues, and other chemical residues. Believe in self-examination in the exporting country will be able to provide food security. Exporting countries must implement food safety programs under the WTO and international agreements. International trade based on risk analysis is now an acceptance of the principle of food of

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animal origin in a country. Therefore, the Directorate General of Animal Husbandry is the fundamental need to change the function and organization to deal with free trade (Murray, 2002). In most developing countries, like Indonesia, is less in the application of laws and regulations. Application of regulations and laws will ensure the country in order to implement control and eradication of zoonotic diseases. This includes the identification of individuals and flocks, movement control of animals, the registration records of sales, abattoir monitoring against specific diseases, as well as vaccinations and testing of vaccines. While in Indonesia, there are veterinary regulations, compliance is always uncertain and subjective, causing very difficult to control zoonotic diseases. Cooperation between departments in the future must be considered for the development and application scope of Veterinary Public Health. It should be improved communication between health and agriculture professionals in their respective roles and equality priorities (O‘Mahony, 2005). The ability to face future challenges Veterinary Public Health is highly dependent on basic research and applications. The government is expected to stimulate a problemoriented research, and coordinating and communicating research results to its users. Research has been done by consumer protection Widarto (2004), the study results showed that the prevalence of residual formaldehyde on chicken meat and chicken traders at the South Jakarta 28.7 % and 30.4 %, respectively. This challenge required the development of Veterinary Public Health is to train future veterinarians to become meat inspectors and auditors at the current time in the future, mastering international trade politics, control the import and export risk assessment of food of animal origin, understanding food of animal origin disease outbreak investigation, and understanding hygiene-sanitation based on risk analysis (Quisumbing, 1996). Veterinarians also need to be trained to be able to understand and master the basic principles of epidemiology and the epidemiology of food of animal origin. Food of animal origin is able to handle problems and dangers, understand the risk assessment and proactive maintenance of pets looking for a relationship between the Veterinary Public Health and clinical practice. In addition, in developing relations profession, veterinarians are also required to master the food of animal origin disease, veterinary economics, rural communication, and the dangers of zoonotic diseases (Waltners-Toews, 2005). The Quantitative epidemiological research of VTEC in dairy cows had been done by Sumiarto (2003a and 2003b). The results showed that the prevalence of VTEC in the province of Central Java and Yogyakarta was 27.4 % in cattle and 53.5 % in farmers. Temanggung district had the highest prevalence of VTEC (37.5 %) and on the contrary the city of Semarang had the lowest prevalence (10.6 %) due to much better the management of farm. CONCLUSION A shortage of qualified public service veterinarians is affecting the control of animal health and veterinary public health to protection and development of the national livestock husbandry. Ensure the safety and suitability of meat from food-producing animal. It should be remembered that safety of products derived from food producing animals begins at the farm level with good sanitary, good animal health, food process, and sanitary of food market. REFERENCES Abila, R. A and Stratton J., 2010. OIE Activity to Strengthen Veterinary Governance and Legislation in South East Asia. Paper presented at the 1st Conggress of South East Asia Veterinary School Association (SEAVSA): Animal Health and Production for Better ASEAN Quality of Life, Bogor Agricultural Center, IPB, Indonesia, pp. 1 – 5.

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Anonymous, 2002. Future Trends in Veterinary Public Health. Report of a WHO Study Group, WHO Technical Report Series, 907, Geneva Anonymous, 2005. Veterinary Public Health E-Conference. http://www.fao.org/ag/agah/ VPHeconf /background.htm, pp 1 – 35. Anonymous, 2010. Zoonotic Disease. Department of Health and Senior Services. State of Missouri, USA. Budiharta, S., 1988. Leptospirosis pada Sapi di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Bulletin FKH UGM, Vol. VIII No. 1, 13 – 16. Hathaway, S.C., 1991. The Application of Risk Assessment Methods in Making Veterinary Public Health and Animal Health Decision. Rev. Sci Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 10 (1) 215 – 231. Murray, N., 2002. Import Risk Analysis: Animals and Animals Products. New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Wellington, New Zealand. Nurwati, M., 2000. Daya Tahan Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolat Lokal dalam Susu dan Daging Sapi yang Dimasak. Tesis Program Studi Sain Veteriner. Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. O‘Mahony, M., 2005. Making Veterinary Public Health ―sexy‖. The Vet. Record., Vol. 157, No.10. Quisumbing, A., 1996. Women, Livestock and Family Food Security. In: Miller B., ed. Symphosium on Human Nutrition and Livestock in the Developing World. Little Rock, AR., Heifer Project International, pp. 121 – 132. Slorach, S. A., 2008. The Role of the Veterinary Services in Food Safety. Bulletin OIE No. 2008 – 1. Animal Production Food Safety. pp. 3 – 4. Sumiarto, B., 1990. Prevalensi Serologis terhadap Leptospira Pekerja Rumah Potong Hewan Kotamadya Yogyakarta, Proyek DPP FKH – UGM tahun 1989/1990. Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan UGM. Sumiarto, B., 2003a. Analisis Faktor-faktor Infeksi Escherichia coli O157:H7 pada Peternakan Sapi Perah Rakyat di Kabupaten Sleman. J. Sain Vet. Vol XXI No. 1. Sumiarto, B., 2003b. Epidemiologi Verotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (VTEC) pada Sapi Perah di Propinsi Jawa Tengah dan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta: Kajian Tingkat Ternak. J. Sain Vet., Vol. XXII, No. 2. Waltners-Toews, D., 2005. Veterinary Public Health.www.dmed.slu.ve/VPH/VPH-Waltner-Toews.pdf., hal: 6 – 19. Widarto, 2004. Kajian Lintas Seksional Residu Formalin pada Daging Ayam di Jakarta Selatan. Tesis Program Studi Sain Veteriner. Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

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FOOD SECURITY ON ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN INDONESIA Adiarto Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta Abstract In general definition, food security means that people could easily or have capability to access the healthy food at the sufficient amount according to the requirement of standard health. Indonesia as a big country with total human population more than 200 million people, food security becomes important issues in the national development program, and become critical when food security could not well maintained. Even this country has been declared as a agricultural country, but some important commodities of food, especially food from animal origin, such as meat and milk, in fact is still imported at the big amount, as big as 36% for meat and 70% for milk of the need. The low production for those two important commodities are mainly caused by some important factors like low genetic potential of endogenous animals, low population and productivity either beef cattle or dairy animals as foundation stock, problem of tropical environment, low feed quality, as well as lack of supporting policy from the government. However, recently the production of poultry meat and eggs are sufficient to fulfill the national need, but it is poor, that its performance has not been linearly supported by availability of production inputs that produced by the country itself, but must be imported such as high genetic resources of poultry, feed ingredients such as : soybean meal, fish meal, and feed supplement, as well as animal drugs. Indonesia with wide range of land area around 1.919.440 Km2 and consisting of 13.000 islands, distribution may become problem when some area far away from center of animal produced, hence the supply become shorter and the price is more expensive. Key words : Food security, Animal product, Indonesia INTRODUCTION Food security could generally be defined as a condition when people are able to access food easily in the sufficient amount according to the standard requirement for healthy life. According to FAO (1996), food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. From the Declaration of Rome on World Food Security (FAO,1996) stated that poverty is a major cause of food insecurity, that is way poverty eradication is critical to improve access to food. It is untolerable when a lot of people, particularly in developing countries, do not have enough food to meet their basic nutritional need. A peaceful and stable environment in every country is a fundamental condition for the attainment of sustainable food security. Governments are responsible for creating an enabling environment for private and group initiatives to devote their skills, efforts and resources, and in particular investment, towards the common goal of food for all. Poverty, hunger and malnutrition are some of the principal causes of accelerated migration from rural to urban areas in developing countries. Food security is given high priority in Indonesia through the formulation and synchronization with agreement on Millineum Development Goals (MDGs), in particular 48

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MDG1, on reducing poverty and hunger by 50% per cent by 2015, compared to 1990 levels. In order to implement above-mentioned programme, the government established a Food Security Council (DKP) through Presidential Decree (keppres) No. 132/2001. The task of DKP are (a) to formulate a national food security policy which covers the aspects of availability, distribution, consumption, quality, nutrition, and fiood safety, and (b) to implement evaluation and management towards national food security stabilization (Rusastra et.al, 2008). Livestock production constitutes a very important component in promoting the food security as a source of high quality protein food, that become the major handicap in most developing countries, because of low level of its consumption as showed in Table 1. below. Table 1. Per Capita Consumption of Meat, Milk and Fish in 1990 Region Meat Milk Fish (kg/year) World 32.9 75.0 13.1 Developed 81.6 200.0 26.8 Developing 17.7 36.6 8.8 Africa 11.4 27.5 8.0 Latin America 41.1 93.9 8.6 Near East 19.6 60.7 4.4 Far East 15.1 27.0 9.4 Source: FAO Agrostat, 1992 (in Sansoucy, R). Intake per capita of animal products in developing countries compared with that in developed countries showed significantly different, developed countries consuming more than people in developing countries. An enormous number of poor people in developing countries cannot afford to include animal products in their diets, they are vegetarians by necessity rather than by choice. Indonesian people, according to Widyakarya Nasional Pangan dan Gizi VIII (WNPG) year 2004 have been encouraged to consume energy and protein at the level of 2.000 kcal/capita/day and 52 gram/capita/day respectively, even standard consumption protein has been fulfilled, but mostly not from animal products origin (Rusestra et. al, 2008) Above figure compared to current situation under Indonesian`s condition in fact is still comparable as figured by Table 2. Table 2. Comparison of Food Consumption` Suggests and Actual (1999-2005) in Indonesia No Group of Food Suggestion Actual Consumption (kcal/capita/day) 1999 2002 2003 2004 2005 1 Paddy 1000 1240 1253 1252 1248 1241 2 Tubers 120 69 70 66 77 73 3 Animal`s Food 240 88 117 138 134 139 4 Oil + Fat 200 171 205 195 195 199 5 Oily 60 41 52 56 47 51 Fruits+Seed 6 Beans 100 54 62 62 64 67 7 Sugar 100 92 96 101 101 99 8 Vegetables + 120 70 78 90 87 93 Fruits 9 Others 60 26 53 32 33 35 Total 2000 1851 1986 1992 1986 1997 Score of 100 66.3 72.6 77.5 76.9 79.1 targeted food pattern (PPH)

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Source : Susenas (Processed by Bappenas, 2007) Table 2. shows that in average Indonesian`s people consume over energy from carbohydrate food (paddy) more than standard, but very low, food from animal products origin as a source of high quality protein. There is considerable potential for increasing consumption and, hence, production of animal products (milk and meat) in these countries. Animal products are primarily a source of proteins and essential amino acids, but when they are a major constituent of the human diet they also contribute a significant proportion of total calories. In developed countries they provide more than 30 percent of calories in the diet (Figure 2). In developing countries, however, this proportion is less than 10 percent, but they are a source of essential amino acids that balance the largely vegetable-based proteins. In developed countries, about 60 percent of the dietary protein supply is derived from animal products, which is higher than necessary for essential amino acids (Figure 1). This figure is only 22 percent in developing countries, which is less than desirable and takes no account of the skewed distribution in favour of the middle classes - the poor actually have a much lower protein intake. In these countries, where diets are composed of only a small number of staple foods, animal products are of great importance in preventing malnutrition as they are concentrated sources of the limited essential amino acids available in vegetable proteins of staple foods. Note from R. Sansoucy, Senior Officer, FAO Feed Resource Group, that human and livestock populations have both grown considerably over the last three decades, although at different rates (Table. 3) The major differences are found between developed and developing countries. Since 1960 the total human population has increased by 75 percent, but developing-country populations have grown by 97 percent, compared with 28 percent in the industrialized world. All categories of livestock have increased in number as well, with a much greater increase for monogastric animals (pigs and poultry) than for ruminants. Ruminant populations have grown at about half the rate of the human population, while small ruminant populations (sheep and goats) have only increased in developing countries. The pig and poultry populations, however, have grown about oneand-a-half to two times that of the human population, and are three to four times greater in developing countries than they are in developed countries. The world population is expected to increase from 5.4 billion to at least 7.2 billion within the next two decades, mainly in developing countries. This increase in human population, with the resulting increase in pressure on land and changes in composition of the livestock population, will have a major effect on both available natural resources and future demand for commodities, and this will consequently determine the type of livestock feeding and production systems to be adopted. Table 3. Trends and projections in food production in developing countries Product Production (million tonnes) Growth rate (%) 1969/71 1988/90 2010 197019901990 2010 Wheat 67 132 205 3.8 2.1 Rice 177 303 459 3.0 2.0 Milk 78.0 147.3 247.6 3.5 2.5 Meat 28.5 64.8 143.0 4.6 3.8 Eggs 4.6 15.3 Fish 16.4 35.1 Source: FAO, 1993c. (In R. Sansoucy) By the year 2010, animal products are expected to contribute proportionally much more to the food supply than they do at present, since income determines the protein intake of people, particularly in urban areas. Of the different animal species, meat production 50

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from monogastric animals (poultry and pigs) has increased at a much higher rate than that from either small ruminants (sheep and goats) or large ruminants (cattle and buffaloes). While in 1970 ruminant and monogastric meat production rates were approximately equal, it is expected that by 2010 monogastrics may produce 2.4 times more meat than ruminants, providing that feed is available and affordable. There is challenged in developing animal production for food, that has been expressed on a number of important issues as follows : Competition with alternative land uses and with the use of cereals (and some roots and tubers) as animal feed or for human consumption. Competition for carbohydrate and protein sources. Inability to meet national targets for animal proteins. Only a few large investments in livestock development projects have been marginally successful in increasing productivity and these have had a limited impact on agriculture. Inadequate demonstration of how livestock can play a key role in the development of sustainable agriculture in different agro-ecosystems, and the failure to transfer appropriate technologies. In particular, most of the increase in animal products has come from an increase in animal numbers rather than from an increase in individualanimal productivity. Resource degradation and environmental damage caused by deforestation, overgrazing and pollution. Contribution to global warming (methane from ruminants represents 2.5 percent of total greenhouse gases). Pollution from concentrations of intensive animal production enterprises. Livestock Production in Indonesia Indonesia with more than 200 million people becomes one of developing country that start Improving its living standard with the focus on increasing consumption high quality food, namely from animal product origin, such as milk, meat, and eggs. Recently, the average of milk consumption is still low as much as 10-11 kg/capita/year compared to other Asean countries, even the lowest among them. According to Department of Industry Republic Indonesia (2008), the consumption of fresh milk in Indonesia is very low close to only 18%, far lower comparing to India (98%), Thailand (88%), and China (76.5%). According to the report of USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (2009) because of economic growth of Indonesian people at level of 5.5 percent in 2010, combined with a stable political outlook, and a growing awareness of the health, the national demand of milk will dramatically increased. National meat demand is supplied by both sources, namely meat from ruminant livestock, mostly cattle with moderate supply from small ruminant livestock, such as goat and sheep and poultry meat mostly broiler meat and in small till moderate quantity of other poultry sources, such as native chicken and ducks. The developing of animal production in Indonesia is backboned by small scale farmer or backyard farmer with more than 90% belongs to, especially one who raising large ruminant animals such as beef cattle, dairy cattle, buffalo as well as small ruminant animals like goat and sheep. The background of those policy is simple, for giving a chance to the people in rural area to get a job. It means that above kind of livestock are managed by backyard farmers with the characteristics as follows: (1) small ownership of land area, (2) low capital investment, (3) simple practicing in management, (4) low productivity of livestock, and (5) lack support from the government. This government`s policy brings the consequency that the animal production performances are not able to fulfill the demand either for beef or milk because of low productivity of those animals. Milk Production Since 1979 the dairy industry in Indonesia has been implemented using Holstein Friesian (HF) as foundation stock through importation in huge amount mostly from

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Australia and New Zealand. The choosing of those kind of breed like other Southeast Asia countries as well, is based on simple idea that HF breed is one of breed could easily adapt in the tropical environment, as well as high milk producer. In fact, that tropical area with high air temperature and humidity actually physiologically is not really suitable for HF as temperate breed origin. A lot of problems have been especially faced by the backyard dairy farmer, at least the production performance of their own cows are very low, with average of milk production 8-10 litre per day or less than 3.000 litre/lactation and still accompanied by low reproduction performance of animal. Recently, Indonesia is only 25% self sufficient on milk or equal to 679.200 ton of milk produced per year by the farmer and the rest must be fulfilled by importation in form of skim milk powder, whole milk powder, and milk anhydrous milk fat. The sharing of national fresh milk production on national milk demand shows a continuously decreasing trend from year 2003 to 2007 as indicated in Table 1. below Table 4. Sharing of Fresh Milk and Imported Milk Toward Milk Consumption 2003 2004 2005 2006 National Population of People 215 218 220 222 (Million) Fresh Milk Production (000 466,50 463,60 451.80 519.70 Ton) Net Milk Import (000 Ton) 967.55 1.605.22 1.594.20 1.804.60 Milk Consumption 6.67 9.49 9.30 10.47 (kg/capita/year) Total Consumption (Ton) 1.434.05 2.068.82 2.046.10 2.324.40 % Fresh Milk Toward 32.50 22.40 22.10 22.40 Consumption % Milk Import Toward 67.50 77.60 77.90 77.60 Consumption Source : Department of Industry Republic of Indonesia (2008)

2007 224 536.90 1.808.40 10.47 2.345.30 22.90 77.10

Table 4. above shows that even the consumption of milk is still low, but importation of milk tend to increase continously from year to year to fulfill the national need. When the performance of national dairying does not able to be improved significantly and the milk production remain stable, the dependency of milk on import will be greater and greater and self sufficiency on milk becomes lesser and lesser , and finally Indonesia is going to be faced on food trap.of milk. Above figure agreed to the statement of Rusastra (2008) that import dependency ratio (IDR) of milk is approached to 100%, as indication of low stability of availability due to weakness of government support and incentives granted to local milk producers. The national production of fresh milk in year 2008, 2009 are 1.2 million liter/day (48.000 metric tons), and 1.3 million liter/day (56.000 metric tons) respectively and it fulfills only 25 percent of national demand even with average milk consumption of 10.3 kg/capita annually, relatively lower than other Asean countries. Growth in domestic fresh milk production will remain limited because of several fundamental factors such as limited farmer education, high price of dairy cattle feed, poor farm management practice, limited access to high-quality genetics, limited access to bank loans etc. Beef Production According to the data released by Directorate General of Livestock, the size of the beef cattle population is believed to have reached 12.6 million heads according to preliminary estimates. Around 44% of the cattle population is in Java, with the province of East Java remaining the most populated area, comprising 27% of the total national cattle population.The rapid growth in national beef demand, which could not be entirely matched by domestic production, has encouraged the government to import beef, either in the form 52

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of live cattle and boxed beef. The live cattle imports have grown steadily by compounded average annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16% from 2003 to 2009. In 2009 the imports of live cattle rose by 26% to 765.000 heads. At the same time, beef and offal imports have also been increasing. They rose by 20% to 110.000 tons in 2009. The increase in beef and offal imports are driven by demand for cheaper imported beef as a result of global economic crisis which has created an over supply of beef from Australia and New Zealand (Comfeed, 2009). With increases in the people`s incomes, the government has introduced a selfsufficiency program for beef that aims to raise the annual beef production from 400.000 tons in 2009 to 550.000 tons in 2014. To achieve beef self –sufficiency, the key success factor is to increase the number of productive breeding herd. Realizing the complexity and high capital requirement to build up the breeding herd, the government is encouraging large private enterprises to participate and develop cattle breeding by providing low interest loan under the KUPS (Kredit Usaha Pembibitan Sapi) program. The success of this program will reduce dependency of cattle import and also form strong partnership between private entities and farmers through the provision of quality breeder with better calving rate and better progeny (Comfeed, 2009). Poultry Production Those figure is much different comparing to the activity of poultry production using hybrid species for layer to produce eggs and broiler to produce meat, that are mostly done by modern management which characterized by intensive management system with high technology and operational input funding. The association of Poultry Breeding Producers forecasts an 8% increase in the production of broiler DOC to 1,24 billion bird in 2010 on the back of higher expected economic growth. Broiler meat production increase by 5% in 2009 to 1.08 million tons from 1.02 million tons in 2008. As for the broiler population, it was up 3.1% compared to the population in the previous year. In Indonesia, per capita broiler meat consumption has been increasing in line with the gains in per capita income. Consumers` strong preferences for broiler meat is reflected in the fact that around 47% of Indonesia`s meat production in 2009 was chicken meat, far ahead of beef which was in second place, at just 19% of Indonesia`s total meat production. In the period of 2005-2009, the average per capita income rose 17% each year compared to the yearly consumption growth of 6.4%. The relatively low level of consumption per capita of 5.5 kg suggests that the prospects for the country`s poultry industry are very bright (Comfeed,2009). Challenging of Food Security on Animal Products in Indonesia Indonesia belongs to developing country with high population, about more than 200 million people and only low income per capita in average. This country has a specific geographical condition, consisting of thousand islands and 70% of the population are living in Java Island, hence one becomes centre of economic activities. From the data, food security of animal products is under those condition becomes complex, in term of aspect availability, accessibility, as well as distribution of food. Availability of food is corresponding to the ability to produce, but in fact the importation of two important commodities, namely milk and beef are still highly depending, even the level of consumption are still low as a result of low productivity of animals with some reasons. Weakness in accessibility is clear because of low income of most people, so that the dietary energy fulfillment is coming from carbohydrate and there is no wonder when Indonesia people consuming very high rice, far than recommended by score of targeted food pattern (PPH) and enhance the low rank of Human Development Index (HDI) in rank of 111 out of 175 countries (Rusastra et. al, 2008). Sansoucy of FAO stated that many of problems in animal production development in developing country are a result of the inability to identify appropriate technologies and

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define strategies for livestock development that are applicable to individual agroecosystems. Often, technology is transferred from developed countries unmodified, rather than generating appropriate technologies within the developing countries themselves. Imported technologies have almost always failed to overcome the constraints imposed on local farming systems or to meet the socio-economic requirements of the local farmers. From experience, lack of responsible in implementing the program often dominate unsuccessfully result of target program, even in implementation has been considered by using of appropriate technology. Whatever, high dependency on importation of animal products must be formulated as challenging of this country to work harder and more serious, moreover some potencies, such as high human and natural resources are suitable. The government must look forward to this advantages in this country. CONCLUSION Food of animal product origins, such as meat, milk, and eggs are extremely important and must be available on the table to formulate the balance diet for driving healthy, strong, and smart people. Food security in Indonesia should be positioned as human investment for encouraging achievement of national prosperity in the future. The government should develop serious plan on the food security program, through improvement the productivity of livestock performance in Indonesia, hence the high dependency on food importation is reduced gradually. REFERENCES FAO, 1996. Rome Declaration Summit, World Food Summit, Rome Italy Bappenas, 2008. Rencana Aksi Nasional Pangan dan Gizi 2006-2010. Direktorat Industri Minuman dan Tembakau, 2008. Kebijakan Model Pengembangan Industri Pengolahan Susu, Departemen Perindustrian Republik Indonesia PT Japfa Comfeed Indonesia Tbk (Persero), 2009. Annual Report. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, 2008. Gain Report :Indonesia Dairy and Product Annual 2008 Rusastra, I.W., T.A. Napitupulu, and R. Bourgeois, 2008. The Impact of Support for Import on Food Security in Indonesia, UNESCAP-CAPSA. R. Sansoucy, ….Livestock - a driving force for food security and sustainable development. FAO Animal Production and Health Division

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CLIMATE MODELING FOR DETERMINING RICE PLANTING TIME IN EAST JAVA Armi Susandi1, Mamad Tamamadin2 Expert Group of Atmospheric Sciences Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung 40132 Indonesia Phone/Fax. (022) 2500494/ (022) 2534139 Email: [email protected], [email protected] 2 Graduate Program of Earth Science Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung 40132 Indonesia Phone/Fax. (022) 2500494/ (022) 2534139 Email: [email protected], [email protected] 1

ABSTRACT Time to start rice planting is strongly influenced by the rainy season. Shift in the rainy season may make it difficult for farmers in determining the accurate time to start rice planting. As a result, farmers will probably fail in their agricultural production. In addition, if rainfall occurs in the extreme condition, is flood will occur and causes crop failure. On the other hand, if there is no rain in prolongedperiod, the drought potential may lead to crop failure. This may happen in East Java as the rice producing regions also affected by rain season shift. This study is aim to estimate the initial time of rice planting in East Java in an effort to plan for adaptation to climate change in the agricultural sector. Fast Fourier Transform method is used by splitting rainfall time series data into the sub data based on the periodic characteristics. Then, using Least Square non-linear, it will look for more smooth curves of data distribution. Both methods are accurate models in prediction of climate, since climate data are not linear and is built with a non-linear model as well. Spatial map information in the form of rainfall and the prediction of rice planting will be produced by overlaying maps of the rainfall prediction model and the farm land in East Java. Map of prediction of rice planting will be made up to 6 months to allow time for the agricultural institutions and farmers in planning the right time to start rice planting. Keywords:Agriculture, Fast Fourier Transform, Least Square non-Linear, Projection

INTRODUCTION Climate change is a global phenomenon, where the impact will be felt globally by all people in the entire hemisphere. Regardless of whether these regions contribute to climate change or not, Indonesia did not escape the impact of climate change. Condition as a tropical archipelago country makes Indonesia very vulnerable to climate change. The most detrimental impact will be on agricultural sector in Indonesia, due to a shift in seasons and rainfall patterns. In general, all forms of agricultural systems is very sensitive to climate variations. Delayed planting or harvest season will have a great impact both directly and indirectly, such as food security, the fertilizer industry, transportation and others. No impact of climate uncertainty on the decline of food production in Indonesia, as a result Indonesia has to import rice. In 1991, Indonesia imported amounted to 600 thousand tons of rice and 1994 the amount of rice imported more than one million tonnes (KLH, 1998). Meanwhile, according to Central Bureau of Statistics, rice production in

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2001 declined by 3.5 percent or 2.9 million tonnes compared to the year 2000 (Kompas, October 19, 2001). Climate change impacting on the high intensity of rain in a short period will cause flooding which then causes the production of rice decreased due to waterlogged fields. Data from the Department of Agriculture (2003) showed that the flooded rice fields reached about 42 thousand hectares. Of land area, the land puso (crop failure) reach about 7,000 hectares. The high rainfall also resulted in the loss field caused by soil erosion, resulting in losses suffered by the agricultural sector reached U.S. $ 6 billion per year (ADB, 1994). In Cirebon Agriculture Department data was recorded some 143,000 hectares of land have delayed planting in December and January (MoE, 1998). As a result of funds for capital owned by farmers planting should be used for living expenses. Hence, in the planting season arrives, farmers no longer have the capital. As a result, farmers' income will decline even into debt. High rainfall will cause soil erosion, consequently the results from the highlands of plants will decrease. Production of soybeans for example, will drop by 20%, while corn will be as many as 40% corn, and rice 2.5% (ADB, 1994). Climate change not only cause flooding but also drought. Drought as well as floods, bring similar losses in the agricultural sector. From Wonogiri, Central Java (2003), it is reported that the fields that experience drought during the dry season area of 21,705 hectares to the farmers suffered losses amounting to 15 billion rupiahs more, while other plants that experienced drought is peanuts, which is an area of 11,755 hectares, of which 2164 hectares are puso (zero harvest) (Kompas, July 4, 2003). Regarding to the whole problem above, this paper show the result of the research how to solve the problems by developing climate model to predict the shipment of season to anticipate the failing crop especially for rice.

MATERIAL AND METHODS Data The data used in this study are climate data in several regions in East Java for 20 years. There are rainfall data and maps of farm. Rainfall data is used as the input for the model which builds the projection of rain season and maps of farm is used to determine where region will obtain rainfall in certain intensity to satisfy the pre-requirement for planting rice. Climate Modeling Procedure Modeling process is conducted by climate analysis to know characteristic of a weather parameter on a specific location. By analysing these characteristics, values of future weather parameter can be predicted. To obtain better model and prediction better, four 4 steps will be taken. The activities are initial model analysis, periodic anomaly analysis behavior, analysis of anomaly model, and build data contour. The fourth step is conducted in message because output result of one phase is input for next step (Susandi, et al., 2009). The first step is model analysis directly. The target is model searching early stable and stationary where this model expresses a pure pattern of weather data without trouble and noise at data. Precipitation Data for one location analyzed with Least Square to produce curve corresponding fitting. Function that used by the curve fitting is taken away from

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inveterate equation is used in modeling. Algorithm used in method Least Square is Levenberg-Maquardt algorithm that is standard algorithm for solution of Least Square nonlinear problem. Second step is analyzing periodic characteristic of climate data anomaly. The objective is to obtain repetitive time information of pattern of weather anomaly. This step is conducted using assumption that pattern of weather anomaly has periodic character. Data anomaly is deviation of weather data from a weather model that is considered as pure pattern for area evaluated. Initial weather model intended is early model that is produced at the first step. Data anomaly expresses noise weather data that is occurred due to local or regional factor like El-Niño, La-Niña and others. To obtain values of anomaly data frequency, method used is discrete Fast Fourier Transform. The method alters data of time domain precipitation (time series) to frequency and period data. Output at phase this is the dominant frequencies of precipitation data that identify when a pattern of weather anomaly will return repeating. Third step is analyzing anomaly model. The objective is to refine model that has been produced at the first step. The procedures look likes the first step except early parameter that is used by taking dominant frequencies from second step result. After this correction, expected model can reflect change of non-stationary weather pattern. Fourth step mapping of precipitation distribution as contour map for a region with Universal Kriging method. This method is used because it gives flexibility in determining function drift in the form of n polynomial. Function of this drift is to hand distribution of non-stationary precipitation data. Figure 1. shows the above steps in a simplified diagram

Get data from Database for (x,y) location

Initial Model Analysis Initial Curve Fitting Analysis

Prediction Data

Get any location data

Anomaly Model Analysis

Reduction Observation Data by Initial Model

Loess Smoothing Data

Periodic Behavior Analysis Frequency Analysis with FFT

Takes Dominant Frequency

Curve Fitting Analysis

Save Predicted Data Predicted Data Correction

Build Contour with Kriging Methode

Figure 1. Work flow of the whole steps in climate model

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Rainfall Prediction in October 2010 – March 2011 in East Java Results of data analysis, taking into account both the phenomenon of global atmospheric dynamics, regional and topographical conditions of the East Java‘s mountainous region valleys, as well as beachs are local features that add to the diversity of climatic conditions in this area. It is concluded that the forecasts of rainy season in East Java for the year 2010/2011 will advances (75.68%), while the test (24.32%) will still the same from the average. Under these conditions, the general outlook of the rainy season of 2010/2011 in East Java will begin in October 2010 and November 2010 with of rainfall nature in the range of Upper Normal (37.84%) and Normal (54.05 %). The forecast amount of rainfall ranges 270-310mm per month in the eastern region East Java, 210-270mm per month in East Java northern region, while the western and southern East Java in the range of 90-210 mm per month (see figure 2).

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

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Figure 2. Maps of prediction of rainfall in East Java: (a) October 2010, (b) November 2010, (c) December 2010, (d) January 2011, (e) February 2011, (f) March 2011 Prediction of Rice Planting in October 2010 – March 2011 in East Java Period 2010/2011 begins from the northern region of East Java. The rain then moves to the south in the following months. The movement of rainfall has led to changes in cropping pattern of rice in East Java. Irrigation plays very important role to keep these rice cropping pattern changes. Farmers can still begin to plant rice even though rainfall in the region still ranges between 100 mm / month to 150 mm / month. However, the rainfall in the eastern region of East Java in this period is still quite high from year to year. Therefore, the eastern region of Central Java has to build irrigation in case of water shortages, toward the management of uneven distribution of rain water. This is so the water is not accommodated only in one region alone, but to irrigate an area not affected by rain. Furthermore, Figure 3 shows a map of the rice planting early predictions for the year 2010/2011.

(a)

(b)

= Not rice field = Rice field has not been in time to planted = Rice field has been in its time to planted

(c)

(d)

= Not rice field = Rice field has not been in time to planted = Rice field has been in its time to planted

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(e)

(f)

= Not rice field = Rice field has not been in time to planted = Rice field has been in its time to planted

Figure3.Prediction of rice planting in East Java: (a) October 2010, (b) November 2010, (c) December 2010, (d) January 2011, (e) February 2011, (f) March 2011

CONCLUSION 1. Rainfall has the periodic character every year for and function Fourier series can handle periodic data. 2. Rainfall has the character of non-stationary resulted from much external factors. Data of precipitation anomaly is produced from deviation of precipitation data to function of Fourier series model that reflects pure pattern of rainfall. 3. To be able to predict of rainfall data, data anomaly must be assumed having the character of periodic too. First, anomaly data is refined to eliminate data noises. Second, method FFT is used to see dominant anomaly frequency. 4. Prediction of time to rice planting needs irrigation map to improve the accurateness of the built model. 5. The eastern region of Central Java has to build irrigation for water shortages, and more toward the management of uneven distribution of rain water.

REFERENCES Asian Development Bank. Socio-economic Impacts of Climate Change and a National Reponse Strategy. A Report of The Regional Study on Global Environment Issues: CountryStudy of Indonesia. 1994. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia. Indonesia Country Study on Climate Change: Vulnerability and Adaptation Assesments of Climate Change in Indonesia. 1998. Jakarta. Kompas, 19 Oktober 2001. Susandi, et al., 2009, Projection Map of Climate Change with High Resolution for National Food Security, Proceeding of International Conference on Regional Development and Infrastructures, Bandung Institute of Technology. Thomas R. Karl, Susan J. Hassol, Christoper D. Miller, William L. Murray, 2006, Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere, Laporan U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

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AN ECOLOGICAL PERCEPTION OF SMALL FARMERS DILEMMA TO PLANT CORN FOR FOOD OR FEED : A CASE STUDY OF SMALL FARMERS COMMUNITY IN SUBANG – WEST JAVA Carolina, Fithria Novianti, Mirwan A Karim Center for Appropriate Technology Indonesian Institute of Sciences JalanKS Tubun No. 5 Subang Phone : 62-260-412878 Fax : 62-620-411239 email : [email protected]

ABSTRACT The role of small farmers as key to food security is well recognized. Their position as food provider, as well as important consumers to reinforce, are similarly essential. In order to strengthen their position, it is important to gain understanding of their decision making process to their land utilization. In appreciation of their potency, we conduct a study on small farmers participation to augment corn productivity – specifically corn for feed. In reference to the fact that corn is one of the utmost important commodity in food security, a dilemma of choosing between planting corn for food or for feed to small scale farmers becomes an important issue to investigate. A case study in Subang area of West Java Province was carried out. Despite the local government support and increasing local demand - corn for feed to small farmers in Subang is not favorable. Based on the data and information gathered, it can be concluded that as rice is the main crop in their agriculture land, decision to choose type of corn is always relative to rice planting activities and other relevant ecological factors. Keywords : Corn, Ecology, Feed, Food security, Small Farmers, Subang - West Java,

INTRODUCTION As the second most important cereal crop after rice, corn plays important role as substitute staple for people in the rural areas, especially during periods of rice shortage. There are approximately 18 million people in Indonesia who considers corn as important staple food (Suherman et al. 2002).It is also the primary source of feed for the poultry and livestock industry. 50% of poultry feed raw materials is corn, and almost 60% of the total corn production is absorbed by the feed industry. It clearly depicts the role of corn as an important source of income for farmers. Due to the escalating demand of corn – especially to fulfill the demand of feed industry, Indonesia has launched a food security policy to increase national corn production. Improved seed, expansion of cultivation area, and intensification strategy are disseminated. Corn yields have been improving significantly, and scientists expect that average yields of 2.5 - 5.0 mt/ha will be obtained with better varieties and cultivation practices. In 2009, the total production has reached 17 million metric tonnes (Central Statistics Authority, 2009). The increasing demand is projected to last in the next decade requiring comprehensive measure to cope with it (Swastika, 2002), Among many successes, few areas show poor responses toward the policy, one of which is Subang in West Java Province. 61

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Despite the increased local demand, and the local government support, most Subang farmers do not show interest to adopt the idea of planting corn for feed. For various reasons, sweet corn seems the ultimate choice over hybrid. This phenomenon limits many farmers to obtain benefit by participating actively on the important economic agricultural development policy. This study is devoted to deliberate the fact that cultivating corn hybrid for feed is not a favorable option for Subang farmers. By evaluating influential factors to farming strategy implemented mainly by small farmers, we would be able to contribute inputs for decision makers to develop appropriate approach to improve small farmers participation, especially as corn for feed providers.

METHODOLOGY This paper addresses a question of why farmers in Subang continue choosing to cultivate corn for food over corn for feed when opportunity to market the product is wide open. What factors shape their preferences in a way that it seems so hard for external parties to alter farmers‘ inclination towards cultivating corn for food. To gather the required data and information, we utilize case study as a method. Its flexibility provides more extensive chance to explore observed phenomenon. The method is an amenable approach to attain profound understanding of a case being studied (Robert Yin, 2009). The technique used to collect data and information is in-depth interview. And the data and information are analyzed using descriptive analysis technique. To represent Subang, 3 sub districts were selected for their recognizable potential as corn producers as verified by statistical data and ground truth check from agricultural extension officers. Secondary and primary data gathered from the Central Statistic Authority have directed us to potential farmers communities. To discuss the phenomenon we will use the principle of human ecology as the science of relationships between living organisms and their environment within which the relationships between people and their environment. And the environment is perceived as ecosystem that interact with social system (Marten, 2001). The social system is considered as a central concept in human ecology because human activities that impact on ecosystems are strongly influenced by the society in which people live. Individual farmer is the unit of analysis applied in this case study. Farmers chosen as ―unit of analysis― are those who own between 2500 - 5000 m2 land; with the assumption that 2500 m2 is the minimum area required to generate satisfying profit margin out of corn cultivation. Farmers whose lands are vaster than 5000 m2 were not survey targets as it concerned with the final purpose of this survey i. e to deliver a strategic recommendation for enhancing small farmers' capacity as provider of corn for feed. This recommendation is further expected to involve more small farmer families who are potential to benefit from the scheme. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The Favorable Corn Variety As a potential corn producing region, farmer communities in West Java province mainly in Subang have become well acquainted with planting and applying simple post

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harvest handling for several decades. The extent of land and productivity shows farmers‘ capability as potential supporters in achieving self-sufficiency, especially in corn commodity (Figure 1). In terms of land area and corn production, Subang District can be categorized as fairly potential corn producing agricultural area. Each year, average corn production of Subang is 2130 tons, harvested from 792 hectare land. The average corn field productivity in this region is 2,69 tons/hectare (Central Statistics Authority, 2009). It is high enough if compared to other regions in West Java. However, when we investigate further, most of the corn planted is sweet corn variety. Sold directly to middlemen who will approach the farmers in the field, negotiate and finish the deal. Figure 1. Corn productivity in Subang – West Java in 2008 1025

Cikaum 914

Legonkulon 731

Blanakan 634

Pamanukan

628

Pusakanagara

606

Compreng 562

Binong

538

Ciasem

538

Patokbeusi 443

Pabuaran 344

Purwadadi 252

Cipendeuy 140

Kalijati

132

Pagaden Cipunagara

68

Cibogo

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corn productivity in subang - west java 2008 by sub-district (tonnes)

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Cijambe Subang Tanjungsiang Cisalak Jalancagak Sagalaherang 0

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Although not predominantly present in the area, farmers community who cultivate corn hybrid for feed exist because there is an opportunity to acquire. Interaction with potential consumer is eventually motivate them to stay in the business. And this entity is found mainly in the area where we can find local small poultry farms. We found dryland areas in border region of subang and sumedang district is used for corn hybrid planting one cycle a year. It is not surprising to find this agricultural practice. Normally a crop grown in farmers land should be potential commodity that is beneficial to them The type of benefit is relative to socio-economic condition of the farm community (Game et al, 2004). Indication of different preference relative to agro-ecological zone is shown although not as accurately represented through the case of maize farmers‘ in Southern Ethiopia. Corn Cultivation in Subang Agro-ecology Subang District is known mainly as paddy producing area. Being the third largest paddy area in West Java Province, Subang contributes 1.020.606 ton of rice paddy or about 1,6% of the national productivity. Although in the last decade, we have seen cases of land use conversion, rice planting still predominant. Economic pressure seems to be the main drive of land conversion. Many factories are built in technically irrigated ricefield area and eventually decreasing the land productivity as a whole. Cases of ricefield conversion to become aquaculture ponds are also found in few areas. And consequences to it is conflicts over water. As we know, fish ponds will need more water supply than ricefield system. Areas for paddy cultivation receive water from technical irrigation, but lower water debit during dry season makes farmers implement general planting pattern paddy-paddy63

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legume or other food crop (Figure 2). Corn is the most favored food crop to farmers in Subang beside peanuts. Figure 2. Ricefield Cropping System Rice Rice Corn Legume Rainy season

Rainy season

Dry Season

I

II

III

To most farmers in Subang, the third crop (legume or other food crop after rice) is an important cash crop to support family‘s economy. While paddy is sort of ―saving‖ that must be available -if possible- all through the year. Paddy, in the other hand, is a media for ―silaturahmi‖ to each family, so the tendency to keep harvested paddy is found amongst farmers who are lucky enough to have excessive production. It is considered a media for ―silaturahmi‖ because socio-culturally, farmers community in Subang has a tradition called ―gantangan‖ system, by which each family holds a feast by turns, and their family and neighbors would ―contribute‖ money or rice/paddy which is latter considered as ―saving‖. Thus, the feast is considered as ―saving withdrawal‖. This is where third cropplays important role. The third crop is family‘s cash crops well maintained for good production. And one of the most favorable third crop for farmers is corn. As indicated by the graph below, corn commonly planted by farmers in Subang – especially in ricefield as the third crop- is corn for food, mainly sweet corn variety. Even Figure 3. Corn Production in Ricefields and Drylands 1100

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corn production in subang - west java 2008 by sub district (ton) 711

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Compreng 20 48

Pamanukan0 8

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Note : Sawah : Ricefields Darat : Dryland if THERE IS corn hybrid, corn for feed is planted due to government‘s program. Representing the government policy, corn hybrid seeds suitable for feed is distributed almost without charge - to be planted in the targeted land area. That is all about planting corn for feed, but how to realize a comprehensive system of corn supplying is overlooked. It implies that capacity building doesn‘t end only at providing assistanceto farmers in cultivation technology, but also in post harvest handling, marketing and most importantly its institutionalization of the technology. 64

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Becoming the third crop, corn must have high economic value. And in comparison with sweet corn, corn hybrid for feed has a much lower selling price. Aside from the price, farmers complaints about the complication postharvest handling of corn for feed. At harvest time, corn must be left in the field until they reach a certain moisture level. To make the process faster, they have to cut the top part of corn plants so the plant water content will evaporate faster. This compulsory postharvest handling means prolonged the field utilization time. Since corn is positioned as ―the third crop‖ , after this usually is the starting period for the first cycle of paddy. And with the prolonged utilization required by corn for feed planting, farmers might loose time for land preparation. Undesirable situation for most of them, especially those who has limited area to cultivate. Third crop also means utilization of water in the soil, and fertilizer. Third crop should not be a plant variety requiring lavish quantity of water and fertilizer. Therefore, good quality of seeds become one of a not negotiable requirements. The reason they select legume over other crops is the additional benefit from it. Legume contributes to improvement of soil quality and thus provide better soil environment for the next crop. The situation endures by small farmers community is not merely about physical carrying capacity of agricultural land, but also other socio-economic factors. Appreciating each and every factor that is interactingly influence their decision to utilize their limited resources, is by no means, a must to do work before we create and implement any technology. This is utmost important since balancing economic, social and environmental benefit should always become the guidelines to any implementation of policy measure (Yongping Wei, et al. 2009).

CONCLUSIONS Based on the analysis of information gathered , it can be concluded that as rice is the main crop in their agriculture land, decision to choose type of corn is always relative to rice planting activities and other relevant ecological factors.Furthermore : 1. Regardless market opportunity, farmers have their own wisdom to choose commodities to crop. Ecological wisdom built on experiences in agricultural land cultivation shapes their preference over a type of plant, as in choosing between corn for food or corn for feed. 2. There are four key parameters of ecological compatibility identified by farmers: plant age, water availability, balanced fertilization and seed's quality. 3. Cropping time adjustment is required if corn for feed is chosen as 3rd crop, so the soil can be prepared for cropping rice field-paddy in the following season.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The preparation of this research paper would not have been possible without the cooperation of our colleagues Tita Irama Susilawati, Cahya E W Anggara, Mirwan A Karim and Febtri Wijayanti. Highly valuable input is also presented by Hari Siswoyo Aji. The work is supported financially through a Reseacrh Project sponsored by the Ministry of Education Indonesia and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences.

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REFERENCES Central Statistics Authority, 2009.Subang in Numbers.Subang District West Java Province of Indonesia. Game, Getachew Kassaye, Supaporn Thaipakdee, Am-On Aungsuratana and Kamolrat Intaratat. 2004. Farmers‘ Perception of the Present Extension System in Major Maize Growing Areas in Southern Ethiopia. Kamphaengsaen Academic Journal.Volume 2 No. 1. Marten, Gerald G. 2001.Human Ecology.Basic Concepts for Sustainable Development.Earth Scan Publication. London. Suherman, O., Burhanudin, Faesal, M. Dahlan and F. Kasim. 2002. The Development of National Corn Priority Open Pollinated and Hybrid. In Indonesian. Research Paper on Corn and Other Cereals 7 : 8-14. Swastika, Dewa Ketut Sadra. 2002. Corn Self Sufficiency in Indonesia : The Past 30 Years and Its Future Prospects. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 21 (3). Yin, Robert K. 2008. Case Study:Design and Methods. Rajawali Press. Jakarta. Yongping Wei, Brian Davidson, Deli Chen, Robert White. 2009. Balancing the economic, social and environmental dimensions of agro-ecosystems: An integrated modeling approach. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 131 (2009). 263–273

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ASSESSMENT OF SEEDLING CERTIFIED OF MAS KIRANA BANANA IN THE FARMER GROUP OF EFFICIENT Dwi Setyorini, K.B. Andri, P.E.R. Prahardini and Ajun Prayitno BPTP Jawa Timur

ABSTRACT Seeds or seedlings is a crucial component in the fruit crop agribusiness. Good high-quality seed is the initial capital of the success of agribusiness systems. The experiment was conducted in two groups of banana farmers in the village of Mas Kirana, Plambang, Pasrujambe, Probolinggo district. There are 3 technologies implemented in farmers' groups Mas Kirana banana seedlings. 1) Making Technology banana seeds of saplings that have been carried out by farmers, 2) Technology Making Banana Split Seed tubers, tuberous 3) Banana Seed Production Technology of Matimeristem. Shoots that grow from tubers had reached 70-50% at 4 months after planting tubers, and has become the seeds are ready to move into the polybags. From the analysis Mas Kirana banana breeding farm of the most profitable is by way of split bulbs, because obtaining the R/C ratio was the highest of 1.34. Key words: Seedling, Pisang Mas Kirana, Certificates, Farmers Group

INTRODUCTION Seeds or seedling is a crucial component in the fruit crop agribusiness. Good highquality seed is the initial capital of the success of agribusiness systems. One of the main causes of low productivity and fruit quality of bananas is the quality of seed planted by farmers are generally not good, because the seeds came from a variety of seedlings and varieties (Kasijadi et al., 1999). In the banana crop seeds can be obtained from the shoots, seedlings, bulbs and bits are reproduced by conventional and tissue culture. Multiplication in meristem culture (tissue culture) required considerable expense and can only be done by large companies that have capital. With a little touch of simple technology farmers can produce banana plant material rapidly, more and more cheaply by using split bulbs (Kasijadi et al., 1999) and matimeristem (killed meristem) (Nasir, 2002 and Balitbu, 2008). This method is to produce seeds that have properties similar to its parent and does not require complex technology and can take advantage of the freshly harvested banana weevil. Until now, the study of Balitbu Solok and BPTP NTB in banana breeding in matimeristem still in the planting medium in the nursery. From the matimeristem tiller is broken down into the candidates seedlings grown in polybags seed size of 20 cm can be transferred to polybags (Tri Ratna et al., 2006). While the way bits (divide tubers) have ever done in Banyuwangi in East Java BPTP (Wahyunindyawati, 2005). Seed quality determined in the success of the development of banana in the future. The reality indicated that until recently, the availability of banana seedlings Mas Kirana and certified quality is still very limited. Currently no manufacturer / banana seed that seeks to gain recognition through certification of seed quality. Similarly, in the production process to produce quality seeds, farmer seed breeder or producer is not fully based on the recommended procedure to produce seed.

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By looking at opportunities in agribusiness, business perbibitan Mas Kirana banana is prospective to be done today. Production targets for new development areas including to some areas in Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, in addition to several districts in East Java. So far the areas of new development required a very large amount of seeds.

MATERIAL AND METHODS The assessment was conducted in 2 groups of farmers in banana production center kirana Pasrujambe District, Village Plambang, Lumajang. Equipment and materials needed nursery beds, banana weevil, crowbar, a large knife / sickle, fungicides, insecticides, polybags, roof nursery, nursery media, ZPT, media polybags and other supporting materials. Propagation system does not require special expertise and easily done by the farmers, how: from the roots and tubers cleared land, cut banana stems about 5 cm from the boundary hump neck, and all leaf midrib cleaned. To shoot from the stump and has never flowered, growing points need to be removed (destroyed) by making a hole as deep as ± 2 cm right in the middle of the hump or until you see the inside of the stump. Tubers soaked in fungicide solution (2 grams) insecticides (1 cc) per liter of water for 15 minutes at a temperature of 55 ° C. Hump removed and aerated until slightly dry. Bulbs planted in sand beds containing medium (treatment 1); media coated sand soil 10 cm 10 cm (treatment 2); fermented coated sand 10 cm in 10 cm (treatment 3); fermented mixture of sand with a ratio of 1:1 (treatment 4), by leaving a 5 cm section hump appears on the surface. Propagation bit (divide bulbs), how: from the roots and tubers cleaned soil, tubers cut into pieces measuring 10 cm (bit) based on the buds of the banana plant bulbs that have been producing. How to puppy farmers looking for tubers from their land, the size of 0.5 to 1 m, after collected, only selected if the desired type. Observations were carried out cost input-output and farmers' acceptance of a recommended technology. Observation data obtained by descriptive analysis and the economics of farming Mas Kirana banana seedlings at farmers' groups.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION Selection of parent trees to seedlings prospective members of the group carried out plantation house and garden belonging to a group (Figures 1, 2 and 3). Terms of that of one parent tree certification costs Rp 3,000, - considered too high because of a clump of tubers that can only be dambil 1-2, so that would make the resulting seedlings will cost more expensive (Table 1 and 2).

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Figure 1. Banana plants the minimum that can be used as candidate seeds matimeristem (diameter> 15 cm)

Figure 2. Soaking with a fungicide and insecticide before planting bulbs in

Figure 3. Growers matimeristem hump in nursery growing media Tubers derived from plants that have been harvested to treat split corm 1% have experienced bud break after 2 weeks after planting in the nursery. Shoots that grow from tubers had reached 70-50% at 4 months after planting tubers, and has become the seeds are ready to move into the polybags. However, continuing into a seedling shoots higher percentage matimeristem a hump on average gained five shoots then ready to move in polybags. Meanwhile in the fission hump a hump that can be divided into 6 sections,

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because the bulbs split basis tunasnya generally not covered by soil, so the ability to grow into a seedling to be slow, only 4 shoots that can grow into a seedling. Table 1. farmer groups

Analysis farming system of certificated ―mas kirana‖ banana in

Description Hump Polybags Media seedlings Media polybags Shade Pesticide Power Maintenance Costs certification The total cost of a hump The total cost of 1 chicks Results 1 sapling Revenue at the location Transportation costs a tiller Total cost + transport The price of 1 puppy Revenue end R / C ratio

Tillers

Hump Split

1500 0 0 0 0 0 0 1500 3000 3000 2000 -1000 150 3150 2150 -1000 0,666667

3000 1000 750 750 250 28 150 3000 8928 2232 3000 768 250 2482 3250 768 1,344086022

Matimeristem (Killed meristem) 5000 1250 900 900 250 28 150 3000 11478 2295,6 3000 704,4 250 2545,6 3250 704,4 1,306847883

Table 2. Analysis farming system of without certificated― mas kirana‖ banana in the farmer groups. Description Hump Polybags Media seedlings Media polybags Shade Pesticide Power Maintenance Costs certification The total cost of a hump The total cost of 1 chicks Results 1 sapling Revenue at the location Transportation costs a tiller Total cost + transport The price of 1 puppy Revenue end R / C ratio

Tillers 1500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1500 1500 2000 500 150 1650 2150 500 1,333333

70

Hump Split 3000 1000 750 750 250 28 150 0 5928 1482 3000 1518 250 1732 3250 1518 2,024291498

Matimeristem 5000 1250 900 900 250 28 150 0 8478 1695,6 3000 1304,4 250 1945,6 3250 1304,4 1,769285209

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Farming certified seed of banana weevil come from young plants to matimeristem would be inefficient because it requires funding higher price for 1 hump Rp 5,000, -, compared to when using plants that have been harvested to how to divide bulbs, because the price of bulbs of plants that have been harvested Rp 3,000, -. The calculation of the income of farmers per seedling obtained from the split tubers of plants that have been harvested to get USD 768, - and of death meristem using harvest immature earns Rp 704, -. While the puppies will be losers if farmers continue to sell puppies to Rp 2,000, - if need be certified. If no certification of all how well seedlings, tubers and matimeristem sides remain profitable because they have the R / C ratio above 1, however, if there is a sudden demand for banana seedlings, saplings way is a practical way to provide these banana seedlings. The weakness of the multiplication of seed tubers and bananas with the split matimeristem, consumers need to order seeds and seedlings previous 6 months that remained unsold in the nursery maintenance costs. Farmer Response The response of farmers to banana breeding is very diverse, farmers generally have a solid rushing in manage crops that special time that is used for seeding process was considered very demanding, especially sales/market of banana seedlings is uncertain. Waiting for the 5 months of seedling growth until ready to be planted in the land, the buyer should order a first for the process of making this seed. This submarine-making farmers more like puppies from the garden, because it requires a short relatively 1-5 days depending on the number of seeds required. CONCLUSION Shoots that grow from tubers had reached 70-50% at 4 months after planting tubers, and has become the seeds are ready to move into the polybags. Results of analysis of banana breeding farm assessment ―Mas Kirana‖ certificated in the most profitable farmers is by way of split bulbs, for obtaining the R/C ratio was the highest of 1.34. REFERENCES Balitbu gift, 2008.Banana Seed Multiplication Optmalisasi By Conventional. Tropical Fruit Research Institute, Solok. Agency for Agricultural Research.MOA. http://www.balitbu.litbang.deptan.go.id. March 13, 2008. Tri Ratna E., H. Awaludin and Sutanto A. 2006. Media Influence on the Growth of Seedlings Banana Milk Origin knob on Sambelia, East Lombok NTB. BPTP NTB.Mataram.Lombok.6 pages. Kasijadi, F., Wahyunindyawati, Handoko and Q.D. Ernawanto. 1999. Assembled Farming Technology Ambon Yellow Banana cultivars in Dryland. Assembled monographs Agricultural Technology. BPTP Karangploso, Malang. Nasir, N., 2002. Simple technique of multiplication of healthy banana seedlings. Papers Delivered in Banana Wilt Disease Control Training for Officers of Agriculture and Farmers of the Regency of Indragiri Hulu in Balitbu Solok, on December 20 to 21 December 2002. Wahyunindyawati, F. Kasijadi, Luki Rosmahani, P.E.R. Prahardini. 2005. Assessment of Farming Systems Supports Agricultural Development Banana. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Technological Innovation and Institutional Sustainability.2004. Agency for Agricultural Research. Center for Research and Development of Socio-Economic Agriculture.P 721.

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SUBTITUTION FERTILIZER SP-36 BY NITRO PHOSPHATE ON SHALLOT AT KEPUHHARJO, KARANGPLOSO, MALANG Dwi Setyorini and Zainal Arifin East Java Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Jl. Raya Karangploso KM. 4, PO. Box 188 Malang, East Java

ABSTRACT The used rational of inorganic fertilizer will increasing if sure of farmer about addition of completed macro nutrition fertilizer can significant increasing farming system. The aim research is to know effect of growth and yield shallot of Nitro Phosphate fertilizer. Experiment conducted at Kepuhharjo, Karangploso, Malang, kind soil Latosol and altitude 450 m from sea surface, on dry season July – December 2006. Material experiment used Urea, SP-36, KCl, Nitro Phosphate fertilizer, shallot seed ―Philippine‖ and pesticide. Experiment used Block Randomize Design, with 3 replicated and 11 treatment combination. The experiment showed Nitro Phosphate on 50 – 150 kg per ha dosage with fertilization 200 kg Urea + 300-400 kg ZA + 200 kg KCl per ha, can increase yield dry tuber shallot never SP-36 fertilizer. Fertilization 200 kg Urea + 300 kg ZA + 200 kg KCl can give high yield and R/C ratio, when addition 100 kg Nitro Phosphate as substitution SP-36 and reduction ZA fertilizer from 400 kg become 300 kg per ha. Fertilization 200 kg Urea + 400 kg ZA + 200 kg KCl with addition dosage > 200 kg Nitrophosphate can decrease yield shallot. Key words: Nitro Phosphate Fertilizer, Shallot.

INTRODUCTION Shallot is one of the lowland vegetable seed in East Java. Production and price is very volatile depending on the season in a year. The contribution of Shallot production in East Java against a high national production which reached 28.03%, with an area of 23,394 hectares and production reached an average of 9.1 tons / ha. (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2003). In general, plants need nutrients C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Ca, Mg (Na, Si) in significant amounts and micro elements Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, B, Cl needed in much smaller (Mengel and Kirkby, 1987). Shallot cultivation by farmers tend to use organic fertilizers and pesticides-an excessive (Sumarni and nutrient supply, 1996). This high use of fertilizer will cause concern deficiency micro elements such as Cu and Zn (Al Jabri et al., 1988; Ismunadji et al., 1988). In the shallot plant needs inorganic fertilizers TSP ranged from 150-200 kg / ha as basal fertilizer. KCl 75-100 kg / ha, Urea 150-200 kg / ha and ZA 400500 kg / ha given at the time the plant was 10-15 days and 25-30 days (Baswarsiati et al., 1998). Fertilizers are used to coming from a mixture of single fertilizer or compound fertilizer. To facilitate the provision of fertilizer to the plants, now a lot of fertilizer compound that can be used one of them Nitro Phosphate fertilizer. Nitro Phosphate fertilizer has nitrogen and phosphate content of the elements that plants need in considerable amounts. This fertilizer has the N elemental content of 11% and 52% P2O5 (BARISTAND Laboratory, 2005). Based on the facts, it is necessary to field experiments to observe the effect of Nitro Phosphate fertilizer on growth and yield of Shallot.

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This study aims to determine the effect and benefit of Nitro Phosphate fertilizer on growth and yield of Shallot. MATERIAL AND METHODS The experiment was conducted in paddy fields in the village of Kepuharjo, District Karangploso, Malang Regency with Latosol soil type and altitude 450m above sea level. Experiments conducted during the dry season (MK 2006), the month of June to December 2006. Name fertilizers tested were Nitro Phosphate with a grain of white-gray, while the Nitro Phosphate fertilizer nutrient content in the table below after the tested in the laboratory BARISTAND Surabaya, 2005. Table 1. Nitro Phosphate fertilizer Laboratory tests in the laboratory BARISTAND Surabaya, in 2005. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Kriteria Uji Kadar Nitrogen Kadar P2O5 Total Kadar Air As Hg Cd Pb

Satuan % % % Ppm Ppm Ppm Ppm

Hasil Uji 11,28 52,08 0,79 0,0 0,0226 <0,0114 7,80

Metode Uji SNI 02-2803-2000 SNI 02-2803-2000 SNI 02-2803-2000 Arsenic Test SNI 02-3776-2005 SNI 02-3776-2005 SNI 02-3776-2005

Materials to be used in Test Experiment Materials Urea, SP-36, KCl, Nitrophosphate fertilizer, seed Shallot "Philippine" and pesticides. The experiment was designed using randomized block design. The experiment was repeated 3 times, with the combined treatment in the following table. Table 2.Nitro Phosphate fertilizer treatment on Shallot in Malang, MK 2006. Treatment P1 (control) P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11

Urea 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

ZA 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 300 300 300 300

fertilizer SP-36 KCl 150 200 0 200 0 200 0 200 0 200 0 200 0 200 0 200 0 200 0 200 0 200

NITROPHOSPHATE 0 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200

Experimental parameters include soil nutrient status prior to the experiment (N, P, K, BO and soil pH), plant height, number of leaves / clump, number of tubers per hill, tuber fresh weight and dry weight of tuber. Analysis of vegetative and generative growth of Shallot plants are treated fertilizer with an analysis of variance (F test), significantly different if followed by Duncan test (DMRT) level 0.05. The analysis farming system of fertilizer use of tested with R/C ratio.

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION From growth of higher plants and number of leaves showed high responsed. Analysis of variance showed that the fertilization treatment Nitrophosphat affected plant growth particularly plant height from age 15 days until 30 days after planting.When the plants were 15 days of treatment 200 kg of Urea + 400 kg of ZA + 200kg of KCl + 100kg of Nitro Phosphat and treatment 200 kg of Urea + 300 kg of ZA + 200 kg of KCl + 50 kg Nitrophosphat, showed the highest plant height, compared with 200 kg of Urea + 400 kg of ZA + 200kg of KCl + 50 kg of Nitrophosphate ferlilizer, and 200 kg of Urea + 300 kg of ZA+ 200 kg of KCl + without giving Nitrophosphate fertilizer. Plants are fertilized with 200 kg of Urea + ZA 300 kg of ZA + 200 kg KCl without giving Nitro Phosphatea had the lowest plant height growth, because at this dose nitrogen content was lower than in the other. This happens because the element of N is a major component of plant compounds in the body (Agustina, 1990), so with fewer N elemental content provided to the plant will cause a lower height. Table 3. Shallot plant height at the age of 15, 30 and 45 days, the location Kepuhharjo, Karangploso, Malang Treatment

fertilizer

Hight plant

Urea

ZA

SP36

KCl

NitroPhosphate

Age plant 15 days

Age plant 30 days

P1 (Control)

200

400

150

200

0

22,11 abc

33,95 bc

45,78

P2

200

400

0

200

0

21,30 abc

30,63

c

46,59

P3

200

400

0

200

50

20,40 bc

35,41 ab

46,79

P4

200

400

0

200

100

22,35 a

36,90 ab

47,05

P5

200

400

0

200

150

21,79 abc

38,65 a

48,36

P6

200

400

0

200

200

21,88 abc

36,95 ab

47,16

P7

200

300

0

200

0

20,23

37,54 ab

47,64

P8

200

300

0

200

50

22,33 a

38,11 ab

48,28

P9

200

300

0

200

100

22,18 ab

38,19 ab

47,89

P10

200

300

0

200

150

21,12 abc

38,47 ab

48,20

P11

200

300

0

200

200

20,65 abc

36,93 ab

47,56

Duncan 0,05

c

s

KK(%)

4,57

s 6,52

Age plant 45 days

Ns 2,30

Information: Number followed same latter, not significan DMRT 0,05 ns = non significan, s = significan After a 30-day-old plant after plant, plants fertilized with 200 kg urea ZA KCl 400 kg 200 kg without giving Nitro Phosphate fertilizer showed the lowest plant height, because the element of M (phosphate) plays an important role as catalysts for chemical

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processes in plants, so that with small P content will reduce the frequency and amount of chemical processes (Mengel and Kirkby, 1987). The order of the next lower dose is the treatment 200kg of Urea 400kg of ZA+ 200 kg of KCl + 150 kg of SP-36, because in the treatment SP-36 of this type of P fertilizer with slow release (Slow Release), so the provision of SP-36 is not readily noticeable in the growth of plants and will appear in the next planting season when water and soil conditions support (Tisdale et al., 1990). After a 45-day-old plants begin to slow the growth of plant height, because in this age of the plant has begun to switch to generative growth (tuber formation). On the parameters of plant leaves aged 15 days to 45 days after planting showed no significant difference. All treatments give the same effect on the observed number of leaves. Results Bulbs Parameters wet tuber per hill known that plants fertilized with 200 kg of Urea + 300 kg of ZA + 200 kg of KCl + 150 kg of Nitro Phosphate resulted wet weight of tuber per ha was higher than in plants fertilized with 200 kg of Urea + 400 kg of ZA + 200 kg of KCl + without Nitrophosphate dosage and 200 kg of Urea + 400 kg of ZA + 200 kg of KCl + 50 kg of Nitrophosphate. This happens because at that dose adequate plant P needs and P element is in the form of a quick release (fast Release) so quickly absorbed by plants (Tisdale at al., 1990). Table 4. Wet tuber per hill, tuber wet per ha per ha of dry bulb Shallots, location Kepuhharjo, Karangploso, Malang. Perlakuan

Pupuk (fertilizer)

Variabel Pengamatan

(Treatment)

(Observation variable) Urea

ZA

SP36

KC l

NITROPHOSPHATE

(Fresh tuber per clump)

(Fresh tuber per ha)

(Dry tuber per clump)

0

16,00 abc

21,20 ab

15,82 bcd

13,13

(decrease)

P1 Control

200

400

150

200

P2

200

400

0

200

0

c

19,36 b

14,18

d

26,80 a

P3

200

400

0

200

50

13,40 bc

19,95 b

14,98

cd

25,09 ab

P4

200

400

0

200

100

13,67 abc

22,62 ab

17,64 abc

22,05 ab

P5

200

400

0

200

150

17,00 abc

24,65 a

18,34 ab

22,72 ab

P6

200

400

0

200

200

15,40 abc

19,34 b

14,37

d

25,66 ab

P7

200

300

0

200

0

14,40 abc

19,47 b

14,70

cd

24,52 ab

P8

200

300

0

200

50

17,47 ab

22,08 ab

18,47 ab

21,68 ab

P9

200

300

0

200

100

16,85 abc

22,67 ab

19,38 a

17,71 bc

P10

200

300

0

200

150

17,76 a

21,20 ab

20,05 a

12,65

P11

200

300

0

200

200

13,73 abc

23,21 ab

18,17 ab

21,79 ab

s

s

s

s

11,94

9,78

8,24

13,25

Duncan 0,05 KK(%)

25,57 ab

c

Informastion: Number followed same latter, not significan DMRT 0,05 ns = non significan, s= significan

The highest yield obtained in the wet dose of urea fertilizer plant with 200 kg + 400 kg + 200 ZA KCl + Nitro Phosphate 150, because in this treatment element of N and P

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have enough content (in Table 7), so it can produce results of wet bulb greater than in plants that have a content of N and P are smaller, for plants fertilized with the higher dose also gave lower yields because of the law Leibig, Nitrogen and Phosphate elements are met but there is another element of a deficiency or a barrier (Agustina, 1990). Table 5. Total Nitrogen and Phosphate content in each treatment. Treatment

Urea Kg/ha

ZA Kg/ha

SP-36 Kg/ha

KCl Kg/ha

NP Kg/ha

Total Nitrogen Kg/ha

P1 (control) P2

200

400

150

200

0

176

200

400

0

200

0

176

P3

200

400

0

200

50

P4

200

400

0

200

P5

200

400

0

200

P6

200

400

0

P7

200

300

0

P8

200

300

P9

200

P10 P11

Total Phosphat Kg/ha

N soil content after treatment (%)

P soil content after treatment (%)

54

0.18

17

0

0.18

4

181.5

26

0.16

11

100

187

52

0.17

7

150

192.5

78

0.17

10

200

200

198

104

0.16

17

200

0

155

0

0.17

3

0

200

50

160.5

26

0.17

5

300

0

200

100

166

52

0.16

12

200

300

0

200

150

171.5

78

0.08

15

200

300

0

200

200

177

104

0.19

13

Treatment

Production dry bulb (ton/ha)

Production dry bulb (ton/ha)

Tuber dry weight per ha showed that the treatment of 200 kg Urea + ZA 300 kg + 200 kg KCl + Nitro Phosphate 150 kg and 200 kg Urea + ZA 300 kg + 200 kg KCl + Nitro Phosphate 100 kg gave the highest dry weight of tuber. Fertilizer treatment with SP-36 replacement with Nitro Phosphate and reduce the dose of ZA gives a high yield because fertilizer is made from principal monoamonium phosphate equal to Amaphos A containing 11% N and 48% P2O5, can replace the ZA and the DS because it implies almost the same (Linga , 1992). The main ingredient monoamonium phosphat faster regardless of the SP-36 fertilizer made from natural phosphate and sulfuric acid (Ling, 1992 and Tisdale at al., 1990). If separated between the dose of ZA fertilizer with Nitro Phosphate fertilizer (Figure 1 and Figure 2) can be seen that Nitro Phosphate fertilizer dose of 150kg is the peak dose or maximum dose when using 200 kg Urea + 400 kg ZA or ZA Urea 200 kg + 300 kg, because after a dose of Nitro Phosphate increased to 200 kg, the dry bulb Shallot obtained by start to decline, according to minimum legal concepts Leibig, Nitrogen and Phosphate elements are met but there is another element of a deficiency or a barrier (Agustina, 1990).

Figure 1. Dry bulb Shallot production at fertilization of dosage ZA 400

Treatment Figure 2. Dry bulb Shallot production at fertilization of dosage ZA 300

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Table 6. Analysis farming system of recommendation dosage and Nitrophosphat fertilizer with 100 kg per ha dosage as SP-36 subtitution. Description

Dosage

Dosage

Urea 200 kg + ZA 400 kg + 150 SP-36 + 200 KCl (per ha)

Urea 200 kg + ZA 300kg + 200kgKCl + Nitro Phosphat 100 kg (per ha)

Phisical

Unit

Total

Phisical

Unit

Total

Saprodi Benih (kg)

1.000

15.000

15.000.000

1.000

15.000

15.000.000

Urea

200

1.200

240.000

200

1.200

240.000

ZA

400

1.100

440.000

300

1.100

330.000

SP-36

150

1.500

225.000

-

1.500

-

KCl

200

2.750

550.000

200

2.750

550.000

-

3.200

-

100

3.200

320.000

Dithane

5

48.000

240.000

5

48.000

240.000

Antracol

4

48.000

192.000

4

48.000

192.000

Folicur

2

150.000

300.000

2

150.000

300.000

Perekat

6

20.000

120.000

6

20.000

120.000

Buldoc

4

136.000

544.000

4

136.000

544.000

Calicron

4

150.000

600.000

4

150.000

Pupuk

Nitrophosphat Pestisida

Biaya Saprodi

18.451.000

600.000 18.436.000

Tenaga Kerja (HOK/ha) Pengolahan tanah

100

20.000

2.000.000

100

20.000

Perataan tanah

50

25.000

1.250.000

50

25.000

1.250.000

Tanam

20

50.000

1.000.000

20

50.000

1.000.000

Pemupukan

20

25.000

500.000

20

25.000

500.000

Pembubunan dan penyiangan

60

25.000

1.500.000

60

25.000

1.500.000

PHT manual (mijit ulat) Penyiraman

40

20.000

800.000

40

20.000

800.000

150

25.000

3.750.000

150

25.000

3.750.000

Pengendalian hama & penyakit

50

25.000

1.250.000

50

25.000

1.250.000

Penyemprotan pupuk Cair Panen, prosessing dan pengangkutan

-

-

-

-

-

19.320

brngn

9.660.000

brngn

11.335.000

Biaya tenaga kerja

21.710.000

Total biaya produksi

40.161.000

Hasil per ha Harga jual per kg

15.820

22.670

21.385.000 39.821.000 19.380

4.500

4.500

Pendapatan kotor per ha

71.190.000

87.210.000

Pendapatan bersih per ha

31.029.000

47.389.000

1.77

2.19

R/C ratio

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CONCLUSIONS From the test results can be concluded additional that Nitrophosphate fertilization at doses of 50-150 kg per ha, in 200 kg of Urea+ 300 until 400 kg of ZA + 200kg of KCl per ha dosage, can increase the yield of Shallot bulb dry even without the provision of SP36. Dosage200 Kg of Urea fertilizer + 300 kg of ZA fertilizer+ 200 kg of KCl fertilizer will give results that high Shallot bulb and has a R/C ratio is high if it added the Nitrophosphate with a dosage of 100 kg, as a substitute for SP-36 and ZA reduction from 400 kg to 300 kg . Dosage 200 kg of Urea ferilizer+ 400 kgof ZA fertilizer+ 200 kg of KCl fertilizer with the addition of Nitro Phosphate with a dosage of >200 kg will reduce the Shallot. REFERENCES Agustina L., 1990. Plant Nutrition. Rineka reserved. Jakarta Al-Jabri, M., M. Soepartini and J. Sri Adiningsih. 1988. Status of micro nutrients (Cu and Zn) soils in Java. Puslittanak. Bogor. Baswarsiati et al. 1998.Assembly technology. Institute for Agricultural Technology Assessment monograph Karangploso. Malang. East Java. Central Bureau of Statistics. 2003. The area data Harvesting Shallots. http://www.bps.go.id. Central Bureau of Statistics. Jakarta. Ismunadji, M., S. Partohardjono and I.H. Basri. 1988. Evaluation of research results on food crop fertilizer. Papers Presented at Technical Meetings Research Evaluation Results - Test Pattern Implementation Insus. Jakarta-Cipanas, 229 - 31 March 1988. Baristand Laboratory. 2005. Test Results Report. Institute for Industrial Research and Standardization of Surabaya. Landon JR. 1984. Booker Tropical Soil Manual.Booker Agriculture International Limited. Longman Inc.., New York. United State of America. Lingga P. 1992.Instructions Use of Fertilizers.PT. Self spreader. Central Jakarta. Mengel, K. and Kirkby E.A. 1987.Principles of Plant Nutrition. International Potash Institute. Worblaufen. Bern. Switzerland. Sumarni, N. and R. Nutrient supply. 1996. NPK fertilizer efficiency on Cropping System Shallot and Hot Pepper. Proceedings of the National Scientific Seminar on Commodities Vegetables.Vegetable Crops Research Institute in cooperation with the Association of Phytopathology Komda Bandung and Ciba Plant Protection. Lembang, Bandung. S.L. Tisdale, Nelson W.L. and Beaton J.D. 1990.Soil Fertility and Fertilizer. Macmillan Publishing Company. New York.

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B ABSORPTION BY PEANUT ON ULTISOL AS AFFECTED BY BORIC ACID AND ORGANIC MATTER APPLICATIONS Eko Hanudin, Astika Rusmayani, Nasih Widya Yuwono Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Inonesia. E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected], Phone/Fax: +62 274 548814 ABSTRACT A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of organic matter and boric acid applications on the absorption of B by two varieties of peanut on ultisol Banyumas. The treatments consisted of 5 levels of organic matter (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 ton.ha-1) and 2 levels of boric acid (0, dan 14,2 kg.ha-1) arranged in a factorial combination with 2 varieties of peanut (Kancil dan Lokal Purworejo). The results indicated that the soil physico-chemical properties of the ultisol as follow: pH ±4.5, Alexch 0.74 cmol(+).kg-1), OM 2.26 %, CEC 16.38 cmol(+).kg-1), Ca2+ 4.16 cmol(+).kg-1), Mg2+ 0.45 cmol(+).kg-1), K+ 0.03 cmol(+).kg-1), Fed 1.41 %, Feo 0.054 %, Fep 0.029 %, Ald 0.025 %, Alo 0.0017 %, Alp 0.0012 %, hot water extracted B 0.16 ppm, total N 0.18 %, sand 12.16 %, silt 6,37% and clay 81.46 %. Application of 20 ton OM.ha -1 and 14.2 kg boric acid ha-1 increased significantly the soil B availability, plant growth, and B absorption by both varieties of peanut tested. Kancil variety is able to absorp B better than Purworejo indegenous variety. Key word: boric acid, organic matter, peanut, and ultisol.

INTRODUCTION Groundpeanut(Arachis hypogeaeL.) isatype ofplantthathas been cultivated for long time by farmers in Indonesia. Peanutsgrowwell when it is planted in a light soils(loamy sand, sandy, orloam) thatcontainsenoughnutrients(Ca, N, P, andK). These plantsrequire crumb strucuture in order for the roots to develop well, Theginofores easily penetrate intothe soiltoform deleted pods, and the pods are easily harvested(not manypodsare leftin the ground). The range of optimal soilpHfor peanut growthis at 5.0 to 6.3(Sumarno, 1993; Suprapto, 2001). Besidesmacronutrients, micronutrientsalsoplay an important roleforpeanutgrowth including Boron. Boron deficiency cancauseabnormalitiesinpeanutseedswhich is calledhollowheart(the inside of the beanseedsnocked) (Bell et al, 1990). Inacid soils with coarse-texture there is critical limitof B defficiency around 0.05 ppm. The B critical value for theplant at the age of3060daysafterplantingis26ppm(Gupta and Load, 1977; Jones, 2003). Acid soil area in Indonesia is quite large, it is Ultisol which has a poor fertility due to a high in acidity, Al, Fe, Mncontent, Pfixation, and very low in organic mattercontent, CEC, andbase saturation. Improvement of Ultisolfertility couldbe done byaddingorganic matteras the source ofC, N, PandmicronutrientsincludingBoron(B) (Sarief, 1989). Borax is frequently used as Boron fertilizer, it contains 11.3% B. Boroninsoil solutionis foundinsome species such as H3BO3, B4O72-, H2BO3-,HBO32-. Boricacid is predominantform insoil solutionatpH around 5-9(Gupta, 2007; Tisdale etal., 1990). Boronhas afunctionthatisessential forplant growth and development. Boron has an important role such as transport of sugar by forming asugar-borate complexthatcan beionized; directly involved inthe enzymaticreaction ofsucroseandstarchsynthesisand thesynthesis ofuridinediphosphateglucose; celldivisionandelongation;

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metabolismandhormoneauxintransportinroot cells; contributing plants in Pabsorption andATPaseactivity(Gupta, 2007). The main objectives of this research are (a). to find out the effect of boric acid and organic matter application on the changes of soil chemical properties and B availability in the Ultisol (b). to find out interaction of boric acid and organic matter in influencing the growth of ground peanut, (c). to compare B absorption between two varieties of ground peanut. MATERIALS AND METHODS The pot experiments used Ultisols (7.5 kg per bag) from Banyumas, Central Java and arranged in Competely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 raplications. The treatments consisted of 5 levels of organic matter (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 ton.ha-1) and 2 levels of boric acid (0, dan 14,2 kg.ha-1) arranged in a factorial combination with 2 varieties of peanut (Kancil dan Lokal Purworejo). Basal fertilizers such ZA (300 kg.ha-1), TSP (200 kg.ha-1) dan KCl (150 kg.ha-1) were also applied to avoid insufficiency N, P and K supply from the soil. Soil physiscal-chemical analysis was conducted for texture (pipete method), pH-H2O dan pHKCl (pH-meter), Caexch, Mgexch, Kexch (NH4Cl, AAS), N-total (Kjeldal) , B-available, C-org (Walkey and Black), Fe-Al oxide (DCB), NH4-Oxl pH 3 and Na-pyrophosphate), Al3+ (KCl 1N, titration) and CEC (NH4 saturation) (Pansu and Gautheyrou, 2006; ISRI, 2005; Tan, 1996; Lambert et al., 1993). Chemical analysis of organic matter (Cow Manure) was also done for pH-H2O, B-available, C-org, and CEC. Agronomic parameters were also measured for plant height, shoot fresh weight (shoot-FW), root fresh weight (roots-FW), total biomass weight (TBW), shoot-DW to root-DW ratio, B concentration in shoots and roots. Statistical analysis was done for analysing of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan‘s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5 % level of confidence. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Soil chemical-physical analyses results were presented at Table 1.TheUltisolstakenfromBanyumasdistrictpossessoil-reactivity in the categoryofaveryacid. Ultisols as anultimate weathered contains a low concentration in macro-nutrients (N, Ca, MgandK) and also micro-nutrient such asB. The content of B-hot water extracted in the soil was very low (0.16 ppm). The occurrence of sesquioxide in Ultisol resulted in pH-H2O and pH-KCl was very acid (4.5 and 4.2, respectively). Source ofsoil acidityisAl+3andH+. Organic matter contentwas observed around 2.26% (medium). Theorganic matterderivedfromvegetationgrowingon itorfertilizationappliedby thefarmer. Table 1. Chemical-pysical properties of Ultisol Chemical-physical properties pH-H2O pH-KCl Organic Matter (%) CEC (cmol(+).kg-1) Alexch (cmol(+).kg-1) Fe-Al oxide: Fe-DCB (%) Fe-NH4-Oxl pH ± 3 (%) 80

Value 4,5 4,2 2,26 16,38 0,74

Rate Very acid* Very acid * Medium* Low* Very low*

1,413 0,054

Tinggi ** Very low **

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Fe-Na Pyrophospate (%) Al-DCB (%) Al-NH4-Oxl pH ± 3 (%) Al-Na Pyrophospate (%) Caexch (cmol(+).kg-1) Mgexch (cmol(+).kg-1) Kexch (cmol(+).kg-1) B-hot water extracted (ppm) N-total (%) Texture: Sand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%)

0,029 0,0025 0,0017 0,0012 4,15 0,45 0,03 0,16 0,18

Very low ** Very low ** Very low ** Very low ** Low * Low * Very low * Very low ** Low * Clay

12,16 6,37 81,46

Sources: * ISRI (2005). ** Blakemore et al. (1987). Cationexchange capacity(CEC) of UltisolBanyumaswas obtained at 16.38cmol(+).kg-1 (low category). The lowvalue ofthe soil CECis relatedtothe ultimate development of the soil. SoilCEC was derived fromorganicmaterials(carboxylic functional groups) andclay minerals(isomorphic subtitution and protonation-deprotonation process). Ultisol was dominated by kaoliniteandsesquioksida(R2O3, R: Al, Fe) compounds. There are severalforms ofAl-Fe oxidecompoundspresent insoilsuch ascrystalline(free), amorphousand oxide-humic complexes forms. Normally, the three oxide formsare predicted by applying the three selective dissolutions, namely: dithionite citratebicarbonate(DCB), oxalic-oxalateacid (NH4-oxalate pH±3)andNa-pyrophosphate. The content ofFeextracted by the threeselectivedissolutions, respectively obtained by1.413 % (high), 0.054% (low) and0.029% (verylow).While thecontent ofthe threeAl formsarerespectivelyobtainedasfollows0.0025%, 0.0017% and0.0012%, whichare allcategorizedasverylow rate. The result oftexture analysisobtained three main fractions, namely: clay (81.46%), silt (6.37 %), andsand (12.16 %). Based on the USD texture triangle, the texture of the soil could becategorized as clay.Highlevels ofclayto81, 46% willcause thesoilhaslowpermeability, stickyconsistencyand angular blocky structure, so the soilis difficultto plow. Chemical Characteristics of Organic Matter (Cow Manure) The results of chemical characterizationofcowmanureare presentedinTable2. Based on thetablecowmanurehasa pH-H2O 7.9(lightly base), pH-KCl 7.5(neutral), organic matter69.49 % andboron-available0.76ppm(high). According toMinister of Agriculture RegulationNo.28/Pert/HK.060/2/2009oforganicfertilizer,soil amendment, organicfertilizerminimum technicalrequirementsmustcontainorganic matter >12%, a maximum B-availableof 0.25%(2500 ppm), andpH4-8. Based ontheMinister of Agricultureregulations, cowmanureusedinthis studyhas metminimum technicalrequirementsof organicfertilizer.

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Tabel 2. Chemical characteristics of Cow Manure Chemical characteristics pH-H2O pH-KCl Organic Matter (%) B-available (ppm)

Cow Manure 7,9 7,5 69,5 0,76

Rate Slightly basis* Neutral* High** High**

Source: * ISRI (1980) ** Minister of Agriculture RegulationNo.28/Pert/HK.060/2/2009 Effect ofBoric AcidandOrganic MatteronSoilChemical Properties. Based on statistical analysisshowedthata singletreatmentof organicmaterials orcombinationwithboricacidhad significant effect onpH-H2O, whereassingletreatment of boricaciddid not significantly affectthe pH-H2O. There is atendency ofthe higherdosesused cowmanure, the soilpH-H2O also increased. Application of5-15tonsOM/haonlyable toincreasethe pH-H2O at 0.1units(from 4.4to4.5).This isprobably due totheaddition of organic matterhas the pH categorized as lightlybasis, that‘s why the soil pH also increased. Applications of organic matterwith the doses of0, 5,10, 15and20tonnes/ha were able toincrease theCECand thesoil B-available significantly. The soil CEC values,respectivelyobtainedat16.44, 17.74, 22.98, 23.74and27.61cmol(+).kg-1, while the Bavailable respectively obtained at 0.24, 0.57, 0.66, 0.84, and0.96ug/g.Application of14.2kg boricacid/hadid not significantly affectthe soil CEC,butincreasedsignificantly the Bavailable concentration from0.5(without B) to0.81ug/g.Improvementof the soil CECis likelyascribed to the contribution of carboxylicfunctional groupspresent intheOM. There was a positive correlationbetween thedoseof organicmaterialswith theavailableB content, this indicated thatcowmanurecouldbe usedas asource ofB for plants. Application of14.2kgboricacid/haandorganic matter(5, 10, 15and20tonnes/ha) was able to significantlyreduce the soilAlexch concentration. The higherdose ofOMappliedthelowercontents of the soilAlexch. This is likely to increasing the OM dosage resulted in a lot ofAl exchthatchelatedbycarboxylate functional groupsinhumiccompoundsderivedfromtheOM. The same complexation process also occurred between boricacid and Al3+, therefore the amount of Alexchdecreased. Effect ofBoric AcidandOrganic MatteronGrowthand B Uptake by Peanut Based on theanalysisof variance(ANOVA) at the significancelevelof 5%indicatedthata singletreatmentof organicmaterials, varieties, had significant effect onshoot-FW.Kancilvarietyproducedshoot-FW (7.46 g) was significantly heavierthan that of thelocalPurworejovariety(5.83 g). Whilea singletreatment of boricacidora combination of boric acid-OM resulted in no significant effect onshoot-FW. The treatments also resulted in the same trend for roots-FW. Howeverthe greatesttotalweight ofbiomassobtained bythe treatment of20tonsof OM/haand14.2kgboricacid/ha. The treatment combination of boric acid, organic matter, and peanut varieties had significant effect on B uptake in the shoot. Boron absorption in the shoot of Kancil variety (3.26 g / pot) was higher than that of the Local Purworejo (2.46 g / pot). The combination of boric acid and organic matter had no significant effect on the B absorption of the shoot. Single treatment of boric acid or organic matter also resulted in no significant effect on the 82

61st Universitas Gadjah Mada Anniversary

B absorption in the shoot. There is a tendency that the higher dose of OM and boric acid the higher the B absorption of the shoot. The treatmentcombination ofboricacid, organic matter, and thevarietiesdid not significantly affect on the Buptake of the roots, but the combination ofboricacidandOMsignificantly affected theB absorption of the roots. Singletreatment of boricacidorOMno significant effect on the B uptake of the root. Althoughstatisticallynot significantly different, butthere isa tendencyof theabsolutevalue ofthehigherdosage ofOMandboricacid the higher theBuptake of the shoot. Distribution ofthe amount ofBthat absorbed by theplants organsabovegroundandbelowgroundcould be found out based on the ratio of the B absorption in the shoot to the root. The combination of three treatments ofboricacid, organic matter, andpeanut varieties resulted in no significant effect on the ratio of the Buptakein theshoot to the root. The combination ofboricacidandorganic material significantly affected on the ratio of the Buptakein theshoot to the root.Singletreatment of OM or boricaciddid not significantly affect on the ratio of the Buptakein theshoot to the root. Based on the ratio of the Babsorptionin theshoot to the root it was able to be be summarizedthatthe amount of Babsorbedintothe leavesmorethanthatin the roots. The higherdosage of OM applied higher Btranslocatedtotheshoot. Therefore,the application of organic matteras much as 20ton/ha resulted in the most accelerate transportation of Bfrom the roottoshoot. CONCLUSIONS Ultisol from Banyumas is an ultimate weathered soil having some constraints for plant growth such as a high acidity, toxic in Al monomeric, deficiency in macro and micro nutrients. Application of 20 ton OM.ha-1 and 14.2 kg boric acid ha-1 increased significantly the soil B availability, plant growth, and B absorption by both varieties of the peanut Kancil and local Purworejo. Kancil variety absorbed B more than local Purworejo variety. REFERENCES Bell, R.W., B. Rerkasem, P.Kerati-Kasikorn, S.Phetchawee, N.Hiranburana, S.Ratanarat, P.Pongsakul, and J.F. Loneragan. 1990. Mineral Nutrtition of Food Legumes in Thailand with Partucular References to Micronutrients. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. Canberra. Blakemore, L.C., P.L. Searle, B. K. Daly. 1987. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Soils. NZ Soil Bureau, Lower Hutt, New Zealand. 103 p. Gupta, U. C. and J. A. Mc Load. 1977. Influence of calsium and Magnesium Sources on boron uptake and tield of alfalfa and rutabagas as related to soil pH. Soil Science. Williams and Wilkins Co. 124 (5): 279-284 Gupta, U.C. 2007. Handbook of Plant Nutrition. Eds: Allen V. Barker and David J. Pilbeam. Taylor and Francis Groups. New York. pp:241-268. ISRI. 2005. Technical Manual of Chemical Analysis for Soil, Plant, Water and, Fertilizer. Indonesian Soil Reseach Institute. p.121-122.

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Jones, Jr. J. B. 2003. Agronomic Handbook: Management of Crops, Soils, and Their Fertility.CRC Press. Washington, D.C. Lambert, K., A. Syukur, dan E. Hanudin. 1993. Petunjuk Penggunaan Alat Dan Dasar-Dasar Metode Analisia Kimia Tanah. Laboratorium Kimia Dan kesuburan Tanah Jurusan Tanah Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Pansu, M. and J. Gautheyrou. 2006. Handbook of Soil Analysis: Mineralogical, Organic and Inorganic Methods. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Netherlands. Sarief, E. S. 1993. Fertility and Fertilizing Agricultural Soils. The 4 edition. Pustaka Buana, Bandung. 197p. Sumarno. 1993. Ground Peanut in Indonesia. Monograph. Balittan, Malang. 12 : 1-8. Suprapto. 2001. Growing Ground Peanut. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta. 33p. Tan, K.H. 1998. Principles of Soils Chemistry (Dasar-dasar Kimia Tanah alih bahasa anonim). Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. 295p. Tisdale, S. L., W. Nelson and J. D. Beaton. 1990. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. Fourth Edition. Macmillan, New York. 754p.

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IDENTIFICATION OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE GENE GmDREB2 IN DROUGHT TOLERANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE VARIETIES OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L. Merr) Estri Laras Arumingtyas1, Andy Sugianto2, M. Reza Pahlevi3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Brawijaya, [email protected] 2 Department of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya, [email protected] 3 Department of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya, [email protected] 1

ABSTRACT Drought tolerance gene GmDREB2, is a gene that has a role as an expression activator of transcription factor for DREB (Drought responsive element binding) (Chen et al, 2006). The Aims of the study is to compare the sequence of GmDREB2 gene on drought tolerant varieties Dieng, Tidar and Wilis and susceptible varieties Anjasmoro, Burangrang and Grobogan. DNA isolation was conducted using the method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). PCR was done in 20 µl mixture consist of 11,9 µl dH 2O, 2 µl buffer Taq PCR, 1,6 µl 2 mM MgCl2, 1,6 µl 2,5 mM dNTPs, 0,3 µl of 100 pmol forward and reverse primers. 0,3 µl Taq Polymerase (5 U/ µl) and 2 µl (1 µg/µl) soybean genomic DNA. The PCR: was programmed on 93 oC for 2 minutes pre-denaturation, 35 cycles of 93oC for 1 minute denaturation, 58oC for 1 minute annealing, and 72oC for 1 minute 30 second extension, and for the final extension was 72 oC for 10 minutes. The PCR amplification result was purified and sequenced at First Base Singapore. Sequence was traced, analyzed with BLAST approach using Bioedit Sequence Alignment Editor Software. The amplification result showed that the primers used in this experiment capable to amplify the sequence of GmDREB2 gene resulting in a band with the size of 415 bp. The comparison of Dieng GmDREB2 sequence with the NCBI database showed 97-87% homology to GmDREB2 of soybean specieses. Alignment of the sequence of all varieties used in this experiment showed that there were 14 mutation sites and each variety has different number of mutation sites. Although the mutation caused alteration of amino acid but it was not altered the drought tolerance. It indicates that drought tolerance was influenced by not only GmDREB2 but also other genes in the family drought responsive genes. Keyword: Soybean, drought stress, GmDREB2mutation site, amino acid

INTRODUCTION Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the important economic crop in the world (Chen et al., 2007). Soybean production in Indonesia in 2008 reached 775,710 tons with the planting area of 590,956 ha, while preliminary figures for 2009 soybean production reached 972,945 tons with the planting area of 721,499 ha, soybean production in 2010 is estimated at 962,539 tons with a total area of planting 709,071 ha (Biro Pusat Statistik, 2010). According to Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbi-umbian (2008b), drought stress on the reproductive phase of soybean can decrease the productivity, therefore it is needed to overcome the need for improvement of soybean tolerance to drought stress. One attempt that can be done is by identifying the existence of drought resistant gene in soybean plants. There are several genes associated with drought resistant properties, among others DREB1, GmDREB2, PIP1, PIP2 and LEA (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005). Genes DREB1 and GmDREB2 included in the category of regulatory genes, which play a role in signal transduction and gene regulation of gene expression whereas PIP1, PIP2 and LEA8 85

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including genes that produce functional proteins related to resistance to drought stress (Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2007). Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbi-umbian (2008a), has identified some tolerant soybean varieties toward drought stress in the fields. Some soybean varieties were categories as drought tolerant including Dieng, Tidar and Wilis. Some studies state that there are some soybean varieties that are susceptible to drought stress, among others; Burangrang (Arumingtyas, 2008; Mahmudah, 2009; Purwitasary, 2006), and Anjasmoro (Purwitasary, 2006). In this experiment, identification of drought resistant genes GmDREB2 in drought tolerant and susceptible varieties by PCR using specific primers to drought resistant genes was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant material and DNA isolation Plant material used in this experiment were drought tolerant varieties Dieng, Tidar, and Wilis and drought sensitive varieties Burangrang, Anjasmoro, and Grobogan. Plant was grown in polybags at green house, one plant per polybag. DNA isolation was conducted using CTAB method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Sequencing PCR was done using forward and reverse designed primers based on the sequence of GmDREB2 obtain from GenBank data. The primers sequences are: forward: 5'-ATG GAA GAA GCG TTA GGT GGA GA-3 ' and reverse: 5'-TGG AGG ACG TCG AGT ATT GTG G-3 '. Reaction mixture (20 μL) consist of 10x Ex Taq polymerase buffer, 2 mM MgCl2, 200 uM dNTPs, 25 pmol primers, 1U Taq polymerase and distilled water. The program was set on 93 C for 2 minutes preheating, continued with 35 cycles consist of 93 C for 1 minute denaturation, 58 C of 31 minute annealing, and 72 C for 90 seconds extension, and finally 72 C for 10 minutes for the last extension a. The PCR product was visualized on 1.5 % agarose gel. Sequencing for AUX 1 PCR product was conducted at 1st BASE Pte Ltd in Singapore. Data Analysis Data were analyzed using BLAST program (Basic Local alignment Search Tool) of NCBI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The gene GmDREB2 has been identified to has homology to DREB2 which responds to osmotic stress, high salinity, cold, and possibly ABA-independent or ABAdependent (Chen et al., 2007). The primers are designed in this experiment were able to amplify bands with the size of about 415 bp both in drought sensitive and tolerant varieties (Figure 1).

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1000bp 500 bp 400 bp

Figure 1. Amplification result using the primers specific for GmDREB2 in sensitive varieties: Lane 1: Anjasmoro; 2: Burangrang; 3:Grobogan; and tolerance varieties: Lane 4: Dieng; 5: Tidar; 6: Wilis; M: Marker 1 Kb Dehydration responsive element (DRE) is a cis-acting element which is important in regulating the expression of genes response to drought, high salinity and cold stress. Unlike DREB1 role on the cold response, DREB2 gene is classified into the regulatory transcription factor gene that has a role in increasing plant tolerance to drought stress through osmotic/dehydration response path (Liu et al., 1998 ) and high salt stress (Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2007). DREB2 gene may activate other genes involved in drought stress resistance (Liu et al., 1998). Alignment analysis of the sequence of GmDREB2 of Dieng variety shows a high similarity with Glycine max recorded in the database including DQ054363.1 (97%), AK244651.1 (96%), FJ965341.1 (96%), BT091877.1 (87%), which indicated that the primer used in this experiment indeed amplified GmDREB2 gene. Alignment analysis between Dieng (drought tolerant) with other varieties (Tidar, Willis, Anjasmoro, Burangrang, and Grobogan) showed 14 mutation sites and each variety has a number of different mutation sites. Tidar variety (drought tolerant) had 1 mutation site. Willis variety (drought tolerant) had 10 mutation sites. Anjasmoro variety (drought susceptible) had 1 mutation site, Burangrang variety (drought sensitive) has 11 mutation sites. Grobogan variety (drought sensitive) has 9 mutation sites. Change of the nitrogenous bases caused some changing of encoded amino acid (missense mutation) (Table 1). Changing the bases that occur in Tidar variety did not change the resulting amino acids, but changing of bases in Wilis, Anjasmoro, and Grobogan Burangrang caused amino acid changes. Wilis had two amino acid changes resulting from changing in bases of the mutation sites of 4 and 12, Anjasmoro had an amino acid change at the mutation site of 13, Burangrang had two amino acid changes in the mutation sites of 4 and 12, and Grobogan had an amino acid change at mutation site 13. Codon changes that occur in the gene GmDREB2 between Wilis (drought tolerant) and Burangrang (drought sensitive) produced similar amino acid but their ability to respond to drought stress were different. This showed that the change of some nitrogen bases which caused changes into one similar amino acid did not necessarily change the response toward drought stress. This lead to the possibility that drought stress response encoded by several different codons as proposed by Clark, 2005., and changes in amino acids within a gene does not necessarily alter its

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expression in response to drought stress. According to Clark (2005) mutations that affect the less vital parts of the protein will provide a minor effect and still retain substantial activity, in rare cases amino acid changes in proteins may be resulting in better function of protein. Mahmudah (2009) who observed the role of DREB1 gene resulted from somaclone of in vitro selection of soybean, stated that the missense mutation in somaclone Soybean variety Tidar

Wilis

Anjasmoro

Burangrang

Grobogan

Mutation site 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 13

Changing of base TC (Transisi) TG (Transversi) AG (Transisi) TC (Transisi) CA (Transversi) TG (Transversi) CT (Transisi) TC (Transisi) CT (Transisi) CG (Transversi) CG (Transversi) CA (Transversi)

Changing of codon TAT TAC GATGAG CAACAG AATAAC CGTAGG CGTAGG CTGTTG TATTAC CTCCTT AACAAG GCCGCG CAA AAA

Changing of amino acid Tyr  Tyr Asp Glu Gln Gln Asn Asn Arg Arg Arg Arg Leu Leu Tyr Tyr Leu Leu Asn Lys Ala Ala Gln Lys

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 1 2 4 5 7 9 11 13 14

GT (Transversi) TG (Transversi) AG (Transisi) TC (Transisi) CA (Transversi) TG (Transversi) CT (Transisi) TC (Transisi) CT (Transisi) CG (Transversi) CG (Transversi) GC (Transversi) TA (Transversi) TG (Transversi) AG (Transisi) CA (Transversi) CT (Transisi) CT (Transisi) CA (Transversi) CG (Transversi)

ACGACT GATGAG CAACAG AATAAC CGTAGG CGTAGG CTGTTG TATTAC CTCCTT AACAAG GCCGCG TCG-->TCC AAT-->AAA GAT-->GAG CAA-->CAG CGT-->AGT CTG-->TTG CTC-->CTT CAA-->AAA GCC-->GCG

Thr Thr Asp Glu Gln Gln Asn Asn Arg Arg Arg Arg Leu Leu Tyr Tyr Leu Leu Asn Lys Ala Ala Ser-->Ser Asn--> Lys Asp-->Glu Gln-->Gln Arg--> Ser Leu-->Leu Leu--> Leu Gln--> Lys Ala--> Ala

did not alter its expression in the drought stress resistance. Table1. Changes in nitrogenous bases on the gene mutation site of GmDREB2 in some varieties of soybean compared to Dieng variety. Identification of GmDREB2 on soybean varieties indicated that the gene sequences were different but these differences did not affect drought tolerance, so that the nature of drought tolerance was not only influenced by the gene GmDREB2 alone but it influenced by multiple genes in the family of drought resistance genes through a complex mechanism. According to Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki (2007); and Shinozaki et al. (2003) drought stress induces several genes to produce proteins that can be classified into groups of functional proteins and regulatory proteins group. Group functional proteins such as chaperones, LEA proteins (dehidrin), osmotin, antifreeze proteins, mRNA-binding protein,

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aquaporin, sugar and proline transport protein, key enzymes for osmolyte biosynthesis, detoxification enzymes, and various proteases, while groups regulatory proteins including transcription factors, protein kinases, protein phosphatase, the enzymes involved in phospholipid metabolism and signal and also other molecules such as calmodulin-binding protein. Wang et al.(2005) reported that there were 16 candidate genes potentially involved in drought stress response in rice. The gene members of drought resistance gene family can be expressed in a certain condition, either simultaneously or alternately expressed depending on environmental conditions. According to Shinozaki et al. (2003); and Bartels and Sunkar (2005) many genes that show a positive role to stress tolerance, a combination of genes involved in different pathways such as the osmotic adaptation will provide a beneficial influence on stress tolerance. Razmjoo et al. (2008) stated that tolerant to abiotic stress is a complex reaction, because the interaction convoluted between stress factors and the various phenomena of molecular, biochemical and physiological factors that affect plant growth and development. CONCLUSION Different varieties of soybean have been identified in this experiment to have differences in the sequences of GmDREB2 genes, but such differences did not affect the expression of drought tolerance. This indicated that drought tolerance was not only influenced by genes of GmDREB2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbiumbian (Balitkabi) which kindly supplied the soybeen seeds. The research was supported by Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE)‘s PHB project. REFERENCES Arumingtyas, E. L. 2008. Identifikasi Penanda RAPD Terkait dengan Ketahanan Terhadap Kekeringan pada Kedelai (Glycine max. L. Merr). Prosiding: Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi-II 2008. Universitas Lampung. III 544-551. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010. Berita Resmi Statistik No 18/03/Th XIII. http://www.bps.go.id. Diakses 8 Maret 2010 Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbi-umbian. 2008a. Deskripsi Varietas Unggul Kacangkacangan dan Umbi-umbian. http://balitkabi.litbang.deptan.go.id. Diakses tanggal 27 Februari 2010. ___________________________________________________. 2008b. Galur Homozigot Kedelai Toleran Kekeringan. http://balitkabi.litbang.deptan.go.id. Diakses tanggal 27 Februari 2010. Bartels, D. dan R. Sunkar. 2005. Drought and Salt Tolerance in Plants. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 24: 23-58. Chen, M., Q-Y. Wang, X-G. Cheng, Z-S. Xu, L-C. Li, X-G. Ye, L-Q. Xia dan Y-Z. Ma. 2007. GmDREB2, a Soybean DRE-binding Transcription factor, Conferred Drought and High-Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Plants. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 353: 299-305. Clark, D. 2005. Molecular Biology. Elsevier Academic Press. USA

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Doyle, J. J. and J. L. Doyle. 1987. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin19: 11-15. Jaleel, C.A., P. Manivannan, A. Wahid, M. Farooq, R. Somasundaram and R. Panneerselvam, 2009. Drought Stress in Plants: A Review on Morphological Characteristics and Pigments Composition. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 11: 100–105. Liu,Q, M. Kasuga, Y. Sakuma, H. Abe, S. Miura, K. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, and K. Shinozaki. 1998. Two Transcription Factors, DREB1 and DREB2, with an EREBP/AP2 DNA Binding Domain Separate Two Cellular Signal Transduction Pathways in Drought- and Low-Temperature-Responsive Gene Expression, Respectively, in ArabidopsisPlant Cell, 10: 1391-1406

Mahajan, S. dan N. Tuteja. 2005. Cold, Salinity and Drought Stresses: An Overview. Minireview: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics444: 139-158. Mahmudah. 2009. Identifikasi Gen Tahan Kering DREB1 dan P5CS pada Beberapa Varian Kedelai (Glycine max) Hasil Seleksi In Vitro dengan Metode PCR-Sekuensing. Program Studi Ilmu Tanaman. Program Pasca Sarjana. Universitas Brawijaya. Malang. Maurel, C., L. Verdoucq, D-T. Luu, dan V. Santoni. 2008. Plant Aquaporins: Membrane Channels with Multiple Integrated Function. Annu. Rev. PlantBiol. 59: 595–624 NCBIa. 2010a. Glycine max Dehydration Responsive Element Binding Protein (DREB1) mRNA, Complete cds. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/ 31324057. Diakses 14 Maret 2010. _____.

2010b. Glycine max DREB Protein (DREB2) Gene, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/68510005. Diakses 28 Maret 2010

Complete

cds.

Porcel, R., R. Aroca, R. Azcón dan J. M. Ruiz-Lozano. 2006. PIP Aquaporin Gene Expression in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Glycine max and Lactuca sativa Plants in Relation to Drought Stress Tolerance. Plant Molecular Biology 60: 389-404. Purwitasary, R. 2006. Skrining Ex Vitro untuk Toleransi terhadap Cekaman Kekeringan pada 12 Varietas Kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Berdasarkan Respon Pertumbuhan Vegetatif dan Anatomi Daun. Jurusan Biologi. Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam. Universitas Brawijaya. Malang. Razmjoo, K., P. Heydarizadeh and M.R. Sabzalian. 2008. Effect of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Growth Parameters and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomila Int. J. Agri. Biol., 10: 451– 4 Shinozaki, K and K. Y-Shinozaki. 2007. Gene Networks Involved in Drought Stress Response and Tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany58 (2): 221-227. Shinozaki, K, K. Y-Shinozaki, M. Seki. 2003. Regulatory Network of Gene Expression in the Drought and Cold Stress Responses. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6:410–417. Wang, X-S., J.Zhu, M. Locedie, dan B. Richard. Identification of Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Tolerance in Rice by the Integration of Genetic (QTL) Map with the Rice Genome Physical Map. J Zhejiang Univ SCI 6B (5):382-388.

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THE EFFORT TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF DRY LAND RICE THROUGH EMPOWERING PLANT AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT F.Kasijadi and Wahyunindyawati Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology East Java Jl. Raya Karangploso Km 4 Malang 65102; Phone: (0341) 494502. ; Fax : 0341 471255; E-mail : [email protected]

ABSTRACT Irrigated land area has been decreasing year by year in Indonesia so that would be alarmed in national production target gain. Up land area for gogo rice is potentially available, but its production is too low. In line with increasing gogo rice productivity, there is an applied technique of integrated plant and resource management, Therefore, it has been accessed on farm research in dry land area of farmers and managed forest with society (PHBM) on a space of 50 ha at rainy season of 2007/2008 on Prima Tani group, Bulu village, Berbek district, Nganjuk region. PTT technology has been applied through plot demonstration (demplot) of 1 ha, farmers‘ land of 49 ha, with utilizing varieties of Situ Patenggang, Situ Bagendit, Mekongga and Ciherang. Assessment result showed that Situ Patenggang, Mekongga and Siru Bagendit have good prospect to develop in corresponding to increase productivity of each of them : 150%, 34% and 21% with profits of 517%, 117% and 73% comparing with all varieties which have been performed. Technology practicing of PTT includes jajar legowo (applied growing with parallel distance), organic fertilizing, balanced chemical fertilizing in proportion to soil condition and disturbance controlling through herbicide utilizing in pre-growing is technologically and economically feasible to be applied as it increased 31 % of each productivity, 8 % profit competitively comparing farmers‘ technology. Keywords : productivity, competitive advantage, gogo

INTRODUCTION Being dependent on energy source of rice for Indonesian people will count on as its population growth has been 1.34 % per year while rice production is not able to fulfill national need even though rice consumption per capita has been decreasing from 113.8 kg in 1996 to be 107.4 kg in 1999 and it is understandable that rice import has been increasing (Erwidodo and Pribadi, 2004). Rice import has been raising around 2.15 million tons in 1996 to be 4.75 million tons in 1999 (Suryana dan Hermanto, 2004). On the contrary, during the last five years (2002 – 2006), rice import of Indonesia tends to decline as 1.8 million tons in 2002 towards 483 thousand tons in 2006 (BPS, 2007). The lessening of that is corollary of rice production which has been increasing, as 51.5 million tons in 2002 to be 54.4 million tons in 2007 or raise of 1.26 % per year. However, it is lower than its population growth rate which would bother rice independency. East Java is one of biggest national rice producers which has contributed 17.3 % of totally need. However, during last five years (2002-2006), its productivity has been shifted declining, as 52,2 kw/ha on 2002 to be 53,38 kw/ha on 2006. Moreover, in last six years (2000-2005), there has been shrinking of 5.06 % rice area (BPS, 2002 dan and 2007). This showed that rice production in East Java cannot extend through rice area expansion. In order to raise rice production in East Java, productivity of rice area and dry land should be growth utmost. There has been about 98.000 ha rice land area with its productivity of 35,22 kw/ha or it just reached 64,6% from totally rice field productivity. Furthermore, there has been spacious land of gogo rice from forestry revitalizing which has been managed by forest management with people (PHBM), included south area of East Java, whereas its productivity seems very low along the lines of using tumpang sari with

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teakwood and other tree sticks. In PHBM Nganjuk region, gogo rice productivity is only 2.14 tons/ha in 2006 (Kasijadi, dkk, 2008). In order to increase gogo rice productivity in PHBM area, PTT technology innovation can be applied. It is an approach of rice culture cultivation emphasis in land management, plants , water, and disturbance integrally. The key of this management is considering synergy and complementary relationship among its components. PTT weighs up on participative principle which puts experience, desire, and ability of farmers as important points in technology application (Badan Litbang Pertanian, 2007). The difficulty in application of the technology is the farmers don‘t suppose that it would works properly because they have been doubted if the technology could present higher productivity and economically feasible. Therefore it has been assessment of gogo rice operational system in the area of PHBM. The goal of this research is : ( a) an availability to develop gogo rice variety in dry land of both farmers and PHBM and (b) gogo rice specific location package is reliable to raise its productivity and competitive advantage through PTT approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS a. Activity Coverage Model assessment of gogo rice farming system in PHBM area has been conducted on rainy season 2007/2008 in Prima Tani, Bulu village, Berbek district, Nganjuk region. This assessment utilized on farm research as Harrington (1989) recommended, an assessment of 50 hectares needs integrated resource and plants management technology (PTT) of 1 hectare and farmers technology of 49 hectares. Activities coverage consists of : technology identification of gogo rice cultural technology in the farmers‘ level and gogo rice technology by PTT approach. For each technology package has been tested new varieties of Situ Bagendit, Situ Patenggang, Mekongga and general variety which has been used by farmers as opposing team. Component arrangement of PTT technology for gogo rice has been conducted as insitu through PRA approach, as similar as exploring about characteristics and priority of complexity with adjustment. The components of gogo rice PTT are divided as primary and specific options. Primary option includes modern variety, organic fertilizer utilizing, N fertilizing based on leaf color chart ( BWD = bagan warna daun), P and K fertilizing based on soil ingredients‘ status, and pesticide controlling as OPT target. Specific technology includes plant management ( population and the way to grow), micro fertilizing/ growth regulator factor and post harvest handling. b.

Data collection and Analysis Method Data has been collected through ‖Farm Record Keeping‖ from farming activities on technology application with PTT approach and 10 respondents applied far mers‘ technology within farmers‘ group, consists of agronomic and economic data. In order to measure the outcome in increasing product competitive advantage of rice, there has been measurement to be approached (Kasijadi dkk, 2000) : (1). Value of productivity level and net profit (NKB) :

NKB

KBcf KBpt ........ .......................................................................... (1) KBpt

KB cf = net profit or productivity outcome KB pt = net profit or farmer‘s technological productivity. (2). Competitive profit value, describing production level or the smallest price of technology comparing with previous technology so that reaches similar profit level :

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Pti vsPts

Bti

where: Pti vs Pts = Bti = Kts = Hti =

K ts H ti

................ ...............................................................(2)

production/minimum price of introduction technology introduction technology production cost profit from previous technology introduction technology actual productivity/production price RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1. Research Area Situation Gogo rice in dry land of PHBM owned by Perhutani has been cultivating once a year below teakwood tree less of 5 years old on November – December 2007. Soil condition of this dry land is generally less of fertile, characterized by low of these ingredient : organic, Nitrogen (N), Phosphor (P), and a medium of Kalium (K). There has been disturbance of pest (Lundi) and disease of Blas. Cultivating culture of gogo rice has been applied by farmers until now has been using Ciherang. Method of cultivation is making holes irregularly with distance size of 20 cm x 20 cm and put 4 – 5 seeds/ hole, then it needs 100 – 120 kg/ha. There has not been treated of organic fertilizer, only Urea of 350 kg/ha. Preparation has been conducted through cleaning up with burning and without soil managing. Clearing out of disturbance has been carried out manually, while disease and pest have been accomplished by chemical pesticide (Tabel 1). The outcome of PRA technology of PTT has been applied, consist of the way of cultivating with hole putting 2 – 3 seeds per hole with system of parallel distance of 30 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm. Organic fertilizer has been treated 2 t/ha through spreading at path of cultivated hole, while anorganic fertilizer has been utilized 200 kg of Urea/ha and 300 kg/ha of Phonska. Disturbance controlling has been conducted through herbicide pre-growing, while pest and disease controlling has followed the instruction of integrated insect and disease management (PHT) as table 1 in the following : Table 1. Package of Farmers‘ Technology and PTT technology in land of PHBM Nganjuk, rainy season 2007/2008. No

Technology components

1.

Variety

2.

How to cultivate

3. 4. 5. 6.

System of cultivating Seeds(kg/ha) Organic fertilizer (t/ha) Multiple fertilizers: -urea (kg/ha) -SP-36 (kg/ha) -Phonska (kg/ha) Disturbance controlling Pests and Disease Controlling

Technology Farmers‘ Ciherang Irregulary distance (30X20) cm With hole,4-5 seeds/hole 100 350 100

PTT Situ Patenggang, Situ Bagendit, Mekongga Parallel distance (30X20X10) cm With hole, 2-3 seeds/hole 50 2

250 *) 120 **) Manually Herbicide integrated pest management principle *) dosage of N fertilizer based on Leaf Color Chart ( Bagan Warna Daun =BWD) **) P and K based on soil ingredient status

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Gogo Rice Technology Based on the assessment of gogo rice application, it showed that the highest outcome comes from varieties of Situ Patenggang, followed by Mekongga, Situ Bagendit, and the lowest one is Ciherang cultivated by farmers. The more productivity will follow higher costs in gogo rice farming, even technology components are similar but because of different production quantity will pursue dissimilar harvest cost (Table 2). It caused by upper comparison of productivity among varieties, like between Situ Patenggang and Ciherang reached 150%, Mekongga 34% and Situ Bagendit is 24%, whilst it concerns on competitive indicator, it showed 54%, 23% dan 16% (Table 3). Table2. Economic Feasibility of Gogo Rice Varieties Development in Nganjuk , Rainy Season 2007/2008 Variety Cultivated in PHBM Land Description Situ Patenggang Situ Bagendit Mekongga Ciherang 1. Production (t/ha) 5,87 2,85 3,15 2,35 2. Cost (Rp.000,-) 4.178 3.576 3.632 3.472 3. Revenue (Rp.000,-) 11.740 5.700 6.300 4.700 4. R/C ratio 2,81 1,60 1,73 1,35 5. Profit (Rp.000,-) 7.652 2.127 2.668 1.228 The reason of high productivity and competitive advantage of Situ Patenggang variety is resistant of shade, dry and blas disease, even as Mekongga and Situ Bagendit cannot resist of Blas disease. The low productivity of Ciherang is particularly caused of much water required and sun accepting. Table 3. Productivity and Competitive Advantage Rate on Variety and PTT Technology of Gogo Rice in Nganjuk, Rainy Season 2007/2008 Description Situ Patenggang Situ Bagendit Mekongga vs vs Ciherang vs Ciherang Ciherang 1. Percentage (%) -Productivity 50 21,28 34,05 -Profit 523 73,21 117,68 2. Competitive Indicator Rate - Minimum production (kg/ha) 2.703 2.402 2.430 (0,46) (0,84) (0,77) - Minimum price (Rp/kg) 1.268 1.837 1.543 At the same time as PTT technology hand over outcome higher than farmers‘ technology. All variety assessed also produce higher effect, although it needs more cost than Ciherang. The higher cost of PTT technology comparing farmers‘ mostly on harvest cost, cultivating, and organic fertilizers. Even though cost of PTT technology is more expensive, but it generated more result so it created more profit (Table 4). Table 4 . Economic Feasibility of PTT and Farmers‘ Application on Gogo Rice in Nganjuk, Rainy Season 2007/2008 Description Situ Situ Mekongga Ciherang Average Patenggang Bagendit PTT Technology 1. Production (t/ha) 6,80 3,15 3,55 2,65 4,04 2. Cost (Rp.000,-) 4.900 4.170 4.250 4.070 4.348 3. Revenue (Rp.000,-) 13.600 6.300 7.100 5.300 8.090 4. R/C ratio 2,78 1,51 1,67 1,30 1,86 5. Profit (Rp.000,-) 8.700 2.130 2.850 1.230 3.732

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Farmers‘ Technology 1. Production (t/ha) 2. Cost (Rp.000,-) 3. Revenue (Rp.000,-) 4. R/C ratio 5. Profit (Rp.000,-)

4,95 3.455 9.900 2,86 6.445

2,55 2.975 5.100 1,71 2.125

2,75 3.015 5.500 1,82 2.485

2,05 2.875 4.100 1,43 1.225

3,08 3.080 6.160 2,0 3.080

Reviewed from above rates, PTT application is able to increase productivity of 31% and profit of 12%. Besides, PTT application can raise competitive advantage of 8,1% (Table 5 ). Table 5. Productivity and Competitive Advantage Rates of PTT Technology on Gogo Rice in Nganjuk, Rainy Season 2007/2008 PTT vs Farmers’ Technologies Description Situ Situ Mekongga Ciherang Rata-rata Patenggang Bagendit 1. Percentage(%) -Productivity 37,37 23,53 29,09 29,27 31,32 -Profit 34,99 0,24 14,69 0,41 21,43 2.Competitive Indicator Rate - Minimum production (kg/ha)

- Minimum price (Rp/kg)

5.670

3.148

3.367

2.647

3.790

(83,41) 1.668

(99,94) 1.998

(94,84) 1.897

(99,89) 1.998

(3790) 1.837

Above description showed that new variety of rice can contribute productivity leverage and higher competitive advantage comparing to PTT technology components. CONCLUSION 1. 2.

3.

New variety of Situ Patenggang has expectation to develop in dry land, particularly in PHBM area. PTT technology application on gogo rice consists of : parallel distance, organic fertilizing, anorganic fertilizing based on soil ingredient, and disturbance controlling with herbicide pre-growing and OPT controlling (Organism Plant Troublemaker) through PHT concept is technically and economically feasible to develop in dry land. In order to be effective in PTT technology transfer, it should have been demonstrated a demplot ( plot demonstration) in both area of PHBM and farmers‘. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In order to be effective in PTT technology transfer, it should have been demonstrated a demplot ( plot demonstration) in both area of PHBM and farmers‘. REFERENCES Arifin, Z dan H.M. Toha.1996. Perbaikan Pola Tanam Tanaman Pangan Untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas Lahan Kering. Jurnal Penelitian Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara. 15(3):174180.

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Badan Litbang Pertanian. 2007. Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu (PTT) Padi Sawah Irigasi. Petunjuk Teknis Lapang. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Departemen Pertanian. Jakarta. BPS, 2002. Statistik Indonesia 2002. Badan Pusat Statistik. Jakarta. BPS, 2007. Statistik Indonesia 2007. Badan Pusat Statistik. Jakarta . Erwidodo dan Pribadi, Ning. 2004. Permintaan dan produksi Beras Nasional : Surplus atau Defisit ?. Ekonomi Padi dan Beras Indonesia. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Jakarta. Harrington, L.H. 1989. An Introduction of On Farm Adaptive Research (OFAR). In Dynamics in On Farm Research Proc. Of Workshop. Balitan Malang. Kasijadi., F., Wahyunindyawati, Yuliastuti, Sunaryo dan Taman. 2008, Program Rintisan dan Akselerasi pemasyarakatan inovasi Teknologi Pertanian (Prima Tani)di kabupaten Nganjuk. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi pertanian Jawa Timur. Malang. Suryana, A dan Hermanto. 2004. Kebijakan Ekonomi Perberasan Nasional. Ekonomi Padi dan Beras Indonesia. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Jakarta. Toha H.M., K. Permadi,. Prayitno dan I Juliardi.2005. Peningkatan Produksi Padi Gogo Melalui Pendekatan Model Pengelolaan Tanaman dan Sumberdaya Terpadu (PTT). Material presented on Seminar Rutin Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan. Bogor. 18p.

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INCREASING THE QUALITY OF CHOCOLATE PRODUCTION THROUGH SANITATION OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISE IN POSO PESISIR, POSO REGENCY AND CENTRAL SULAWESI Fithria Novianti & Savitri Dyah Balai Besar Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna-Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Jl. K.S. Tubun No. 5 Subang 41213 Phone: 0260-411478, Fax: 0260-411239, E-mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT Considering cacao potency in Poso, the local government supported by Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) had developed small-scale enterprise on chocolate production, producing milk and dark chocolate. However due to lack of information on cocoa processing and its sanitation impact on products, the quality of chocolate produce is relatively low. There was storage pest infestation on some of the products which occur after 3-4 months storage. Because of these matter, a research has been conducted to cope the problem through socialization of the problem and how to solve it by improving the sanitation in the production location. By managing the sanitation surrounding the production unit location, the quality of the product was improved, shown by no storage pest infestation in the products after 4 months storage. Keywords: cacao, storage pests infestation, sanitation, small-scale enterprise, cocoa processing

INTRODUCTION Chocolate is a product that is not free from pest infestation, though the end product has already through a series of process that seem impossible for bugs or pests to infiltrate in a product. However, facts shown that pests infestation in a product such as chocolate occurs. This pests infestation occurs not only in small-scale chocolate manufacturing but also occurs in large chocolate manufacturing with popular brand name. In regards to the matter, when storage pests infestation was identified in small-scale chocolate manufacturing (UPK-Masamba) in Poso of Central Sulawesi, it is not a surprise. But it is still can not be tolerated. Therefore, it has to be examine thoroughly so a systematic method can be applied to force storage pests infestation at the minimal level. Examination of pests infestation possibility is very important in consider of UPKMasamba being potential small-scale chocolate manufacturing as a model for small-scale enterprise development in processing cocoa beans which can be accelerated. In line with government policy concerning the development of small-scale chocolate manufacturing managed by the local people, therefore the UPK-Masamba have strategic value as the model. Hence, deep analysis from production line and management in processing cocoa beans is needed. The presence of pests infestation in chocolate produce by UPKMasamba is an indicator for the need of strategy in increasing the capacity in handling cocoa beans and processing cocoa beans into chocolate. The pests that infested the chocolate produce by UPK-Masamba was identified as Lasioderma sp. ordo Coleoptera (bugs) of Anobiidae familie or the local people called it Figure 1. Map of Poso District ―kutu konga‖, means bugs of rice husks (Dyah et

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al., 2010). For future anticipation, identification of production system in UPK-Masamba was carried out to examine the possibility of pests infestation and the method in coping with the problem. METHODS The possibility for pests infestation first was identified through observation inside the production unit and the environment outside the production shed. Each room in the production unit were observed, and the existence of storage pests was noted. Identification of the pests conducted through laboratory examination in a laboratorium and also by the local people. As anticipation of storage pests, a preventive steps were taken. Calculating the location of the RMU, preventation steps were taken by covering all gaps at the eastern part of the production unit, and before processing, cleaning up all processing machines used in the production and the production rooms themselves. With these steps, we ensured the sanitation of the production rooms and its surroundings and guaranted the quality of the chocolate produced. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Thesmall-scale chocolate manufacturing or UPK-Masamba is located in Masamba Village in trans Sulawesi highway, around 13 Km from Poso City. The location ease the transportation of raw material and supported material in chocolate manufacturing and in distribution of the products produce. The negative side of the location is it is too close to the village or settlements and busy road with the possibility of contamination from dirts and dusts. For chocolate manufacturing or food industry in general, sanitation and hygienic is essnsial, while in this case there are three rice milling units (RMU) nearby, around 300 meters, 600 meters and 2 km fron UPK-Masamba location.

N

g

Legend: 1. Roaster 2. Desheller 3. Grinder 4. Conche 5. Press 6. Refrigerator

6

f

e

d

c

b

2

4 5 a

1

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Kitchen Production Room Toilet/Bath Room Tools Storage Formulation Room Material Storage Mould Room & Product Storage

Lasioderma sp, storage pests that infested chocolate produce in UPKMasamba were occurs after around 3 months age of the product (Dyah et al., 2010). This condition for sure affected the competitiveness of UPKMasamba chocolate. In order to improve product quality, a method to prevent

3

Figure 3. Lay Out of UPK Masamba

Figure 2.Lasioderma serricone, bugs that infested Chocolate

pests infestation have to be applied in processing the chocolate. The appropriate way is by applying a method that guarantee product sanitation and hygieny. 98

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Identified as Lasioderma serricorne, bugs of Anobiidae Familie and Coleoptera Ordo is actually found mostly in tobacco therefore often called as ’cigarette beetle’. This bug can spoil all products being infested, their existence in a product give uneasy feeling to the consumers. The high chance of pests infestation in UPK-Masamba case is coming from its surrounding as their habitat, i.e RMU. There is no doubt that Lasioderna serricorne able to migrate from less than 1000 metres. The migration happen through the wind and people coming in and out from RMU to UPK-Masamba (Carolina & Novianti 2010). Realizing the condition and its location to the source of pests, i.e. RMU, several steps were taken, especially concerning sanitation. Sanitation is a set of process taken to assure hygieny and minimize contaminant from food and its processing machine. It is taken to prevent disease or accident happen or control factors that have role in pests infestation in food processing since receiving raw materials, processing, packaging and storing and product distribution. Steps taken in UPK-Masamba (Carolina & Fithria 2010) are: 1. Sanitation of Production Environment The environment of food processing industry have to be clean or hygienic, because it influence production process. Therefore the hygieny of a production process has to be maintained. 2. Sanitation of Production Room Sanitation of production room is a must, because these rooms both directly and indirectly connected to production process is a source of contamination. Room sanitation applies to all rooms in production unit or UPK-Masamba in this case, such as processing room, administration room, and stock room. Steps taken were cleaning all rooms in UPK-Masamba before and after processing. Ensuring the production equipments such as mould, tray, pan etc. are always dry. All these rooms and production machines and tools have to be clean before and after processing, and to ensure that there are no insects or bugs that may contaminate chocolate, including waste handling. To make sure that all rooms are clean and free from bugs and insects can be done by using disinfectan or sanitizer with phenol contain safely to avoid negative effect to production process or products. 3. Sanitasi Tools and Machines All equipments or tools that use in processing should always be cleaned, before and after production process. Sanitation of the machines and tools of production done by cleaning regularly using detergent and cleaning with clean water or warm water, and dry it. 4. Sanitation of The Worker Sanitation of the worker is also important, because they may act as carries of bugs and insects which may contaminate their products. Sanitation of the worker prevent the spread of bugs and insects. The possibility of contamination from workers is high because they directly connect with the products. Worker sanitation includes washing hands and bodies before starting production process, also not wearing any jewelries, wearing clean clothing and gloves, covers the hair, shoes or foot. 5. Raw Material Sanitation Raw material sanitation is important to avoid undesirable objects which will affect product quality. Steps to taken for raw material sanitation is good drying practice of cocoa beans, i.e. with drying mat. Next step before processing cocoa beans is sort out the beans from contaminants, dirt and bad beans. Through this step, the quality of cocoa beans can be assured. 6. Sanitation in Waste Handling Cocoa shells in large amount becomes wastes in UPK-Masamba which is difficult to terminate. Waste is other source of bugs and insects, therefore waste handling is

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important. One way to solve the problem is by processing cocoa shells waste into products that have economic values. With these steps, UPK Masamba has manage to at least minimize the possibility of bugs and insects contamination in their products. This condition is observed after four months, when an evaluation was taken on October 2010, bugs found only in limited amount which is found in the processing room. Actually the traps was set to catch bugs in insects in UPK Masamba to examine more about these pests so a preventive action can be designed. From observation and analysis the chocolate produce in UPK Masamba after preventive actions was taken, there are no trace of bugs or insects infestation in the product or chocolate after stored for approximately 5 months. CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATIONS It is recommended to take actions as follows: 1. Preventive action can be done physically, chemical and biologically. Physical action is maintaining production room hygieny and by always cleaning the equipments and tools used in production process, and also the hygieny of surrounding location/environment of UPK-Masamba. Last action that can be applied is by fumigation using chemicals. 2. Inspection is an action that have to be part of everyday action of UPK-Masamba workers to ensure no infestation of bugs or insects by maintaining its hygieny. 3. Control is needed when the condition can not be tolerates when infestation has already occured. Fumigation can use botanicals and make sure that the application is in accordance with instruction.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors would like to give high appreciation to several colleagues: Carolina, Rachmini Saparita, Fitri Setyoningrum for their support in this research and their contribution in this paper. Special thanks to Selvie Ndele, Masrin, and Abdullah of UPKMasamba for their assistance when the research was done in Poso, also to LIPI who facilitate this research through Program Insentif Peneliti dan Perekayasa LIPI. REFERENCES Depparaba, Fredrik (2002): Penggerek Buah Kakao (Conopomorpha cramenella Stellen) dan Penanggulangannya in Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 21 (2), Departemen Pertanian – Jakarta. Dyah et al. (2010): Peningkatan Kemampuan Teknologi Proses pada Usaha Olahan Kakao di Kabupaten Poso, Sulawesi Tengah. Laporan Akhir Program Insentif Peneliti dan Perekayasa LIPI Tahun 2010. B2P-TTG LIPI Subang 2010, Unpublished. Carolina & Novianti, Fithria (2010): Potensi Infestasi Serangga Hama Gudang Pada Produk Cokelat kasus cokelat makanan buatan UPK Masamba – Poso – Sulawesi Tengah. Technical Report, B2P-TTG LIPI Subang 2010, unpublished.

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THE PESTS AND DISEASES ON KEDANG SWEET-ORANGE AT LEMBATA DISTRICT IN EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE F. X. Wagiman1) and R. C. Hidayat2) 1) Research Center for Management of Biological Resources and Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gadjah Mada. 2) Research Center for Management of Biological Resources and Faculty of Biology, University of Gadjah Mada. Email: [email protected], [email protected]

ABSTRACT The Kedang Sweet-Orange (KSO) is a local name of Citrus sp. in Lembata District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. This orange is popular until 1990, but since then the KSO is less and less due to various factors. Survey in October 2010 showed that 86% out of 6,125 trees were dead. Field observation revealed that Diplodia disease was believed being the main cause of the dead plants. Several pests with light damage were observed on the KSO; Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) sucking sap of young leaves, Phyllocnistis citrella Staint (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) mining young leaves, Prays endocarpa Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) boring young fruits, Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) feeding on stem skin, and garden snail feeding on leaves. In the near future, in depth research on management and control of the pests and diseases mainly the Diplodia are urgently conducted to support the commercial production of the KSO. Key words: Lembata, Citrus, Kedang Sweet-Orange, Diplodia.

INTRODUCTION Kedang is located in eastern part of Lembata Island, about 60 km east of Lewoleba the capital city of Lembata District, East Nusa Tenggara Province. Orange (Citrus sp.) was introduced in Kedang in 1920 and then since several years later Kedang is famous as a production area of sweet orange. Local name of the sweet orange is then called as Kedang Sweet Orange (KSO). The KSO comprises four kinds of orange namely Hongkong, Cina, Timur, and Sedo. KSO is typical of Kedang. When it is transplanted at out site of Kedang, the KSO can grow well but the fruit quality is significantly different. Until 1990 the KSO is still an important income-resource for the people of Kedang. A productive tree may yield fruits with value of Rp3,000,000 per harvesting season. KSO marketing reached cities of Lewoleba, Larantuka, Maumere, Ende, and Kupang. However, since 1990 the KSO has been decreasing dramatically. One by one the KSO trees died. Some gum came out from skin of stems and branches. Leaves are getting yellowish, then fall, as well as young fruits fall off. As a result, population of the KSO is less than 20% (Sinar Tani, 2010). Objective of the research was to determine factors associated with the dead KSO-plants especially pests and diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Interview and field observation were conducted in October, 2010, at KSO fields in Kedang area, Lembata District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Factors affecting

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KSO production including pests and diseases were studied by interviewing 60 respondents who are representing farmers of 29 villages. Meanwhile, existing pests and diseases were observed directly in the field of KSO. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Disease symptom on KSO trees described by farmers is confirmed to what seen in the field and those confirmed as well with description showed by Semangun (1994), it is a Diplodia disease. Golden gum came out from skin of stems and branches, small cracking seen on the skin, the infected skin getting dry, leaves turn into yellowish and fall off, and then the KSO trees will die gradually. Table 1 shows that the disease may reduce 86% of 6,125 KSO trees, and percentages of infected trees on current existing of pre-yielding and yielding trees of KSO are 63 and 39%, respectively. The highest reduction rate of KSO trees was found on Sedo (96%), while on Hongkong was 53%. Hongkong is the most preferred (48%) and the least infested by Diplodia. Intensive and in depth studies on management and control of the disease are urgently required to support conservation and development of the KSO. Insects and snail pests were observed on KSO with light damage rate. Aphids colonized on young leaves and suck the plant sap. Referred to Kalshoven (1981) it is called as brown citrus aphid with scientific name: Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) Table 1. Reduction and damage rate of KSO trees due to Diplodia sp. infection at Kedang in Lembata District, reported by 60 respondents in October 2010 KSO Conditions KSO in the past KSO currentexistence Reduction rate Pre-yielding KSO Healthy Sick Yielding KSO Healthy Sick Most Preferred

trees % trees % trees % trees % trees % trees % trees % trees % trees % (%)

SEDO 4587 75 203 23 4384 96 148 73 23 16 125 84 55 27 14 25 41

TIMUR 440 7 148 17 292 66 98 66 16 16 82 84 50 34 35 70 15

Kinds of KSO HONGKONG 910 15 429 49 481 53 248 58 157 63 91 37 181 42 131 72 50

CINA 188 3 94 11 94 50 73 78 14 19 59 81 21 22 8 38 13

TOTAL 6125 100 874 100 5251 86 567 65 210 37 357 63 307 35 188 61 119

75 18

30 22

28 48

62 12

39 100

(Hemiptera: Aphididae). Leaf-miner Phyllocnistis citrella Staint (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was observed to attack young leaves of KSO. Aphids and leaf-miner were found on four kinds of KSO; Sedo, Hongkong, Cina, and Timur. Fruit borer with scientific name of Prays endocarpa Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) was observed to attack 102

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on Timur. Coconut palm rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the most serious pests of the coconut palm, but it was surprisingly observed feeding on stem skin of Hongkong. Garden snail pest was observed feeding on leaves of Hongkong. The KSO is being cultivated traditionally, nothing was done significantly after transplanting. The big problem on the Diplodia disease is strongly believed to relate with the crop management. Less of watering, fertilizing, pruning, other crop management, and couple with climate change like long dry season were factors that favoring the disease development. Farmers have limited knowledge and skill on KSO cultivation, hence, they have to be supported with innovation and technology. CONCLUSIONS Diplodia disease is the most important constraint in commercial KSO production in Lembata District. Implementation of integrated crop management with emphasize on the control of the disease is recommended. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by Institute for Research and Community Services, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta; contract no.: LPPM/UGM/2671/BID. IV/2010, September 1st, 2010. Thank to the Agricultural and Forestry Service of Lembata District for highly attention and significant contribution in doing research at Kedang. REFFERENCES Sinar

Tani. 2010. Jeruk Kedang dari Lembata. (The Kedang Orange from Lembata). http://www.sinartani.com/budidaya/jeruk-kedang-lembata-1270625039.htmAccessed on 28 September 2010

Semangun, H. 1994. Penyakit-penyakit Tanaman Hortikultura di Indonesia (The Diseases of Horticulture Crops in Indonesia). Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. Kalshoven, L. G. E. 1981. Pests of Crops in Indonesia. Revised and Translated by P. A.Van Der Laan. Jakarta: P.T. Ichtiar Baru – Van Hoeve. .

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EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME MAJOR CONTROL COMPONENTS IN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CLUB-ROOT ON CABBAGE PRACTICED BY THE BUILDER FARMERS IN KARANGANYAR CENTRAL JAVA1 Hadiwiyono, Sholahuddin, S. Widono, M.K. Himawati, & R. Wijayanti Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta Contact Person: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Club-root caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. has excluded cabbage as an alternative majorcommodity in that area. This is evaluating integrated disease management (IDM) of club-root applied by the builder farmers. Ten plots of IDM of cabbage were cultivated by 30 builder farmers in mild and heavy contaminated lands in Argoyoso and Tawangmangu, Karanganyar. The major control components in heavy contaminated lands were plant rotation with rice field for level landsthe application of synthetic fungicide a week before planting, followed by application of botanical fungicide, and biological control to reduce pathogen population and improve the land condition for better cultivation. In mild contaminated lands, the disease was controlled by using trap crop (Chinese cabbage) or decoy crop (Tagetespatula L) before plnating, for intercropping, and/or for biological control. Biological control used Trichoderma and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR). Botanical pesticides used, were leaf extract of Tithonia divesifolia Grays and T. patula applied by soil drenching weekly. The result suggested that the club root could be controlled by IDM. Some control techniques should be considered as major component of the IDM. Plant rotation with rice is very effective to control club-root in heavy contaminated lands. Cabbage intercropping with trap crop of T. patula and decoy crop ofT. diversifolia could decrease the disease incidence on mild contaminated soil. Application of Trichoderma , PGPR, and botanical pesticide from leaf extract of T. patula and T. diversifolia were considered to control club-root in mild contaminated lands or to complement post fungicide application on heavy contaminated soil. Key words: cabbage, club-root, integrated disease management, plant rotation, biological control

INTRODUCTION Club-root caused by Plasmodiphora brassicae Wor.is the major constrain in the production of cabbage of Karanganyar, Central Java. In the fields the disease is very destructive to Brassicaceae with disease incidence reaching over 80% and sometimes farmers totally fail to fail to harvest the products (Hadiwiyono & Supriyadi, 1998a). Previously, cabbage is the major commodity in highland Karanganyar, such Argoyoso and Tawangmangu. More than a decade, the disease however have caused nocabbage planted at Karanganyar due to the farmers have been afraid to grow the cabbage. The farmers were not able to control the disease. Resistant cultivars and effective fungicides are not available. In addition, in contaminated lands, the pathogen is difficult to control due to their highly persistence in soil. The pathogen could survive for a long time as resting spore, although there is no susceptible host (Agrios, 2005). Theoretically and technologically, the disease could be controlled by integrated disease management (IDM) (Donald & Porter, 2009). Many techniques have been developed to control the disease but they should be applied in integrated way. Unfortunately, the control technology is still poorly understood by the farmers (Hadiwiyono & Widono, 2005). This research aimed to evaluate of IDM of club-

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root of cabbage conducted by the builder farmers in Argoyoso and Tawangmangu, Karanganyar. MATERIALS AND METHODS The research consisted of 10 units of multi location experiments with 500 m2land per plot. The IDM was applied in two kinds of contaminated land that are mild contaminated lands and heavy contaminated lands. Criteria of the contamination status was based on the disease incidence of club-root ontheprevious cabbage plants, that were ≤ 20% for mild contaminated land and over 50% for heavy contaminated land. The techniques applied asthecomponent of IDM were classified in two terms that were general component and major component. General components were applied in all of the plots, whereas major components adjusted on the specific condition of each land. The general components consist of: usage of healthy seedlings, usage of compost, liming with dolomite, balanced fertilizer, piling basal stem of plant, and other good practices, whereas the major components are listed in Table 1.Disease incidence of club rootwas observed weekly. Each unit of treatment with one component of IDM was sampled to observe a number of 100 plants. The samples were determined by systematic sampling. The observation was based on visual wilting on 11.00-12.00 am. The disease incidence was the percentage of wilt plants to the total plant samples. Table 1. The major components of IDM No

Major Components

Target

Application

1.

Plant rotation with paddy fields

Club-root pathogen and other soil borne pathogens

On heavy contaminated lands of clubroot pathogens

2.

Biological control agents of Club-root pathogen Trichoderma and PGPR Root-knot nematode

50 g/hole of planting contaminated lands

3.

Botanical pesticides: leaf extract of T. diversifolia and T. patula

Club-root pathogen

200 ml of 5% leaf extract for soil drenching around basal stem of plant on mild contaminated lands and on heavy contaminated land post fungicide application

4.

Trap crop (Chinese cabbage/B. chinensis).

Club-root pathogen

Intercropping with cabbage on mild contaminated, as barrier plants along the row of bed edge

5.

Decoy crop (T. patula)

Club-root pathogen Root-knot nematode

Intercropping with cabbage on mild contaminated lands

6.

Fungicide treatment with flusulfamide and borax

Club-root pathogen

flusulfamide with 0,012g/hole of planting; borax with 0,3g/hole of planting applied a week before planting

Root-knot nematode

on

mild

RESULTS DAN DISCUSSION The results showed that Trichoderma, PGPR, and Chinese cabbage could reduce the disease incidence (Table 1). This results confirmed to previous experiments showing that Trichoderma could reduce the disease incidence of club-rootand promoted tolerance of brassicas (Hadiwiyono, 1998b; 2001; Hadiwiyono & Supriyadi, 1998b; Hadiwiyono & 105

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Dewi, 2000).Hadiwiyono (2000) suggested that PGPR from fluorescence Pseudomonad could reduce the disease intensity of club-root and promote plant growth on Chinese cabbage. The disease incidence of club root on the cabbagesgrown by intercropping with tagetes significantly decreased (Figure 2). Hadiwiyono & Widadi (2001) suggested that the mechanism of decoy crop of T. patula to reduce club-root intensity on the complicated infection with Meloidogyne through reducing directly population of the club-root pathogen and or reducing population of the nematode. Plant rotation with paddy field very effectively reduced the population of club-root pathogen showed by decreasing the disease incidence on cabbage planted post the rotation with paddy field (Figure 3). Although, the disease incidence on the rotated land with paddy field was still occurred, the level is very low, under two percents. Possibly, this infection was spread from the other land through water irrigation. Djatnika (1993) stated thatwater irrigation is an effective agent to spread club-root pathogen.

5,25

6

NC Tricho PGPR TC

Disease insidence (%)

5 4

: no control : Trichoderma : PGPR : trap crop as barrier

3 2 0,75 1

0,00

0,25

0

1 NCTricho. PGPRTC Figure 1. The effectiveness of Trichoderma, PGPR, and Chinese cabbage as biological control on IDM of club-root of cabbage on mild contaminated land

20

Disease insidence (%)

15,67

NC: no control IC-TP : intercropping with T. patula E-TP : leaf extract of T. patula

15

10 5,00 5

3,33

0

NC

IC-TP 1

E-TP

Figure 2. The effectiveness of intercropping with andleaf extract of T. patula as the component of IDM of club-root of cabbage on mild contaminated land

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95,40

Disease incidebse (%)

100,00 80,00 60,00 40,00 1,73 20,00 0,00 1 No Rotation

2 paddy fields Rotation with

Figure 3. The effectiveness of plant rotation with paddy field to decrease the disease incidence of club-root of cabbage

The leaf extract of T. diversifolia could enhance the effectiveness of fungicide application of flusulfamide and borax before planting (Figure 4 & 5). Tanaka et al. (1999) suggested that flusulfamide suppressedclub-root disease by inhibiting germination of resting spores through adsorption onto their cell walls. The application with flusulfamide followed by 4 timesof leaf extract application ofT. diversifolia every two week, became more effective. Borax application on the planting hole before planting became more effective when the application was incombination with leaf extract of T. diversifolia. Yemele et al. (2006) reported that leaf extract of T. diversifolia consisted of Thithoniaquinone A and tithoniamide B, psoralen, and I-quebrachitol. ThithoniaquinoneA and psoralen were strongly fungicidal and antibacterial activities. In addition antimicrobial compounds, the leaf extract of T. diversifolia consist of nematicidal compound (Slamp et al. 2009). Therefore, the leaf extract of T. diversifolia reduced the disease incidence of club-root through reducing population of Meloidogyne in soil as well. In addition, the leaf extract of T. diversifolia can be used as green manure so the leaf extract application will also promote plant growth. Coyne et al. (2006) suggested that leaves of T. diversifolia could be used as botanical nematicide and green manure at once.

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92,00

NC: no control FL : Flusulfamite FL+ETD :Flusulfamide+leaf extract of T. diversifolia

Disease incidence (%)

100 80 60

41,00

40 13,00

20 0 1

Disease incidence (%)

Figure 4. The effectiveness of fungicide application of flusulfamide and its enhancing with leaf extract of T. diversifolia to control club-root of cabbage on heavy contaminated land NC FL FL+ETD

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

71,00

NC: no control BX : Borax BX+ETD : Flusulfamide+leaf extract of T. diversifolia

39,67 28,67

NCBX

1 BX+LE

Figure 5. The effectiveness of application of borax and its enhancing with leaf extract of T. diversifolia to control club-root of cabbage on heavy contaminated soil

CONCLUSIONS The result suggested that club root could be controlledby IDM. Some of the control techques applied should be considered as the major component of the IDM. Plant rotation with paddy fields was very effective to control club-root in heavy contaminated lands. Cabbage intercropping with trap crop T. patula and decoy crop T. diversifolia could decrease the disease incidence on mild contaminated soil. Application of Trichoderma , PGPR, and botanical pesticide from leaf extract of T. patula and T. diversifolia could be considered to control club-root in mild contaminated lands or to complement post fungicide application on heavy contaminated soil.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was founded by DIPA of the University of Sebelas Maret through Contract Number:0162.0/023-04.2/XIII/2009, signed on 31December, 2009 agreed by the General Directorate of High Education No. 231/D3/PL/2009, signed on Mart 24 2009.

REFERENCES Agrios, G.N. 2005. Plant Pathology. 4rd Ed. Academic Press. New York. 922p. Coyne, D.; C. Cajumba; & F. Kagoda. 2006. Nematode management at international institute of tropical Agriculture in East Africa. In: G. Blomme, & C. Karamura (eds). Proceeding of the workshop on farmer-participatory testing of IPM options for sustainable banana production in eastern Africa, held in Seeta, Uganda, 8-9 Dec 2003. INIBAB. Kapala (UGA). Djatnika, L., 1993. Sifat dan Ciri Cendawan Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.. Pp: 1-8. Dalam: Kubis. Sub-Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Segunung, Cianjur Donald, C. & I. Porter. 2009. Integrated control of club-root. J. Plant Growth Regulator. 28(3):289-303. Hadiwiyono & S. Widono. 2005. Studi lini dasar terjadinya epidemi penyakit busuk pangkal bawang putih di Tawangmangu Karanganyar, Jawa Tengah. Penel. Hibah Fundamental TA. 2005. Hadiwiyono & Sri Widadi. 2001. Penggunaan kenikir sayur sebagai decoy crop dan Trichoderma untuk eliminasi patogen akar gada, Plasmodiophora dan Meloidogyne pada tanah yang diinfestasi. Dalam: A. Purwantara, D. Sitepu, I. Mustika, K. Mulya, MS. Sudjono, M. Machmud, SH. Hidayat, Supriadi, Widodo (Penyunting). Prosiding Kongr. XVI dan Seminar Ilmiah Nas. PFI. PFI, Jur. HPT IPB. Bogor. P.338-343. Hadiwiyono & W.S. Dewi. 2000.Uji Pengaruh Penggunaan Vermikompos, Trichoderma Viride dan Mikorhiza Vesikula Arbuskula terhadap Serangan Cendawan Akar Bengkak (Plasmodiophora Brassicae Wor.) dan Pertumbuhan pada Caisin. Caraka Tani 15(2):20-28. Hadiwiyono & Supriyadi. 1998a. Penyakit ―Menthol‖ sebagai Pengganggu Baru Kubis-Kubisan di Tawangmangu, Karanganyar. Caraka Tani13(2):16-24. Hadiwiyono & Surpiyadi, 1998b. Pengujian toleransi inang jamur akar gada (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) pada Kubis-Kubisan dan pengembangan pengendaliannya secara hayati dengan Trichoderma spp. J. Penel. UNS Sumbangsih2(4):1-8. Slamp, L; P.S. Pereira; S. de Castro Frenda; S. Zingaretti, R.O. Balebani. 2009. In vitro nematicidal effect of medicinal plant from Sa Paolo State, Brazil. Pharmaceutical Biology 43(3): 230-235. Tanaka, S., S. Kochi, H. Kunita, S. Ito, & M. Kameya-Iwaki. Biological mode action of the fungicide, flusulfamide, against Plasmodiophora btassiae (club-root). Europ. J. Plant Pathol. 105(6):577-584. Yemele, B.M.; K. Karsten; H. Hidayat; D. Etienne; B. Barbara. 2006. Thithoniaquinone A and tithoniamide B: a new anthraquinone, and a new ceramide from leaves of Tithonia diversifolia.J. Chemical Sci. 61(1):78-84.

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ARGEMONEMEXICANA (L.) MOENCH AS A BOTANICAL PESTICIDE FOR FUNGUS COLLETOTRICHUM SP. AND RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM Hingdri, Aldy Wahyu P., Roni Hartanto, Rizqi Laila A., Intan Fahni T. Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University Jl. Jatinangor Raya Km. 21 Bandung 40600

ABSTRACT Control of plant diseases using chemical pesticides can cause environmental pollution and problem for farmers and consumers. The use of botanical pesticide is one strategy for reducing the use of chemical pesticides. The purpose of this research to know the ability of Argemone mexicana as a botanical pesticide. Research conducted using factorial completely randomized design with 2 factors of 8 treatments with 3 sample replications. The experiment was conducted using a test population and test the clear zone width. Types of treatment are examined, ie control, 15 ppm leaf extract, root extract 15 ppm, 30 ppm leaf extract, root extract 30 ppm, 45 ppm leaf extract, and 45 ppm extract of the roots. The results showed that the dose of 15 ppm root extract has a good potential to suppress disease infection of Colletotrichum sp. and Ralstoniasolanacearum visible from 1.70 x105 population (cfu/ml) compared to 3.53 x105 control population (cfu / ml). Dose of 15 ppm root extract showed the most clear zone width of 7.61 mm and 6.00 mm in width control. Keyword: Argemon Mexicana,Botanical Pesticide, Colletotrichum Sp, Ralstonia solanacearum.

INTRODUCTION Background Pesticides application that uses chemicals material can bothering the society, as a result many people become have the problem with respiratory organs. In addition the developing of organic farming triggers the necessity based on natural substance and avoid or reduce the chemical‘s necessity. The use of chemicals pesticide causes many researchers regarding the necessity of the society in the natural (organic) products consumption. As we know beside causes the farmer‘s health disorder to controlling pests and diseases, this chemical application will be transferred over into the society through the daily consumption. So it needs the natural pesticide which clean and qualified . One of the wild plants that can be used as a pesticide is Argemone mexicana which we found beneath the foothills of Manglayang Mountain. In treating a disease caused by Colletotrichum sp. and Ralstonia solacearum farmers often use pesticides in the wrong way in terms of time usage and dosage of use. Farmers tend to use excessive dosage in the hope that the disease will not attack again. Use of excessive doses will cause excess residue on the ground that it resulted in broken ground. In addition to farmers dose their use of pesticides also tend to take 1-3 days before harvest, which resulted in entrainment of pesticides in tomatoes and peppers. This will harm the health of consumers who purchased the product. Thus necessary to develop pesticides that are harmless to humans and the environment. Botanical pesticides is one of the alternative replacement of harmful chemical pesticides.

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The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of weed plant A. mexicana as a botanical pesticide manufacture of vegetable material. MATERIALS AND METHODS Types of microbial pathogens used were Colletotrichum sp. and Ralstonia solanacearum. Extraction plant Argemon mexicana of methanol as botanical pesticide. Extraction of materials carried in the Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science University of Padjadjaran. Research conducted using factorial completely randomized design. Factor 1: Microbial pathogens (Colletotrichum sp. and Ralstonia solanacearum); Factor 2: Extract Dose A. mexicana 0, 15, 30, 45 ppm. The treatment carried out with 3 replication. By using treatment code D1 = 0 ppm dose, D2 = 15 ppm dose of leaf extract, D3 = root extract dose of 15 ppm, D4 = 30 ppm dose of leaf extract, D5 = root extract dose of 30 ppm, D6 = 45 ppm dose of leaf extract, D7 = 45 ppm doses of root extract, Isolation of fungi or fungi Colletotrichum sp. isolated from diseased fruit chili antraknosa. The method used is the method of serial dilution with medium Potato dextrose Agar (PDA). Fungal isolates obtained was purified on PDA medium. Isolation of Ralstoniasolanacearum obtained from plants infected with bacterial wilt disease. Infected plants were taken as samples. Samples of plants were washed with and disinfectants with alcohol 70%, cut along the 5 mm and inserted into a test tube which already contains the water and leave for 15 minutes. Suspension cultures formed streaked on medium Peptone Yeast Agar (YPA), which coupled with sikloheksimid 100 ppm in the petridish. Culture was incubated for 48 hours at a temperature of 29oC. Observation of the shape and color of colonies of bacteria in medium YPA include the formation of tyrosine brown pigment around the colonies (Hayward, 1976). Extraction of Argemon mexicana performed at Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University. Solvent used is methanol. The extraction was done by drying and separating the leaves and roots Argemon mexicana then chopped and soaked with the ever methanol for 48 hours. After soaking for 48 hours filtered and evaporated by evaporator at 40oC. Tests carried out by 2 methods: method of solid media (Petri dish) and liquid media (Erlenmeyer method). These experiments using the Petri dish. The media used were solid media with PDA medium for testing fungi and YPA medium for bacterial testing. Erlenmeyer method uses a liquid medium and PDA medium for testing of fungi and bacteria for testing medium YPA. Test extract A. Mexicana on both methods is done differently but using the same dose. In the Petri dish method, the test is done by using filter paper disc which has soaked in extract A. mexicana. The indicator is widely observed that formed a clear zone around the paper disc. Formed clear zone is an area that is free of microbial pathogens. In the

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Erlenmeyer method, extracts of A. Mexicana together with microbial pathogens previously unknown population initially (to), then at the end of observation (tn) recalculated microbial pathogen population. Calculation of the pathogen populations using a colony counter. Indicators measured were living pathogen population so that it can be seen the percentage of killing power extract A. Mexicana. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS 11.5 computer program.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Population of Ralstonia solanacearum Bacteria Test In the experimental design that we do produce data that can be viewed and interpreted that the population of D3 (root extract dose of 15 ppm) recorded data at least bacterial populations (table 2.) Table 1. Dose Effect Analysis Argemon mexicana Variety Of Bacterial Populations Number of Middle Source Diversity DB F-Count P-Value Squares Squares Treatment 6 7258735,36 1209789,23 1,776 0,176 Galat 14 9538849,99 681346,428 Total 20 16797585,36 Table 2. Dose Effect of Argemon mexicana on Bacterial Population Bacterial Population Treatment (cfu/ml) D1 (Control) 3,53 x 105 b 5 D2 (15 ppm leaf extract) 2,40 x 10 ab D3 (15 ppm root extract) 1,70 x 105 a 5 D4 (30 ppm leaf extract) 2,40 x 10 ab D5 (30 ppm leaf extract) 2,40 x 105 ab 5 D6 (45 ppm leaf extract) 3,40 x 10 b D7 (45 ppm root extract) 2,50 x 105 ab Description: - The average score on the same column marked with the same letter are not significantly different according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 5% level. Disc Width = 6 mm. In D3 treatment of a wide clear zone indicates the maximum treatment, where the width of clear zone formed significantly different from other treatments. This root extract treatment showed 15 ppm to kill bacteria. Clear zone Width Test on Bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum Clear zone width test aims to determine the extract from the leaves or roots which can kill bacteria or inhibit bacterial growth with external indicators of clear zone around the paper disc. Data can be seen in table 4. Table 3. Dose Effect Analysis Argemon mexicana Variety Of Clear Zone Width Source Number of Middle Source Diversity DB F-Count P-Value Squares Squares 112

61st Universitas Gadjah Mada Anniversary

Treatment Galat Total

6 56 62

14,50 7,56 22,06

2,417 0,135

17,912

0,176

Table 4. Dose Effect Argemon mexicana to width of ―Clear zone‖ Treatment

Width of clear zone (mm)

D1 (Kontrol) D2 (15 ppm leaf extract) D3 (15 ppm root extract) D4 (30 ppm leaf extract) D5 (30 ppm root extract) D6 (45 ppm leaf extract) D7 (45 ppm root extract) Description: - The average score on the same are not significantly different according to 5%level.Width = 6 mm discs.

6,00 a 7,22 bc 7,61 d 7,44 cd 7,00 b 7,00 b 7,11 bc column marked with the same letter Duncan's Multiple Range Test at

In D3 treatment of a wide clear zone indicates the maximum treatment, where the width of clear zone formed significantly different from other treatments. This root extract treatment showed 15 ppm to kill bacteria. On the whole known that extracts of Argemone mexicana to suppress or inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. It is alleged the existence of compounds contained in Argemon mexicana which can affect the growth of bacteria (Alfredo C. Santos, Pacifica Adkilen (July 1932)). Alkaloids or compounds contained in Argemon mexicana which can suppress or affect the growth of bacteria is an alkaloid sanguarine. Sanguarine may affect Na +-K +-ATPase transmembrane proteins, which can kill bacteria (D. Walterova, J. Ulrichova, I. Valka, J. Vicar, C. Vavreckova, E. Taborska, RJ Harjrader, DL Meyer, H. digestibility and V. Simanek (1996)). In Indonesia, not much research about the content on this Argemone mexicana. But in some countries in Latin America (center of origin A. mexicana), exactly in Mexico, this plant has been developed as an alternative to medical treatment or medication. In some countries found to be an anti-cancer (Vaqar Mustafa Adhami, Moammir Hasan Aziz, Hasan Mukhtar, and Nihal Ahmad, 2003), anti-HIV, drug healing the eyes, and teeth.

CONCLUSIONS Alkaloid contained in Argemon mexicana (sanguarine), can suppress the growth of fungi that extracts of this plant can be used as a botanical pesticide material, indicated by the width of clear zone and the bacterial population in the experiment has been done.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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The co-authors thank to Mr. Diyan Herdiyantoro, SP.,M.Si. that have helped in this research.

REFERENCES Asman, A. 1996. Wilt disease and budok on patchouli and control. Proceeding Integreted Control Of Main Disease of Industrial Crops. Bogor: RISMC and JICA. Pages 284-290 Asman, M.A. Esther, and D. Sitepu. 1998. Wilt disease, budok and other diseases as well as its control strategy. Monographs patchouli. Crops Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Bogor. 5: 8488 Asman, A. 1993. Nilam Disease Research. Proceedings of the National Congress and Scientific Seminar XII PFI. Yogyakarta. 2: 903-911 Nasruh, et al. 2007. Physiological characteristics of Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt disease of patchouli. Bogor: Agency for Agriculture Research and Development Indutrial Crops Research Journal Vol 13 No. 2: 43-48 Radhakrishan, at all. 1997. Influence of shade intensities and varietal reactions of Patchouli (Pogestemom patchouli) to bacterial wilt incited by Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solacearum E. F. Smith. Bacterial wilt Newslatter. Publication of the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research. PERSELEY, G.J., pand D.E. Stead. 1987. Methods for the diagnosis of bacterial diseases of plants. Methods in plant pathology, British Society of Plant Pathology flor. Blackweel Scientific Publications (2) p 212. Hayward, A.C. 1984. Systematic and Phylogeny of Pseudomonas solanacearum and related bacteria. In: Hayward. A.C and G.L Hartman. Bacterial Wilt. The Disease and its CausativeAgent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. CAB International. P-123-135 Noor Istifadah. The ability of rhizosphere fungi Tomatoes Tomatoes In Improving Plant Resistance Against Disease Powdery Mildew (Oidium sp.) Journal of Faculty of Agriculture of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Bandung 40600. Volume 17, No. 2, August 2006: 144-145.

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INDONESIAN BANANA CULTIVARS PURWODADI BOTANIC GARDEN’S COLLECTIONS Lia Hapsari Purwodadi Botanic Garden-Indonesian Research Institute, Jl. Surabaya-Malang Km. 65,Tlp./Fax.: 0341-426046, e-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Bananas are perennial crops that grow quickly, easily planted in various environmental conditions and can be harvested all year round. It is an alternative food source that is always available throughout the year thereby playing a crucial role in food security. For more than over two decades Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been collecting Musa germplasm both wild types and cultivated varieties, which collected through explorations, plants exchanging, grants and community or personal contribution from several regions all over Indonesia, mostly from Eastern Indonesia. Thirty of 111 accessions have been selected and their fruit performance evaluated i.e. Pisang Ambon Hong, Bawean, Berlin, Brentel Warangan, Candi, Ebung, Jaran, Kepok Putih, Kreas, Nona, Rayap, Rejang, Rojo Bandung, Tlekung, etc. Indeed those local cultivars would become potential commodity for domestic market consumption both as dessert and/or cooking bananas. However, the potential of bananas as a substitute staple food is being promoted to strengthen the national food security system. Key words: banana, cultivar, food security, Purwodadi Botanic Garden

INTRODUCTION Bananas are perennial crops that grow quickly, easily planted in various environmental conditions. They fit well into the cropping system, in which extensively grew where they are mainly intercropped with short term crops (Ouma, 2009; Dzomeku et al, 2009). They can be harvested all year round, thus providing a source of energy during the‘hungry period‖ between crop harvests. Banana is an alternative food source that is always available throughout the year thereby playing a crucial role in food security (Frison and Sharrock, 1998; FAO, 2003). Bananas are cultivated in over 100 countries in the tropical and subtropical regions in the world. They are the developing world‘s fourth most important global food crop after rice, wheat and maize in terms of gross production value. The vast majority of producers are small-scale farmers growing the crop either for home consumption or for local markets (Frison & Sharrock, 1998). Indo-Malesian region is considered as the main centre of bananas diversity (Simmonds, 1959; Espino et al, 1992). In Indonesia, there are about 232 banana cultivars found in various areas such in West Sumatra, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan, to the South Sulawesi, in which 19 of them are commercial cultivars such as Pisang Ambon, Mas, Barangan, Kepok, Tanduk, Susu, etc. (Nasution & Yamada, 2001 and Anonymous, 2004). Bananas are widely distributed, mostly growing in backyards and very little as an estate crop if compared with other Indonesian tropical fruits. The socio-economic importance of bananas has increased recently among the rural community. The important role of bananas is due not only to the economic value of banana fruits but also of its nutritional value and the diversity of uses of the fruit through processing are now well recognised (Setyobudi, 1998).

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For more than over two decades Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been collecting Musa germplasms both of wild types and cultivated varieties, which collected through explorations, plants exchange, grants and community or personal contribution from several regions all over Indonesia, mostly from Eastern Indonesia. The total accession numbers has been decreasing from year to year due to diseases outbreaks i.e. Panama Disease (Pseudomonoas solanacearum), Banana Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) and lately Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Simmonds, 1959). In October 2010, the collection remain 111 accessions comprises of 8 numbers of wild types and 103 cultivars. Further studies, including identification, characterization and evaluation then followed by superior genotypes selection of these bananas genetic resources are still to be conducted. Indeed those local cultivars would become potential commodity for domestic market consumption both as dessert and cooking bananas for supporting national food security system. MATERIAL AND METHODS The research has been conducted at bananas collection plots of Purwodadi Botanic Garden. Purwodadi Botanic Garden is a branch garden of Bogor Botanic Garden, located in a low dry area of Pasuruan District about 65 km south of Surabaya, East Java, at an altitude of 300 m above sea level. Plots of bananas collection located in Region II, Environment VI, Vak XXIV A, B, D and E. The observation has been done by field inspections in October 2010. Information regarding the identity of the accessions which includes cultivar names, accession number and its origin traced through the catalogues records and log books of sub-Section Data and Registration of Plant Collection Purwodadi Botanic Garden. The fruit performances were described using The Descriptors for Banana from International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantains (INIBAP) 1996. Any Information and supporting data obtained through the literature study, from previous studies and interview to its own collectors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Musa cultivars are usually seedless and options for their long-term conservation are constrained by the vegetative nature of the plant‘s reproductive system (INIBAP, 2002). M.paradisiaca L. includes a large mass of edible bananas, not a type name in the botanical nomenclature but rather a composite name of cultivars which widely varies (Heyne, 1987). Edible forms have been selected by farmers from the progeny of either one or two wild parent species: M. acuminata ssp. banksii is believed to be the ancestral parent of the majority of edible banana cultivars, contributing what is called the ‗A‘ genome while M. balbisiana contributed the ‗B‖ genome to several banana cultivar groups (Simmonds, 1959; INIBAP, 2002). It is such a hybrid and should correctly be written as M. x paradisiaca L (Espino et al, 1992). Simmonds (1959) suggest replacing the binomial nomenclature by a genome nomenclature: generic name, followed between brackets by a letter combination indicating the ploidy and the genome sets contributed by the two wild species, followed by the name of the cultivar group and/or the cultivar (Espino et al, 1992). They distinguished genome configurations into seven groups i.e. M. acuminata forms: AA, AAA and AAAA; hybrid forms: AB, AAB, ABB and ABBB. For example: Musa (AA group) Pisang Emas, Musa (AAA group) Pisang Ambon, Musa (AAB group) Pisang Raja, Musa (ABB group) Pisang Kepok, etc (Simmonds, 1959). 116

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These 30 selected cultivars (Table 1) originated from around Indonesia, mostly from East Java, particularly from Pasuruan where the Garden lies. It is consists of four groups genome (Table 2) with their own characteristics, performance and taste. The fruit characteristic of Musa AA group is small with an attractive golden-yellow thin skin; the flesh is firm, light orange, aromatic and very sweet. The fruit of Musa AAA group is medium to large with thick yellow skin; the flesh is creamy white, fine textured, sweet and aromatic or slightly aromatic. The fruit of Musa AAB group is small to medium and large, yellow; flesh white to creamy orange, soft, fine textured, some remains starchy, sweet to slightly sub acid. And the fruit of Musa ABB group is medium to large; skin thick, coarse, turning brownish-yellow when ripe; flesh creamy orange and starchy (Simmonds 1959; Espino et al, 1992; ). Table 1. Indonesian Banana cultivars Purwodadi Botanic Garden‘s collections. No.

Cultivar

Location

Accession Number

Origin

Consumption Type

1

Ambon Hong

XXIV.D 25-a

N/A

Jawa Timur

dessert

2

Bawean

XXIV.D 58

P19940516

Yogyakarta

dessert

3

Berlin

XXIV.D 19-ab

P1972041

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

dessert

4

Brentel Warangan

XXIV.D 75-a

P19940551

Yogyakarta

dessert

5

Byok

XXIV.D

P19790665

Tulungagung-Jawa Timur

dessert

6

Candi

XXIV.D 36

P19800417

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

cooking

7

Ebung

XXIV.D17-abc

P19760731

Ponorogo-Jawa Timur

Cooking

8

Emas

XXIV.D 13

P19720518

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

Dessert

9

Jaran

XXIV.E 9

P197707106

Kebumen-Jawa Tengah

Dessert

10

Kayu

XXIV.B 6a

P19720218

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

Dessert

11

Kepok Bung

XXIV.B 12-abcde

P197707143

Magetan-Jawa Timur

Cooking

12

Kepok Putih

XXIV.D 70

P19940531

Yogyakarta

Cooking

13

Kreas

XXIV.D 5-abc

P1973025

Tegal-Jawa Tengah

Dessert

14

Nangka

XXIV.E 7-bc

P19810567

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

Cooking

15

Nona

XXIV.D 37

P198608142

Sulawesi Tengah

Dessert

16

Pipit

XXIV.B 13

P19770798

Yogyakarta

Cooking

17

Rayap

XXIV.D 77-a

P19940542

Yogyakarta

Dessert

18

Rejang

XXIV.D 79-a

P19940548

Yogyakarta

Dessert

19

Rojo Bandung

XXIV.D 69-ab

P19940525

Yogyakarta

Dessert

20

Rojo Kenongo

XXIV.E 24-a

P19810568

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

Dessert

21

Rojo Lingi

XXIV.E 14-abc

P19760188

Yogyakarta

Dessert

22

Rojo Marto

XXIV.D 57

N/A

Jawa Tengah

Dessert

23

Rojo Prentel

XXIV.D 66

N/A

Yogyakarta

Dessert

24

Rojo Siem

XXIV.D 23-abc

P1975062

Kebumen-Jawa Tengah

Dessert

25

Rojo Warangan

XXIV.D 48

P1994058

Yogyakarta

Dessert

26

Sobo Londo

XXIV.D 29

P19720215

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

Cooking

27

Songgroito

XXIV.E 1-a

P1972071

Pasuruan-Jawa Timur

Dessert

28

Susu Gabug

XXIV.B 4

P19820670

P. Bawean-Jawa Timur

Dessert

29

Tlekung

XXIV.B 22-a

N/A

Malang-Jawa Timur

Cooking

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30

Willems

XXIV.D 96-a

P19940423

Jawa Barat

Dessert

Musa of AA, AAA and AAB groups are mostly known as dessert bananas, due its sugary and sweet with slightly acidic predominant taste. But fruit of Musa ABB and BBB group requires some cooking to become palatable, hence the name called cooking bananas. Some of Musa AAB group are consumed both as dessert and cooking banana (Espino et al, 1992). The choice of cultivars on commercial scale farmers depends on consumer‘s preferences and suitability to prevailing agroclimatic conditions in the area (Simmonds, 1959). This is the reason why many potential local cultivars became extinct and replaced by common commercial cultivars. Dessert or sweet bananas, group AAA, where the Cavendish sub-group is prominent with a 47 percent share of global banana production. Almost all bananas traded worldwide are Cavendish (FAO, 2003). The important role of an ex situ conservation of Musa germplasm are providing long-term and sustainable conservation of Musa genetic resources, maintaining a source of genetic diversity and related information in the public domain, contributing to understanding Musa diversity through characterization, evaluation and documentation, providing a service for the safe movement of germplasm and related information and developing and transferring ex situ conservation technologies (INIBAP, 2002). Table 2. Cultivars‘s groups genome classification and its predominant taste Groups Genome

Cultivars

Predominant Taste

AA

Berlin, Emas, Jaran, Nona, Rayap, Rejang

Sugary (like ‗Pisang Mas‘)

AAA

Ambon Hong, Kayu, Kreas, Songgroito, Susu Gabug, Willems Rojo Bandung, Rojo Kenongo, Rojo Lingi, Rojo Marto, Rojo Prentel, Rojo Siem, Rojo Warangan

Sweet (like Cavendish)

Ebung, Kepok Bung, Kepok Putih, Pipit, Sobo Londo

Astringent (like cooking banana)

AAB ABB

Sweet and acidic (apple like)

The nutritive value of a banana is fair in the portions of the different classes of food-stuffs in it, being very like the potato, but considerably higher in food-value (Burkill, 1966). Fruits of various cultivars differ in the nutritional composition. At fruit maturity 100 g edible portion contains approximately: water 70 g, protein 1.2 g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrates 27 g, fibre 0.5 g. It is rich in potassium (400 mg/100 g) and has a special place in diets low in fats, cholesterol and salt. It is also a good source of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. The energy value of ripe banana ranges from 275 to 465 kJ/100 g (Simmonds, 1959; Burkill, 1966; Heyne, 1987; Espino et al, 1992). The carbohydrate levels of some bananas are following; Pisang Rojo Siem 23.66, Susu 23.97, Kepok 20.53, Ambon 22.05 and Emas 24.38 (Heyne, 1987). Before the flesh is ripe the carbohydrates are in the form of sugars, but when the flesh is ripe they exist in the form of sugars. The development in flesh ripening is remain starchy, then it must be cooked, as cooking makes the starch available for the digestive organs (Simmonds 1959; Burkill, 1987). Before ripeness, the fruit is astringent. While the carbohydrates are still in the form of starch, the unripe fruits after slicing can be dried or fried. Alternatively, they may be made into flour and meals (Espino et al, 1992). There are numerous recipes and methods of processing for preparing bananas. Modern methods of processing include the production of chips, drying and pureeing. The puree subsequently used in the manufacture of dairy products such as yogurts, and ice cream in baking breads and cakes, in making banana-flavored drinks, and in producing baby foods and sauces (Frison and Sharrock, 1998).

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CONCLUSION The 30 selected Indonesian banana cultivars Purwodadi Botanic Garden‘s collections comprise of 25 dessert bananas (Musa AA, AAA and AAB groups) and 5 cooking bananas (Musa ABB group), originated from around Indonesia mostly from East Java then Yogyakarta and Central Java. The dessert bananas have predominant taste sugary (like ‗Pisang Mas‘), sweet (like Cavendish) and sweet with slightly acidic (apple like). The cooking bananas have predominant taste astringent, in which must be cooked to become palatable. Due to its nutritional value and a lot of well recognized processing methods, indeed banana is readily accepted as an important food crop in supporting food security system.

REFERENCES Anonymous. 2004. Executive Summary Laporan Akhir Riset Unggulan Strategis Nasional Pengembangan Buah-buahan Unggulan Indonesia Komoditas Pisang. Pusat Kajian Buah Tropika. IPB, Bogor. Burkill,I.H. 1935. A Dictionary of The Economic Product on The Malay Peninsula. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Kuala Lumpur. Dzomeku, B.V., Ankomah, A.A. and Darkey, S.K. 2009. Agronomic performance of two tetraploid Hybrid Plantains in Ghana. Agriculture Conspectus Scientificus. Vol. 74 No. 4. p. 309-312. Espino, R.R.C., S.H. Jamaludin, B. Silayoi and R.E. Nasution. 1992. Musa L. (edible cultivars). In Verheij, E.W.M. and R.E. Coronel (eds.). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.2, Edible fruits and nuts. Prosea Foundation, Bogor. [FAO]

Food Agriculture Organization. 2003. The World Banana Economy http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5102e/y5102e04.htm#bm04. [19 Jul 2010].

1985-2002.

Frison, E. and Sharrock, S. 1998. The economic, social and nutritional importance of banana in the world. Bananas and Food Security International Symposium, Douala, Cameroon, 10-14 November 1998. Heyne, K. 1987. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia Jilid I. Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya, Jakarta. [INIBAP] International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain. 1996. Descriptors for Banana (Musa spp.). IPGRI-INIBAP & Cirad publications. [INIBAP] International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plaintain. 2002. A Strategy for the Global Musa Genomics Consortium. Report of a meeting held in Arlington, USA, 17-20 Jul 2001. Montpellier. hlm 1-43. Nasution, R. E. danIsamu,Y. 2001. Pisang-pisang Liar di Indonesia. Puslitbang Biologi, LIPI. Ouma, G. 2009. Intercropping and its application to banana production in East Africa: A review. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. Vol. 1(2). p. 013-015. Setyobudi, L. 1998. The Indonesian banana industry. Bananas and Food Security International Symposium, Douala, Cameroon, 10-14 November 1998. Simmonds, N.W. 1959. Bananas. Longman Inc, New York, hal. 22-43.

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THE ASSESSMENT OF FERTILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF CORN ON LOWLAND IN DRY SEASON WITH SITE SPECIFIC IRRIGATION Mulyadi dan Sarjiman Yogyakarta Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Letter Address: Jl. Rajawali No. 28, Demangan Baru,Yogyakarta 55821, Indonesia Phone: 0274-884662, Fax. 0274-4477052 E-mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to determine an efficient fertilization on using N, P, K, S source inorganic fertilizers for corn on lowland with full tillage and controlled irrigation in dry season. Soil characteristics of the lowland used were clayey loam texture, low organic matter content, slightly acidic soil reaction, high P-status and medium K-status for corn crop. Corn seed was planted one seed per hole with a spacing of 75 cm x 20 cm. Experimental design used was randomized complete block with six replications. Treatments consisted of four fertilization packages, namely: A) 700 kg Urea+300 kg PHONSKA ha-1, B) 350 kg Urea+250 kg PHONSKA ha-1, C) 300 kg Urea+100 kg SP 18+300 kg PHONSKA ha -1, and D) 316 kg Urea+400 kg PHONSKA ha-1. Results of the assessment showed that dry corn grain yields obtained from the four assessed fertilization treatments ranged 10.103 t ha-1 (treatment B) up to 10.648 t ha-1 (treatment A) however the distinction yield was no significant. Yield average of dry grain from all treatments was 9.400 t ha-1. Treatment B was fertilization with lowest fertilizers input and the most efficient with revenue to cost ratio value of 1.77 and its profit IDR 7.759 million ha-1. Total irrigation water supplied during the cropping period was 417.0 mm (4,170 m3 ha-1). The results can be concluded that fertilization with 350 kg Urea+250 kg PHONSKA ha-1or equivalent to 199 kg N+16 kg P+31 kg K+25 kg Sha-1 is quite efficient for corn crop on soil conditions such as at this assessment site. Keywords: fertilization, corn, wetland, full tillage, irrigation, dry season

INTRODUCTION Rotation of crops with crop species that suited with the availability of local water resources is essential to optimize the utilization of water and land resources. In irrigating lowland areas, generally, during the dry season the water availability for irrigation was no more adequate for supplying lowland rice cultivation in whole irrigation areas. For that reason, crop cultivation in dry season that required water relative less than lowland rice such as corn is one of strategic steps in food crop development. It will because be able to reduce the deficit of production supply that common occurred in dry season besides, corn grain yield quality and its price obtained from corn cropping in dry season is better than that in rainy season (IAARD, 2008). Thus, it will also help in effort to achieve and sustain food security. In addition, the good crop management practices, implementation of balanced fertilization that can give higher yield and profit are essential to increase the efficiency of fertilizer and other production input costs, which is a hope of every farmer. Balanced fertilization, basically, means supplying the crop with the correct amount of all nutrients not supplied in sufficient amounts from indigenous sources (Fairhurst and Witt, 2002). In practical, it means that fertilizer used based on the amount of nutrients needed by the crop

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to achieve the yield target (a yield level that wants to be achieved but realistic for a particular site and season) and soil available nutrients (IAARD, 2008). Among the essential nutrient elements; nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) are the nutrients required in large amount by corn crop. The total amount of the nutrients taken up by grain and stem of corn crop at the grain yield level of 9,45 t ha -1 was not less 191 kg N, 39 kg P, 196 kg K, and 21 kg S ha -1 as documented by Syafruddin et al. (2007). In addition, Syafruddin et al. (2007) also documented from some literatures that the N, P, K, and S applied from fertilizers to soil taken up by crop, respectively, was only around of 55-60 % for N (Patrick and Reddy, 1976), 20 % for P (Hagin and Tucker, 1982), 50-70 % for K (Tisdale and Nelson, 1975), and 33 % for S (Morris, 1987). On the other hand, Sutoro et al., 1992 also reported that on the soils with N content less than 0.4 % the adequate fertilization dosage of N was 135 kg N ha -1. While on the soils with the contents of P2O5 and K2O, respectively, was 200 mg kg-1 of soil the corn crop also responded to P and K fertilizations (Sutoro et al., 1992). In Indonesia, until now, the N, P, K, and S nutrients still become the major concern in corn fertilization to achieve higher crop yield. Related to the nutrients, there were many corn fertilization guidance but most of them were still common which not considered nutrient status in soil yet (Indonesia DuPont Ltd., ?; Prima Tani Team, 2006; IAARD, 2008). Even, it was still founded that some of farmers used fertilizers over than that recommended as observed by the authors in Dlimas, Ceper, Klaten Regency, site used for this assessment, before, which the fertilizers used varied with the range of 720 to 1,500 kg Urea, 120 to 280 kg SP 36, and PHONSKA from zero to 360 kg ha-1. Because the appropiate dosage needed to increase the corn crop yield is site spesific as it depends on the yield target and the supply of each nutrient from soil indigeneous sources, therefore, the study related to the site-specific corn fertilization is still needed in effort to provide the optimum fertilization information in particular site. In addition, this information may be useful as a site-specific corn fertilization reference for the assessment area also for the other similar agro-ecosystem. . In general, fertilizers used by most farmers for corn fertilization are N, P, K, and S source fertilizers in form as single and compound fertilizers. On the other hand, some approach methods to determine the site-specific corn fertilization, recently, have been introduced by research institutes (SRI, 2007; IAARD and IPNI, ?). One of the methods, among other; by using Upland Soil Test Kit, i.e. a tool that can be used to determine rapidly related to the corn fertilization recommendation based on soil nutrient status in a particular site (SRI, 2007). Using fertilizer recommendation with decision aids and test kits also has been ever reported that higher profit was obtained compared to the amount in which the farmers use which have not taken the initial amount of nutrients and the sustainability of the soils into account (Attanandana et al., ?). This paper elaborate the assessment results of using N, P, K, S source inorganic fertilizers for corn crop on lowland with full tillage and controlled irrigation in dry season at Dlimas, Ceper, Klaten Regency.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The assessment was conducted in dry season of 2009 (July – October 2009) on irrigated lowland of Kapilaler watershed in Dlimas, Ceper, Klaten Regency.

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Characteristics of surface layer soil (0 – 20 cm) of the lowland used were clayey loam texture and based on observation with using upland soil test kit; the soil has low organic matter content, slightly acidic soil reaction, high P-status and medium K-status for corn crop (SRI, 2007). Corn seed of NK 33 Hybrid was planted one seed per hole with a spacing distance of 75 cm x 20 cm. Before planting, the land was irrigated and ploughed with full tillage method. Experimental design used was randomized complete block with six replications. Treatments consisted of four fertilization packages, namely: A) 700 kg Urea+300 kg PHONSKA ha-1 (local farmer practice), B) 350 kg Urea+250 kg PHONSKA ha-1 (soil test approach), C) 300 kg Urea+100 kg SP 18+300 kg PHONSKA ha -1 (common recommendation-1), and D) 316 kg Urea+400 kg PHONSKA ha-1 (common recommendation-2). Plot size of each treatment was 9.75 m x 4.4 m (286 plants per plot) and among the plot treatments was separated by ditches sizing in width of 25 cm and in depth of 15-20 cm as irrigation channel. Detail of the treatments is presented in Table 1. Table1. Kind of Fertilization Treatments Treatment Code

Kind and Dosage of Treatment Fertilizer (kg ha -1) Fertilizer Dosage (kg ha-1) Equivalent Dosage in Nutrient Element (kg ha-1) Urea SP-18 PHONSKA N P K S 700 0 300 367 20 37 30 350 0 250 199 16 31 25 300 100 300 183 27 37 30 316 0 400 206 26 50 40

Total of fertilizer Value* IDR ha-1 1,450,000 905,000 1,120,000 1,130,800

A B C D Remark: * Fertilizer price per kg; Urea= IDR 1,300; SP 18=IDR 1,900; KCl=IDR 9,000; and PHONSKA=IDR 1,800. ** Nutrient content in PHONSKA = 15 % N; 15 % P2O5 (6,5 % P); 15 % K2O (12,5 % K); 10 % S

Application of fertilizers was conducted at 12, 28, and 42 days after planting (DAP), i.e. at 12 DAP consisted of 1/3 dosage of Urea, all dosage of SP 18, and ½ dosage of PHONSKA whereas at 28 DAP consisted of 1/3 dosage of Urea and ½ dosage of PHONSKA and at 42 DAP consisted of 1/3 dosage of Urea only. Weeding was conducted at 12 and 28 DAP and during the corn cropping period (emergence untill harvest), the land was irrigated controlly with using water taken from local irrigation chanel (5 times) and ground water pumping (4 times). At each of irrigation applications, time period and debit of irrigated water was recorded as data for calculating the dosage and volume of the irrigated water. Crop harvesting was conducted when the corn grain has been matured fisiologically, i.e. at 112 DAP. In addition the data of irrigated water, other data collected were dry grain yield, corn production input costs, and price of dry grain product. The data obtained were processed for analysis of variance (ANOVA), mean comparison, and farming financial analysis. The ANOVA was used to detect the differences of treatment effect while the mean comparison with using Least Significant Different (LSD) at significant level of 5 % was applied to determine the differences of mean values of the treatments. On the other hand, the farming financial analysis was used as an approach in determining level of fertilization efficiency.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Dosage of Irrigated Water during Corn Growth Period 122

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Sufficient of water supply to the land during corn growth period (since planting until grain maturing) is one of important factors required to achieve higher crop yield. It is because a lack of water in the period of vegetative growth until silking will reduce the potential grain number while in the period after silking until maturing will reduce grain weight. The potential decreasing of corn grain yield affected by water stress in the periods of tassling to silking and 21 days after silking, respectively, could achieve to 53 % and 30 % of the yield potential (Sudjana et al., 1991). The optimum water level required for the corn, in addition, is site specific as it depends on the climate and soil physical characteristics, among others, also depends on the crop growth stages and soil management practice. The observation result of irrigated water with considering the soil condition and corn growth stages in this study was 417 mm (4,170 m3 ha-1) as presented in Table 2. The total of irrigated water was more efficient than that of local farmer practice (481 mm or 4,810 m3 ha-1) as observed by the authors at the same area in 2008 (Mulyadi and Sarjiman, 2008). Dosage of irrigation (mm)

180

Total Dosage of Irrigation = 417 mm

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Planting to Emergence

Vegetative Growth

Tassling to Silking

Silking to Mature

Seed Drying to Harvest

Crop Age Period (DAP)

0-6

7-55

56-65

66-100

101-112

Dosage of Irrigation (mm)

39

170

55

152

-

Irrigated Water (m3 ha-1)

392

1696

554

1523

-

1

4

1

3

-

Frequency of Irrigation (times)

Figure 1. Irrigated Water during Corn Growth Period on Lowland with Full Tillage at Dlimas, Ceper, Klaten in Dry Season of 2009 Effect of Fertilization Treatments on Dry Grain Yield and Income The results of analysis as presented in Figure 1 indicated that the dry grain yields obtained from the fourth fertilization treatments ranged 10.103 t ha-1 (treatment B) to 10.648 t ha-1 (treatment A) with the net income (profit) ranged IDR 7.710 to IDR 8.133 million ha-1 but the distinction yield was no significant based on LSD test at significant level of 5 %. The average of dry grain yields from the all tested fertilization treatments was 9.400 t ha-1. If the average value was simulated in farming financial analysis as an approach to determine the fertilization efficiency level, it will be obtained that the revenue to cost ratio (R/C) and profit values of the treatment B was 1.77 and IDR 7.759 million ha-1, respectively (Table 2). The value obtained by the treatment B, respectively was the highest if compared to that obtained from the treatments of A, B, and C that only ranged 1.68 to 1.73 for the R/C value and IDR 7.214 to 7.544 million ha -1 for the profit value. It was 123

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because the treatment B was the lowest in fertilizer input cost and thus, the treatment B was economically the most efficient fertilization.

Yield average = 9.400 t ha-1

9.50

9.00

9.00

8.50 8.00 7.50

8.50 8.00 7.50

7.00

7.00

6.50

6.50

6.00 Soil Tillage Total of Irrigated Water (m3 ha-1) Urea (kg ha-1) SP-18 (kg ha-1) PHONSKA (kg ha-1) Fertilizer Cost (IDR million ha-1) Total of Production Cost (IDR million ha-1) Corn Yield Value (IDR million ha-1) Corn Grain Yield (t ha-1)

Net Income IDR million ha-1)

9.50

10.00

ield

Grain Y

Net Income

Grain yield among treatments was no significant different LSD 5% = 1.190; CV = 10.29 %

Dry Grain Yield (t ha-1)

10.00

6.00 A

B

C

D

Full Tillage 4,170 700 0 300 1.45 10.648 17.892 9.417

Full Tillage 4,170 350 0 250 0.905 10.103 17.812 9.375

Full Tillage 4,170 300 100 300 1.12 10.318 17.278 9.094

Full Tillage 4,170 316 0 400 1.131 10.328 18.462 9.717

Figure 2. Dry Grain Yield and Net Income of Corn by Fertilization Treatments on Lowland at Dlimas, Ceper, Klaten Regency in Dry Season of 2009

Table 2. Simulation of Corn Farming Financial Analysis Based on the Fertilization Treatment using Urea and PHONSKA (Treatment B) No.

Item

Unit

Price per Unit

Volume per ha-1

Total Value (IDR ha-1)

A Material 1 2

1,977,500

Corn Seed of NK 33 Hybrid

kg

65,000

16.50

1,072,500

Fertilizer used for Treatment B

ha

- Urea

kg

1,300

350.00

455,000

- SP 18

kg

1,900

0.00

0

- PHONSKA

kg

1,800

250.00

450,000

-

-

-

3

Pesticide

B

Labor

-

905,000

8,000,000

1

Land Preparation: Soil tillage with tractor

packet

700,000

1.00

700,000

2

Planting

manday

20,000

20.00

400,000

3

Weeding (twice per season)

manday

20,000

40.00

800,000

4

Fertilization (3 times per season)

manday

20,000

45.00

900,000

5

Land irrigation

40.00

2,500,000

times

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- By irrigation channel

times

125,000

5.00

625,000

- By Pumping

times

500,000

4.00

2,000,000

-

-

-

1.00

1,750,000

6

Pest and disease control

7

Harvesting and transportation

packet

- Harvesting

packet

1,500,000

1.00

1,500,000

- Transpotation of harvested corn yield

packet

250,000

1.00

250,000

Processing of corn yield to dry grain yield and packaging

packet

1.00

950,000

8

-

C Total Cost

10,102,500

D Income (Revenue) of Selling Dry Grain Yield of Corn*

1,900

E Net Income (Profit) F Revenue to Cost Ratio Remark: * the dry grain yield was simulated from the yield average of all treatments.

9,400

17,861,000 7.758,500 1,77

Based on the amount of nutrients contained from the applied fertilizers (Table 1), the treatment B was the lowest in P, K, and S compared with the other treatments. Besides that, the amount of N applied from the treatment B (199 kg N ha -1) was relative not different compared to that from the treatment C and D (183 and 206 kg N ha -1) but lower than that from the treatment A (367 kg N ha-1). In addition, the increasing N dosage from 199 to 367 kg ha-1 did not increase significantly to dry grain yield. It is quite reasonable that on lowland soil characteristics as used in this field experiment, therefore, the amount of N, P, K, and S applied from the treatment B was adequate to maximize the corn grain yield under adopted crop and water management practices in this study. CONCLUSIONS Fertilization with 350 kg Urea+250 kg PHONSKA/ha or equivalent 199 kg N+16 kg P+31 kg K+25 kg S ha-1 is quite efficient for corn crop on soil conditions such as at this assessment site.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD) for the financial support of this study. REFERENCES Attanandana,T., C. Suwannarat, T. Vearasilp, S. Kongton, R. Meesawat, P. Bunampol, K. Soitong, C. Tipanuka and R.S. Yost. ?. NPK fertilizer management for corn: Decision aids and test kits. Available at http://www.ssnm.agr.ku.ac.th/main/ Kn_Ref/ref1_04.pdf (Verified 14 Nov. 2010). Hagin, J. and B. Tucker. 1982. Fertilization of dry land and irrigated soil. Springer-Verlag.Berlin Heidenberg.p.70-95.

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IAARD, ?. Instruction uses software site-specific corn fertilization; PuJS version 1.0. (In Indonesian.)Indonesian Agency for Research and Development (IAARD) and International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI). IAARD. 2008. General guidance for corn integrated crop management. (In Indonesian.) Institute for Cereal Crop Research, ICFCRD, IAARD. 27 p. Indonesia DuPont Ltd., ?.Instruction for corn planting of Pioneer hybrid.(In Indonesian.) Indonesia DuPont Ltd. Jakarta Morris, R.J. 1987. The importance and need for sulfur in crop production in Asia and the Pacific Region. In Proceeding of Symposium on Fertilizer; Sulfur Requirements and Sources in Developing Countries of Asia and Pacific. Bangkok. Mulyadi and Sarjiman. 2008. The assessment of third cropping pattern alternative to optimize the use of water resources and equitable water alocation access in Kapilaler watershed in attempting to improvement the agricultural irigarion system through integrated water resources management and participatory in Klaten Regency. (In Indonesian.)Research collaboration report of 2008 between Yogayakarta AIAT with CIRAD. Patrick, W. H., JR and K.R. Reddy. 1976. Rate of fertilizer nitrogen in a flooded soil. Soil.Svi. Soc. Proc. 40:678-681. Prima Tani Team. 2006. Superior technological inovation for agroecosystem based food crop to contribute Prima Tani; Corn production tecnology package. (In Indonesian.)ICFCRD, IAARD. Bogor, Indonesia. SRI. 2007. Instruction of using upland soil test kit version 0.1. (In Indonesian.) Soil Research Institute (SRI), Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development (ICALRRD), Bogor, Indonesia. Sudjana A., A. Rifin, M. Sudjadi. 1991. Corn. (In Indonesian) Bull. Tech. No. 3. Food Crop Institute, Indonesian Agency for Research and Development (IAARD), Bogor. Sutoro, Y. Soelaeman dan Iskandar.1992. Corn crop cultivation. In Corn information package. (In Indonesian.)Center for Agriculural and Research Communication Library. IAARD. Syafruddin, Faesal, dan M. Akil. 2007. Nutrient and crop management on corn crop. InCorn; Production and development technic. (In Indonesian.)ICFCRD, IAARD, Ministry of Agriculture. Pages 205-218. Tisdale, S.L. and W.L. Nelson. 1975. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. MacMilan Publishing Co. Inc., New York.

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COMPOSTED AND UNCOMPOSTED RICE STRAW AS POTASSIUM SOURCE FERTILIZER AND THEIR EFFECT ON NUTRIENTS UPTAKE Mulyadi Yogyakarta Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Mailing Address: Jl. Rajawali No. 28, Demangan Baru,Yogyakarta 55821, Indonesia Phone: 0274-884662, Fax. 0274-4477052 E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate K supplying characteristic and crop available K, P, Ca, and Mg from composted rice straw (CRS) and uncomposted rice straw (UCRS) compared to that from Muriate of Potash (MOP) as standard K fertilizer. Method used was pot experiment in green house with test crop of corn (Zea mays L.) and soil containing low K. Different rates of K from UCRS, CRS, and MOP were used as treatments and arranged in completely randomized design with four replications. The results indicated that application of MOP at rate of 360 mg K pot -1 to the soil increased significantly crop K uptake and dry matter yield but it was not significant effects to crop P, Ca, and Mg uptake. The similar effects were also indicated by UCRS application while CRS application increase higher not only in crop growth and K uptake but also Ca uptake observed at the crop ages of 14, 28, and 56 DAP (DAP). In addition, the application of CRS also increase crop P and Mg uptake, especially at 14 and 28 DAP. From the results, it can be concluded that insufficiency of K in a soil limits crop growth. Proper application of MOP, UCRS, and CRS to the soil can increase crop growth and K uptake. Compared to applications of MOP and UCRS, application of CRS to the soil gives more beneficial effects not only in increasing crop K uptake but also Ca, P, and Mg uptake and resulting better crop growth. Keywords: composted and uncomposted rice straw, MOP, corn crop K, P, Ca and Mg uptake

INTRODUCTION By far, Muriate of Potash (MOP) is the most widely used as K fertilizer. It contains about 50 % K, and this K readily soluble in soil water (Tisdale et al., 1993; Syers, 1998); thus, the K is also readily available for crops. In addition to the inorganic K fertilizer, K supply for crops can be improved by applying organic material such as rice straw to soil. Managing rice straw (in term of K source) is essential if sustainability of high crop production is to be achieved with a small amount of inorganic K fertilizer. It is because about 80 % K taken up by rice crop (Oryza sativa L.) is in the straw. The rice straw naturally contains high level of K because 80 % of the K taken up by rice crop is in the straw (De Datta and Gomez, 1982; Dobermann et al., 1996). In addition, rice straw also contains other plant essential nutrient elements and high level of C (Misra and Hesse, 1985). Hence if properly used, applying rice straw to soil is more beneficial compared to the inorganic K fertilizers because it not only supplies more complete nutrients, thus 127

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reducing the need of inorganic fertilizers, but also can increase soil organic matter, which is important for improving soil properties. However the nutrients contained in rice straw are released through decomposition, which are different with the K contained in MOP that is readily dissolved or available for the crops. Hence, the crop K availability from the rice straw applied to soil will depend on the total amount of K contained, the level and rate of their decomposition. Therefore, information of this kind is important to help in increasing efficiency of rice straw management and K fertilizer utilization. It may also helps in a better understanding of K cycling in soil–crop system. The objectives of this research are to evaluate K supplying characteristic and crop available K, P, Ca, and Mg from composted rice straw (CRS) and uncomposted rice straw (UCRS) compared to that from Muriate of Potash (MOP) as standard K fertilizer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS An experiment was carried out in the glass-house of Faculty of Agriculture, UPM Serdang. Corn crop of Putra J-58 variety was used as a test crop and planted on soil in pot sizing 21 cm in diameter and 28 cm in height; each pot was filled with 10 kg of air-dried soil, particle size < 0.5 cm. The soil used was taken from B-horizon within depth of 30 to 70 cm of a Bungor series soil, classified as Typic Paleudult (Shamshuddin and Ismail, 1995). Selected physico-chemical characteristics of the soil are presented in Table 1. In general, the soil characteristics were sandy clay loam (according to USDA textural classification), relatively compact with bulk density of 1.22 g cm -3, acid, low in organic matter, and poor in macro nutrient elements. Table 1. Initial Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Soil Used in Experiment Characteristics

Particle Distribution Sand Silt Clay Bulk Density (BD) pH Organic Matter Total N Total P Total K Total Ca Total Mg Extractable P-Bray II Exchangeable Cations K Ca Mg Na

Unit

Value

% % % g cm-3 % % mg kg-1 of soil mg kg-1 of soil mg kg-1 of soil mg kg-1 of soil mg kg-1 of soil

25.92 3.78 70.30 1.22 4.39 6.34 0.02 53.22 41.38 19.00 63.50 3.45

mg kg-1 of soil mg kg-1 of soil mg kg-1 of soil mg kg-1 of soil

4.13 13.35 1.13 4.03

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A pot with one plant was used as an experimental unit. Different rates of K from tested fertilizers, i. e. UCRS, CRS, and MOP were used as treatments and arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. Detail of the treatments is given in Table 2. The corn plants were sampled three times; 14 DAP/DAP (early growth stage), 28 DAP (flower initiation stage) and 56 DAP (tasseling stage). Therefore, a total of 96 experimental units were laid out in this experiment. Urea, Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) and Ground Magnesium Limestone (GML) as fertilizer sources of N, P and Ca and Mg, respectively was used for basal fertilizers. Selected chemical characteristics of the fertilizers used in this experiment are given in Table 3. Applications of N, P, Ca and Mg fertilizers were made to all the experimental units as basal fertilizers with each equivalent to (in kg ha-1) 135 N applied as Urea, 80 P applied as TSP, and 500 Ca and 160 Mg applied as GML (Wade et al., 1988; Shamshuddin and Ismail, 1995). All of the inorganic fertilizers were applied in band placement while the CRS and UCRS were incorporated to the soil within depth of 7.5 cm before planting of corn seeds. During experiment, soil moisture was maintained by watering about 425 mL to each pot every day. Table 2. Treatments of Rates and Sources of K Fertilizers No.

Rates of K

Treatment Codes

Equivalent to Rice straw (dry weight)

K Fertilizer Sources

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

MOP 360K UCRS 180K UCRS 360K UCRS 540K CRS 180K CRS 360K CRS 540K Control 0K

Muriate of Potash Uncomposted Rice straw* Uncomposted Rice straw* Uncomposted Rice straw* Composted Rice straw Composted Rice straw Composted Rice straw -

mg K pot-1** 360 180 360 540 180 360 540 0

Equivalent kg K ha-1 90 45 90 135 45 90 135 0

g pot -1

ton ha-1

15.42 30.84 45.26 15.42 30.84 45.26

3.46 6.92 10.38 3.46 6.92 10.38

Remark: * applied as chopped (5 cm) fresh rice straw.

** conversion based on soil weight per hectare with assumption of soil depth of 20 cm. Soil weight per pot is 10 kg. Corn plants were sampled at 14, 28, and 56 DAP, and the samples were used for determination of dry matter yield, nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg) uptake by corn plant and K recovery fraction from MOP, composted and uncomposted rice straw. At the sampling time, the whole plant was uprooted and partitioned into various plant parts and their weight taken. The samples were then oven dried at a temperature 60 oC until constant weight is attained. After the dry weight was taken, the sample was ground to a size of 1 mm and used for determination of P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations. The dry matter yield of whole plant was taken from the sum of dry weight of plant parts. Phosphorus, K, Ca and Mg 129

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uptake by corn plant were calculated from the sum of multiplying the dry weight of plant parts by their respective concentrations. Table 3. The Contents of Organic Matter and Nutrient Elements of Fertilizers Used in Experiment Organic Matter and Elements Organic Matter Total Organic C Total N C to N ratio Total P Total K Total Ca Total Mg Water Soluble P Water Soluble K Water Soluble Ca Water Soluble Mg

Kind of Fertilizer Urea TSP MOP GML UCRS ------ % of air dry weight -------% oven dry weight 84.60 49.07 44.57 1.10 44 0.26 20.61 47.96 0.10 1.30 0.35 0.08 26.34 0.24 16.52 0.04 7.69 0.06 0.84 0.04 0.53 0.03 0.03

CRS 73.30 42.51 2.80 15 0.36 1.30 0.81 0.18 0.07 1.04 0.10 0.06

Remark: TSP = Triple Super Phosphate GML = Ground Magnesium Limestone MOP = Muriate of Potash UCRS = Uncomposted Rice straw CRS = Composted Rice straw The data obtained from soil and crop at each observation time were processed with SAS package (SAS Institute Inc., 1985) for analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean comparison. The ANOVA was used to detect the differences of treatment effect; mean comparison using Dunnett Test at significant level of 5 % was applied to determine the differences of mean values of the treatments, particularly between MOP as standard K fertilizer with the other treatments.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effects of K Applied from MOP, Composted and Uncomposted Rice Straw on Crop Growth and K, P, Ca and Mg Uptake Results of data analyses about the effects of K applied from MOP, composted and uncomposted rice straw on corn crop growth and K, P, Ca and Mg uptake are presented in Table 4. From Table 4, it is appear that the corn crop growth (in term of dry matter yield) up to 56 DAP (tasseling stage) increased with time and K applications. The results indicated that insufficiency of K in the soil limits the crop growth. The K applied from CRS and UCRS increased significantly the crop growth at sampling time and the increase in crop growth with CRS application in general were higher than that from UCRS application. The increase in crop growth with CRS application was also significantly higher compared to that with MOP application while that between UCRS and MOP was not significantly different. The superior effect of CRS to UCRS and MOP applications on 130

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the crop growth could be attributed to the nutrients contained in the CRS which were more readily available compared to that in UCRS as indicated by higher proportion in water soluble K (Table 3), or the supply of nutrient elements other than the one applied in MOP, in addition, more favorable soil physical properties (Ridder and Keulen, 1990; Haynes and Naidu, 1998) allowing roots to develop rapidly, thus the root surface area serving as sink for nutrients was larger and enable to absorb more nutrient elements (Barber, 1985; 1995). Table 4. Mean Comparison for Dry Matter Yield, Crop K, P, Ca, and Mg Uptake from Different Rates and Sources of K at Different Corn Growth Periods. DAP (DAP)

Treatments MOP 360K

UCRS1 80K

14 28 56

0.24 1.90 33.29

0.29 1.84 25.16

14 28 56

5.79 71.19 469.92

10.23 51.29 306.37*

14 28 56

0.93 17.53 93.79

4.32 24.00 96.73

14 28 56

0.81 5.66 40.08

1.10 8.16 38.60

14 28 56

0.85 2.54 50.76

0.92 2.40 39.43

14 28 56

0.63 2.69 97.49

0.60 3.01 68.09*

UCRS3 60K

UCRS5 CRS CRS 40K 180K 360K Dry Matter Yield (g pot -1) 0.30 0.33 0.44* 0.44* 2.29 2.20 3.89* 5.14* 34.21 37.84 47.06* 50.15* Crop K Uptake (mg K pot -1) 12.02 15.53 22.52* 24.65* 80.15 85.60 121.82 199.71* 457.97 506.75 351.96* 525.55* Apparent K Recovery (%) 2.66 2.42 11.15* 6.17* 20.02 14.35 63.18* 53.23* 90.48 69.35 122.06 109.25 Crop P Uptake (mg P pot -1) 1.42* 1.09 1.42* 1.54* 6.86 5.45 11.78* 16.05* 37.58 37.55 46.97 50.57 Crop Ca Uptake (mg Ca pot -1) 0.84 0.99 1.34 1.38 3.36 2.49 5.44* 6.84* 42.34 39.62 72.18* 69.29* Crop Mg Uptake (mg Mg pot -1) 0.54 0.57 0.70* 0.71* 4.46 4.27 8.23* 10.61* 55.72* 45.32* 86.17 83.14

CRS 540K

Control 0K

0.49* 4.94* 51.96*

0.20 0.55 20.89*

29.70* 200.71* 677.13*

2.45 8.09* 132.26*

5.05* 35.67* 100.90 1.99* 15.21* 49.62

0.75 1.71 39.05

1.49* 6.75* 66.07*

0.85 1.10 47.22

0.69* 9.44* 72.03

0.68 1.54 75.59

Remark: * indicating significantly different compared with the mean for MOP 360 K as standard treatment according to Dunnett Test at 5 % level for the same row (DAP). Crop K uptake (total K accumulated in whole plant) for all the treatments increased with growth period and the crop responded (in term of K uptake) to the K applications (Table 4). The crop responses (in term of K uptake) to K applied from CRS and UCRS were achieved up to about 360 mg K pot -1 at 14 and 28 DAP and 540 mg K pot-1 at 56 DAP. In general, the increase in K uptake obtained with CRS applications was higher than that with UCRS applications. Beside that, at the rate of 360 mg K pot -1, the increase in K uptake obtained with CRS application was also significantly higher compared to that with MOP but it was not significantly different between those with UCRS and MOP. The superiority effect of K applied from CRS compared with UCRS and MOP on the K uptake was particularly pronounced at the early crop growth up to 28 DAP but their effects at 56

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DAP was not significantly different. The final data obtained at 56 DAP, the apparent K recovery from CRS and UCRS ranged from 100.9 to 122.1 % and 69.3 to 96.7%, respectively. The apparent K recovery from CRS was more than 100%, meaning that the crop actually accumulated more K than that applied, which may be due to the improvement of soil physical properties affected by CRS application, permitting roots to develop more vigorously and take up more soil K than they would have without the addition of K (Wade et al., 1988). Whereas at the application rate of 360 mg K pot -1, the apparent K recovery from MOP, CRS and UCRS was about 93.79, 109.25 and 90.48 %, respectively and not significantly different. The result is similar to that reported by Wen et al. (1997), working with sewage sludge and composted livestock manure, where apparent K recovery from the waste compared to MOP was not significantly different, where their values about 101+7 %. In conclusion, during 56 days after application to the soil, K contained in the MOP, CRS and UCRS has been released; at application rate of 360 mg K pot -1, more than 90 % of K applied from the fertilizers has been taken up by the corn crop and the crop available K or apparent K recovery from CRS and UCRS was equal to MOP. The crop P, Ca and Mg uptake for all the treatments also followed a trend similar to that of crop growth (dry matter weight) where increased in uptake were observed with growth periods (Table 4), but they were different in response to K applications where not all K applied from MOP, UCRS and CRS caused an increase uptake of P, Ca and Mg. In general, application of 360 mg K pot-1 from MOP could not increase the uptake of P, Ca and Mg at each growth period (14, 28 and 56 DAP), indicating that there was no single effect of K applied up to 360 mg K pot -1 causes the increase of crop P, Ca and Mg uptake. In contrast, applications of CRS and UCRS containing K up to 360 mg K pot -1 increased significantly the uptake of P, Ca and Mg, but their effect on the increase of P, Ca and Mg uptake depended on the crop growth period. The effects of CRS application on the increase of P and Ca Uptake were shown at all sampling time while that of Mg was only apparent at 28 DAP. The application of UCRS increased significantly the uptake of P, particularly at 14 and 28 DAP, Ca and Mg only at 28 DAP, but the application of UCRS tended to decrease the uptake of Mg observed at 56 DAP. The decrease in Mg uptake with the UCRS application could be attributed to the effect of excess K remaining in the soil, which could depress the rate of Mg absorption (Claassen and Barber, 1977; Rahmatullah and Beaker, 1981; Barber, 1995). The excess K in the soil could be explained with the apparent K recovery from the fertilizer decreasing with increasing the rate of K applied where the apparent K fertilizer from UCRS at 56 DAP was only 69.35 % (Table 4). On the other hand, it was also apparent that the increase in crop P, Ca and Mg uptake with UCRS application in general was lower than that with CRS application, with no significant different particularly at the rate of 360 mg K pot -1 compared to that of MOP application observed at 56 DAP (Table 4). The increase in crop P, Ca and Mg uptake with application of CRS and UCRS containing K up to 360 mg K pot -1 may be related to the addition of nutrients contained in the fertilizers resulting in higher nutrients balancing. While the superiority effect of CRS to UCRS application gave higher increase of P, Ca and Mg uptake that was shown up to 56 DAP, particularly for the P and Ca, could be due to the nutrients contained in CRS were higher and more readily available compared to that in UCRS (Table 3).

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CONCLUSIONS Insufficiency of K in a soil limits crop growth. Proper application of MOP, UCRS, and CRS to the soil can increase crop growth and K uptake. Compared to applications of MOP and UCRS, application of CRS to the soil gives more beneficial effects not only in increasing crop K uptake but also Ca, P, and Mg uptake and resulting better crop growth.

REFERENCES Barber, S. A. 1985. Potassium availability at the soil-root interface and factors influencing potassium uptake. p. 309-324 In R. D. Munson (ed.) Potassium in agriculture. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. ___________1995. Soil nutrient bioavailability: a mechanistic approach. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 413 p. Claassen, N. and S. A. Barber. 1977. Potassium influx characteristics of corn roots and interaction wit h N, P, Ca and Mg influx. Agron. J. 69: 860-864. De Datta, S. K. and K. A. Gomez. 1982. Changes in phosphorus and potassium responses in wetland rice soils in South-East Asia. p. 127-146 In E. Pushparajah and Sharifuddin H. A. Hamid (eds.) Phosphorus and potassium in the tropic. The Malaysian Society of Soil Science. Kuala Lumpur. Dobermann, A., P. C. Sta. Cruz, and K. G. Cassman. 1996. Fertilizer inputs, nutrient balance, and soil nutrient-supplying power in intensive, irrigated rice systems. I. Potassium uptake and balance. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 46: 1-10. Haynes, R. J. and R. Naidu. 1998. Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 51: 123-137. Misra, R.V. and P. R. Hesse. 1985. Comparative analyses of organic manure. Improving soil fertility through organic recycling. FAO/UNDP Regional Project RAS/75/004. Project Field document No. 24. Rahmatullah and D. E. Beaker. 1981. Magnesium accumulation by corn (Zea mays L.) as a function of potassium-magnesium exchange in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45: 899-903. Ridder, N. D. and H. V. Keulen. 1990. Some aspects of the role of organic matter in sustainable intensified arable farming system in the West-African semi-arid-tropics (SAT). Fertilizer Research 26: 299-310. SAS Institute Inc. 1985. SAS User‘s Guides: statistic, version 5 edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. 956 p. Shamshuddin, J. and H. Ismail. 1995. Reaction of ground magnesium limestone and gypsum in soils with variable-charge minerals. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59: 106-112. Syers, J. K. 1998. Soil and plant potassium in agriculture. Paper presented to the Fertilizer Society at a meeting in London on the 30th April 1998. The Fertilizer Society. Strensall, U.K. 31 p. Tisdale, S. L., W. L. Nelson, J. D. Beaton and J. L. Havlin. 1993. Soil fertility and fertilizers, 5 th ed. MacMillian Publishing Company Inc., New York, USA. 634 p. Wade, M. K., D. W. Gill, H. Subagyo, M. Sudjadi and P. A. Sanchez. 1988. Overcoming soil fertility constraints in transmigration area of Indonesia. TropSoils Bull. 88 (01): 60 p. Wen, G., J. P. Winter, R. P. Voroney and T. E. Bates. 1997. Potassium availability with application of sewage sludge, and sludge and manure composts in field experiments. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 47: 233-241.

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THE ATTEMPT TO ESTIMATE THE MAXIMUM GROWTH RATE OF SWEET CORN PLANT Ni Wayan Surya Wardhani Dept. of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Brawijaya University, Indonesia Email : [email protected] ABSTRACT The aim of the research was to estimate the time when the sweet corn plant (in different treatment) reaches its maximum growth rate, through one of the S-shaped growth patterns. The secondary data used in this research was taken from agriculture student‘s research. Based on the Richards growth model with v=0.5 it is shown that the maximum growth rate occured at about 37 DAP as coefficient of determination was more than 98%. It is suggestedthat the growers give special treatment around that day . Keywords: Sweet corn, Richards growth curve

INTRODUCTION Sweet corn is a popular vegetable and long season crop, which is relatively easy to grow and may grow on a wide variety of soil type. The plant is generally direct-seeded, wind-pollinated and requiring rich soil. Time from planting to harvest is about 11 to 12 weeks (William, 2008) or 65 to 90 days (Iannotti, 2010) and it is known that in the higher altitude, the longer the harvest time are; as 68, 75 and 94 days for lowland, medium and highland respectively. When the plant spurt milky liquid, it means that the harvest time is ripe. The maximum growth rate has not yet been studied. Maximum growth rate is a value where vegetative growth stage changes to generative stage. If the maximum growth rate happens earlier; it means that harvesting will be earlier and vice versa. It was said that it is important to determine when is the fastest plant growing ; it can be found by looking at the growth height data. In terms of absolute growth rates, the time at which the plant has maximum absolute growth rate depends on the model under consideration. With respect to time, several models of growth can be distinguished such as sigmoidal or S-shaped growth curves, which are common in a wide variety of applications such as biology and agriculture, because the parameters have biological meaning. These curves are started at a fixed point and increase their growth rate monotonically to reach an inflection point. After this, the growth rate approaches a final value asymptotically (Brown & Rothery, 1993; Landry, 2002). The hypothesis is that the maximum growth rate occurs at different time on each treatment. This research was aimed to find a suitable growth model for sweet corn plant on different treatments so that the maximum growth rate could be estimated. The result should be beneficial for the grower to give special treatment around that period.

MATERIAL AND METHODS The experiment was carried out in Lawang, Malang with 500 asl altitude of, 23 0C25 C temperature require and 60%-80% humidity, the soil is Andosol. Carbofuran and 0

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diazinon were used to control pest and diseases. The sweet corn used is BISI sweet variety. The research was conducted in split plot design where the main plot is azolla in three level : 0, 2 and 4 ton/ha, and the treatment in sub plot is SP-36 of 150, 300 and 450 kg/ha. The observed variable was the plant height (in cm), started from 20 Days After Planting (DAP) up to 69 DAP in 7-day interval. The data used is secondary data from a student‘s experiment at Agronomy. The data regarding height was analyzed with analysis of variance method, to test for main effects (Azolla fertilizer and Phosphor) as well as the interaction. The Richards model used to estimate the growth of sweet corn is : L=A(1+e (β-kt))-1/v where L is the plant height, A is the height potential of the plant, β is time parameter, k is a constant of the growth model, t is time and v is parameter of the model. The iterative Levenberg-Marquard method is used to estimate the parameter; while to evaluate how well the model fits the data, the adjusted coefficient of determination (R 2adj) is used. A standard procedure is to done assure that the measurements errors are independently and normally distributed with constant standard deviation. The best fit parameters can be found by minimizing the sum of the squares of the residuals. The parameters will be estimated using a non linear regression technique, namely the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Normality assumption is tested using Anderson Darling method and homogenity of variance is tested using Szroeter. A second differenciate with respect to t and set d 2L/dt2 to zero, found that the critical point occurs at t=(β-ln v)/k. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

200

200

150

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height(cm)

height(cm)

The scatter plot of the six data set for six treatments are as follows :

100 50

100 50 -

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50 days

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days

(1) Azolla 0 ton/ha

(2) Azolla 2 ton/ha 200 height(cm)

200 height(cm)

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(3) Azolla 4 ton/ha

(4) SP-36 150 kg/ha

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200 height(cm)

height(cm)

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100 50

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100 50 -

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(5) SP-36 300kg/ha

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40 days

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(6) SP-36 450 kg/ha

Looking at the picture, we can fit the data with regression model that yield high R2adj but it should means nothing whereas the primary objective of this study was to investigate the time when the maximum growth rate happen. Through the Richards curve itshould fit the data well for each treatment given so that we can have an interpretation in biological meaning. The result of analysis of variance that there is no statistical effect of the interaction to the plant height, so we just modelled the plant height on the treatment of azolla and SP-36. It was found that the growth can be described by Richard method with v parameter equal to 0.5. Based on the model explained, we can write that the mathematical model for no azolla treatment, 2 ton/ha and 4 ton/ha treatment as : L= 171.539(1+e 2.587-0.089 t)-2, L= 171.317(1+e2.59-0.089 t)-2 and L= 174.176(1+e2.541-0.0897t)-2 respectively. Whereas the Richards model for SP-36 treatment are : L= 171.539(1+e2.587-0.089 t)-2, L= 171.261(1+e2.670.09 t -2 ) and L= 172.913(1+e2.537-0.088 t)-2 for SP-36 of 150, 300 and 450 kg/ha respectively. It means that all the plant should have potential height in the interval of 171.26 cm to 174.176 cm. From the second derivative, we found the critical points are at t= 36.656, 36.779 and 37.174 for the azolla treatment respectively, and t=37.368, 36.887 and 35.706 for SP36 treatments respectively. Based on the assumption tests, the result shows that the measurements error is normally distributed with equal variances and no autocorrelation. Calculating the coefficient of determination we found that those six models yield R 2adj in the interval of 98.57% to 99.14% means that all of the growth model fit the data well.

CONCLUSION Based on those result, we can say that Richards growth model is suitable in describing the growth of sweet corn and based on that model we can determine that the maximum growth rate for each treatment occured at about 36 DAP and 37 DAP. Therefore any treatments to the plants should pay attention to those days.

REFERENCES Foldager, L. 2002. Growth Curve Models. Lecture Notes. Biometry Research Unit. Danish Insitute of Agricultural Sciences, p. 1-45. Brown, D. and P. Rothery. 1993. Models in Biology : Mathematics, Statistics and Computing. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Chicester.

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Gille, U. 1998. Analysis of Growth. http://www.uni-leipzig.de/-vetana/growthe.htm. Accessed April 27, 2006 Iannotti,M. 2010. Growing Garden Fresh Sweet Corn. //gardening.about.com/od/plantprofil2/p/Cori. Accessed September 2, 2010. Landry, J.A. 2002. Applied Mathematics. McGill University-Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. //www.agrenv.mcgill.ca/agreng/applmath/3/intro.htm. Accessed April 28, 2005. Utzinger, J.D. Sweet Corn. Ohio State University. www/uri.edu/ce/factsheets/sheets/corn.html. Accessed August, 10, 2010. William, M.M. 2008. Sweet Corn Growth and Yield Responses to Planting Dates of the North Central United States. Hort Science vol 43(6):1775-1779. October 2008.

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DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF PADDY COMMODITY TO ENHANCING FOOD SECURITY IN FLOODS GRISTLE REGIONS IN BOJONEGORO Nuning Setyowati (Agrobusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, SebelasMaretUniversity) ([email protected]) ABSTRACT Food security is a condition which households can fulfill food requirement which indicated from enough food in quantity and quality, safe, flatten and reached. Bojonegoro district as a region with flood potention every year so menacing fundamental food is paddy. The study aims to (1) mapping floods gristle regions and its impact to paddy in Bojonegoro, (2) Formulating development strategy of paddy commodity in Bojonegoro and (3) formulating the most effective development strategy for paddy commodity. Research method is analytic descriptive method. Primary data is used strategic factors in developing paddy commodity by focus group discussion. Secondary data paddy commodity production and another data obtained through the records of central statistical agency (BPS), Sub district Agriculture Institution and Region Disaster Management Agency (BPBD). Method research used is SWOT (Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat) analysis to formulating development strategy of paddy commodity and QSPM (Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix) to formulating the most effective development strategy of paddy commodity. The result show that (1) From 27 sub district in Bojonegoro, there are 15 floods gristle sub district, they are Margomulyo, Ngraho, Purwosari, Padangan, Kasiman, Malo, Kalitidu, Trucuk, Bojonegoro, Dander, Balen, Kanor, Baureno, Kapas and Sumberejo with wide of paddy field suffused by floods from 3 Ha-2295 Ha (3) SWOT analysis show development strategy alternative to paddy. They are optimization of government support for paddy farming, extending marketing network , using paddy variety which hold up the floods, increasing after harvest management, increasing role of Farming Counseling Institution to transfer of technology about paddy farming at farmer level, increasing farming management at farmer level, making of diffusion well at farmer level, repairing infrastructure support condition (4) QSPM show the most effective development strategy to paddy is using paddy variety which hold up the floods Keyword: Bojonegoro, Security Food, Paddy, SWOT, QSPM

INTRODUCTION The Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations defines food security as a condition where people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life (FAO, 2009). The attainment of security normally involves the following components: (1) food availability, which refer to sufficient quantity and quality food supplied through domestic production or imports, (2) food accessibility, which enables both households and individuals to obtain the appropriate food suitable for their dietary needs and (3) food affordability, which allow individuals to be able to afford to buy food in accordance with their respective socioeconomics condition, cultural backgrounds and preferences (Suryana, 2008) Indonesia's food security program can‘t be separated entirely from paddy as a strategic commodity base. This is explicit in the formulation of agricultural development that the indicative target of primary commodity production of food crops and food reserves of the government is also still based on paddy. However, with the reduction in cultivated area per farmer, the limited supply of irrigation water and high input paddies, relatively low paddies for products and disasters can be limiting factors / constraints to the program increased welfare and farmer self-reliance based on local resources such (Darwanto, 2005 ) 138

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Bojonegoro is one of regencies in East Java that territory by the Bengawan Solo river. This position causes the Bojonegoro be subscribed floods every year. Flooding not only causes submerged settlements but also have an impact on the agricultural sector, especially paddy. These conditions threaten the decline in paddy productivity and quality of commodities that eventually could threaten food security in Bojonegoro. Given these conditions it is important to do mapping of gristle regions to flooding and flood impacts for the agricultural sector, especially paddy. This is done as a first step rescue paddy which is the main food source for the region and surrounding areas. In addition, further required the formulation of strategies for the development of paddy paddy production continuity and quality can be improved. This study aims to map gristle regions to flooding and flood impact on paddy farming in Bojonegoro, formulate development strategies of paddy and determine effective strategies in the development of paddy in Bojonegoro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Basic Research Methods This research is a descriptive analysis. Data used include primary and secondary data. Primary data include strategic factors both internal and external factors with data collection technique using Focus Group Discussion. FGD involving stakeholders such as paddy farmers, agricultural extension workers, staff of the Department of Agriculture, BAPPEDA, and academician. Secondary data includes location data flood and its impact on paddy farming as well as the performance data region. The secondary data obtained through the records of central statistical agency (BPS), Department of Agriculture and Regional Disaster Management Agency (BPBD). This research was conducted during 9 months of February 2010 until October 2010. Metode Analisis Data To maping the flood gristle areas in Bojonegoro conducted by survey the location and collection of secondary data from Bakorlak East Java and Bojonegoro Regional Disaster Management Agency. To formulate the development strategy of paddy is done by SWOT analysis. SWOT is an important matching tool to help develop four types of strategies: SO Strategies (strength-opportunities), strategies WO (weaknessesopportunities), ST Strategies (strength-threats) and WT strategies (weakness-threats) (David, 2004). For the determination of effective strategies is done by using Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) is a tool that allows the compilers of the strategy to evaluate alternative strategies objectively, based on strategic factors, both internal and external factors that are identified earlier. This technique objectively indicates which is the best strategy.(David, 2004). RESULT AND DISCUSSION Results Mapping of Flood Prone Areas in Bojonegoro Mapping of flood prone areas in Bojonegoro are intended to identify areas affected by flooding and the impact caused by the flooding. Data from the Regional Disaster Management Agency of areas in flood-affected Bojonegoro in February 2009 and its impact shows that from 27 subdistricts in Bojonegoro there are 15 districts are flood-prone districts in the vicinity of the flow of the Solo River. Districts are sub Margomulyo, Ngraho, Purwosari, Padangan, Kasiman, Malo, Kalitidu, Trucuk, Bojonegoro, Dander, Balen, Kanor, Kapas, Sumberejo, and Baureno

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Based on data from Bakorlak Bojonegoro about Victim Data and Natural Disaster Damage Water overflow Solo River in Bojonegoro in February-March 2009, to note that the views of damage to paddy crops, Subdistrict Baureno is most severely affected by damage lowland paddy area of 1175 Ha and districts with the smallest impact wetland inundation is sub Sumberejo is for the width 3 Ha (PBP Satlak Bojonegoro, 2009). Preview puddles that occur in some areas of the Bojonegoro presented in Figure 1. PETA BANJIR & KETINGGIAN AIR DI KAB. BOJONEGORO DI KARANG NONGKO KEC. MARGOMULYO 28.07 PEILSCHAL DI KOTA BOJONEGORO 15.07 PEILSCHAL PUKUL 13.00 WIB TGL 3 Peb 2009 SAWAH 3 HA

RUMAH : 37 AIR ± 35 CM SAWAH 116 HA LADANG 73 HA

RUMAH : 139 SAWAH :433 HA AIR ± 40 CM 13 DESA -SIMBATAN -PIYAK -TAMBAHREJO -SENAYAN -CANGAAN -BAKALAN -SEMAMBUNG -PILANG -KEDUNGPRIMPEN -KEDUNGREJO -KEDUNGARUM -PRIGI -GRAPE

AIR ± 25 CM

4 DESA : -BATOKAN -BETET -TEMBELING -SAMBENG

## KONDISI TERTINGGI ## BANJIR 3 PEB 2009

RUMAH : 1693 AIR 30 CM SAWAH 187 HA LADANG 20 FASUM 4 SD, 10 MUSLAH

RUMAH : 1225 AIR ± 50 CM LADANG : 284 10 DESA - SEMANDING - ETAK - MULYOAGUNG - KALIREJO - CAMPUREJO - LEDOKWETAN - LEDOKKULON - KAUMAN - KLANGON AIR 50 CM SAWAH 45 HA

1 DESA -SUMURAGUNG

RUMAH : 30 AIR ± 40 CM SAWAH 1175 HA

12 DESA : -TEBON -PRANGI -SIDOREJO -NGOKEN -PADANGAN -KUNCEN -BANJARREJO -DENGOK -CENDONO -PURWOREJO -NGEPER -NGRADIN

(14 DESA) : -KALISARI -TANGGUNGAN -KADUNGREJO -PUCANGARUM -POMAHAN -KARANGDAYU -BUMIAYU -GUNUNGSARI -GAJAH -TULUNGAGUNG -BUMIAYU -LEBAKSARI -TROJALU -KAUMAN

RUMAH : 82 AIR 30 CM SAWAH 10 HA LADANG 2 HA 1 DESA -PURWOSARI

AIR ± 50 CM SAWAH 71 HA 5 DESA: -NGELO -KALANGAN -TAPELAN -LUWIHAJI -SUMBERARUM RUMAH : 46 AIR ± 70 CM SAWAH 21 HA LADANG 16 HA 2 DESA -DS YG TERENDAM : -NGELO -KALANGAN

RUMAH : 900 AIR ± 60 CM SAWAH 701 HA LADANG:195 HA

RUMAH : 1534 AIR ± 50 CM SAWAH 1070 HA LADANG 283 HA

RUMAH : 463 AIR ± 50 CM SAWAH 910 HA LADANG 94 HA

12 DESA -TANGGIR -KEMIRI -RENDENG -KACANGAN -DUKUHLOR -MALO -SEMLAREN -SUDAH -KLITEH -TULUNGAGUNG -NGUJUNG -PETAK -TINAWUN

18 DESA -KAUMAN -CENGUNGKLUNG -SUDU -RINGINREJO -MLETEN -PILANGSARI -LERAN -SUKOHARJO -MANUKAN -MOJO -PANJUNAN -PUNGPUNGAN -NGUJO -MAYANGGENENG -BRENGGOLO -BEGET -MOJOSARI

9 DESA : -MULYOREJO -SARIREJO -SEKARAN -PILANGGEDE -KEDUNGREJO -KDG.BONDO -M.AGUNG -PRAMBATAN -LENGKONG

RUMAH : 1203 AIR ± 60 CM SAWAH 229 HA LADANG 167 HA 11 DESA : -KANDANGAN -KANTEN -SRANAK -TRUCUK -MORI -BANJARSARI -PADANG -TULUNGREJO -SUMBANGTIMUN -SUMBERJO -GUYANGAN

RUMAH : 27 AIR ± 50 CM SAWAH 7 HA LADANG 8 HA

RUMAH : 678 AIR ± 40 CM SAWAH 78 HA LADANG 15 HA 3 DESA -NGABLAK -NGULANAN -SUMBERTLASEH

##

1 DESA -DS BOGO AIR 50 CM

SATLAK PBP

##

KAB. BOJONEGORO GATOT.S

Figure 1. Map of FloodGristle Regions in Bojonegoro Year 2009 Paddy Development Strategies Commodities Table 1. SWOT Matrix Paddy Commodity Development Internal

Eksternal

Strength-S 1. Farmers actively participates BPP and SLPHT 2. Motivation of farmers to improve agriculture is high 3. The spirit of mutual help farmers still high 4. Spread evenly paddy 5. The number of high paddy farmers.

Opportunity-O 1. Paddy is the main raw material for S-O Strategy food society 1. Optimization of support from the 2. The local market and outside the region government on paddy farming (S1, is still wide open S2, O3) 3. Support from local government (help 2. Expansion of paddy marketing network seed and production facilities ) (S2, O3, O4) 4. Access to information technology, marketing support Threat-T S-T Strategy 1. Quality of paddy another region 5. The use of paddy varieties resistant better pool of water (S2, S1, T1, T5) 2. The risk of loss of high product 6. Improved post-harvest 3. Access to capital is difficult for management (S2, T3, T4) farmers 4. Annual Flood 5. The condition of supporting infrastructure are less supportive

Weakness-W 1. Farmers still apply the conventional cultivation 2. Education of farmers is relatively low 3. No post-harvest processing capability 4. The ability of farm management is still weak 5. The low ownership of land and high land use 6. passive role of cooperatives

3.

4.

7. 8.

W-O Strategy Enhancing the role of BPP in paddy farming technology transfer at the farm level (W4, W5, O2) Improvement of farm management skills at farm level (W2, W6, O3)

W-T Strategy Infiltration wells at farm level (W6, T3, T5, T6) Supporting infrastructure improvement (T4, W5, W6)

Source: Primary Data Analysis Based on the SWOT analysis results obtained by the formulation of alternative development strategy of the paddy commodity as follows: 1. Optimization of support from the government on paddy farming

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Bojonegoro District Government through the relevant technical agencies to develop paddy commodities. Efforts include the development of paddy is done by SLPHT programs (Integrated Pest Management Field School) given to farmers through the BPP (Agricultural Hall) and seed relief and other production facilities. An aspect that must be addressed is the increase in positive response from farmers to extension activities, training and guidance from BPP. In addition, equitable distribution must be more attention saprodi subsidies for all farmers can enjoy the subsidy equally. Synergy between the farmers and the government is expected to increase paddy production in Bojonegoro. 2. The expansion of marketing network So far, most of the paddy marketed Bojonegoro while marketing to other regions is very limited even there. This affects the sale ppaddy received by farmers is lower than if the farmers can sell out the area. Limited access to marketing is a major constraint in the market. To overcome this, it needed expansion of paddy marketing network. Alternatives that can be done for example by establishing trade relations with intermediaries / wholesalers from other regions, formed a partnership with third parties in the marketing of paddy and establish cooperation with the National Logistics Board (BULOG). 3. The use of paddy varieties resistant pool of water Paddy varieties are often planted in Bojonegoro especially in flood prone areas are the variety IR 64. Varieties are planted because it has a short harvest period and relatively high production. However, these varieties are not resistant to standing water that reached 2-3 weeks so that when the varieties are still planted paddy crop will result in death. For that, neededpaddy varieties that are planted are resistant to pool water. Swamp Land Agricultural Research Center (Balitra) has identified several strains of paddy that is resistant to standing water for 18 days to 21 days. Several paddy lines were IR70213-10CPA-2-3-2-1, IR70181-PMI-32-1-1-5-1, IR70213-10-CPA-4-2-1-1-3. The ability of these varieties grow> 75%, even though located in a puddle of water, compared to a capability IR64 paddy grows in standing water <5% (Khairullah, 2006). By using this paddy strains are expected to fail crop due to a submerged paddy can be minimized. 4. Improved post-harvest management Risk of loss of crops at harvest time is relatively high and still a few who perform post-harvest processing business. For it is necessary to improve post-harvest management, among others, by way of minimizing the risk of losing the crop in the paddy, using paddy thresher devices that can minimize the amount of paddy that do not fall off, keep dry paddy or paddy in a safe place of the stagnant water / flood, establish or improve paddy processing business which can increase the added value such as paddy flour, etc. 5. Enhancing the role of BPP in paddy farming technology transfer at farmer Center of Agricultural Extension (BPP) has functions as an institution conducting technology transfer to farmers in surrounding areas, the introduction of new technology in agriculture; provide guidance to farmers, doing farm demonstration plots, the technology of paddy cultivation techniques in areas prone to flooding, post-harvest management technologies.and as a training and development at the level of farmers and technical officers in human resource development in agriculture. The importance of the BPP is expected to increase its role especially in terms of technological development over the paddy farm.

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6. Improvement of farm management at farm level Farm business management at farm level in flood prone areas is still based on the habits of local farmers that farming is not yet optimal management. Within one year, paddy cropping pattern made by farmers between 1-2 times the risk of crop failure is relatively quite large. Another problem is that the cropping pattern in paddy farming is monotonous and farmers do not attempt to try to make innovations in farming. Therefore, needed improvement of farm management at farm level, partly by improving the management of cropping patterns adapted to climatic conditions, the use of paddy varieties resistant pool of water, improved paddy cultivation techniques in areas prone to inundation of water, making the absorption wells in the area of paddy fields and improves the channel irrigation 7. Infiltration wells at farm level Most of the region located on the banks of the River Bojonegoro Solo thereby potentially high risk of flooding. Puddles can occur for many months depending on rainfall in the headwaters of the Bengawan Solo River. This has led to many losses both residents and non-farmers' livelihood as farmers. To minimize or reduce the pool of alternative water that can be done at farm level is to make recharge wells. These recharge wells used for reducing the pool of water flooding, increase or raise the ground, reducing the symptoms of local ground subsidence and conserve and save water resources for the long term. It is expected that by making these recharge wells at farm level in both the paddy fields or in the yard will be able to reduce the flood water inundation. 8. Supporting infrastructure improvement Floods that occur almost every year in Bojonegoro has caused substantial losses both material and immaterial. A lot of supporting infrastructure like roads, bridges, irrigation canals, paddy fields which severely damaged by the floods.Damaged infrastructure inhibits the development of paddy in this region. This can be seen in areas with severe infrastructure damage level, commodity paddies have a lower tendency compared with other regions that have better infrastructure. Therefore, the improvement of supporting infrastructure needs to be done through the construction of roads, embankments and bridges. Effective Development Strategy (Best) for Paddy Commodity For the development of paddy fields in Bojonegoro, effective strategy (the best) that can be done is "the use of paddy varieties that are resistant to a puddle." Production of paddy in Bojonegoro have a lower quality than the paddy produced in other districts. This is due to flooding or standing water in paddy cultivation, resulting in lower quality paddy. The resulting paddy is generally brown and many who break if processed into paddy, the shelf life is relatively low and easy ―gabuk‖ (damaged). For that, you need paddy varieties that are planted are resistant to pool water. Some strains of paddy that is resistant to standing water that has been generated by Balitra can be applied so that the expected crop failure due to a submerged paddy plants can be minimized. CONCLUSIONS Of the 27 districts in Bojonegoro there are 15 districts which surround the Bengawan Solo River flow and is prone to flooding and the impact on paddy farming. Districts are sub districts Margomulyo, Ngraho, Purwosari, Padangan, Kasiman, Malo, Kalitidu, Trucuk, Bojonegoro, Dander, Balen, Kanor, Kapas, Sumberejo, and Baureno.Alternative development strategies paddy fields, among others: the optimal

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utilization of support from the government on paddy farming, expand marketing network, using paddy varieties that are resistant pool of water, improved post-harvest management, increased role of BPP in paddy farming technology transfer at the farm level, improved management farming at the farm level, making absorption wells at farm level, improvements in supporting infrastructure.The best strategy for development is the use of paddy varieties resistant to standing/pool of water. Policy Recommendation Bojonegoro Government should pay more attention to the development of paddy to improve food security. The formulation of commodity development strategy can be implemented paddy as part of efforts to strengthen food security in floodsgristle regions in Bojonegoro. REFERENCES Khairullah, 2006. Paddy resistant pool of water, a Solution of Fail Crop ain Floods. Sinar Tani, edisi 8 November 2006 Darwanto,D.H. 2005. Food Security based Prododuction and Farmer Welfare. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Vol. 12 No.2, 2005 : 152 - 164 David, F. R. 2004. Manajemen Strategis Konsep-Konsep. PT. Indeks Kelompok Gramedia. Jakarta. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations).2009.Food Security: Conceps and Measurement.www.fao/org/docrep/005/y4671e//y4671e.htm Satlak BPB Kabupaten Bojonegoro, 2009. Data of Victim and damage by Bengawan Solo Floods in Bojonegoro District at Pebruary-March 2009.PBP Bojonegoro. Suryana, 2008. Sustainable food security development in Indonesia: Policies and their Implementations. Paper presented at the High Level regional Policy dialogue Organized by:UN-ESCAP and the Inoonesia Government.Bali, 9-10 Desember 2008.

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FRUIT MATURITY INDICES BASED ON SKIN COLOUR (A REVIEW) Qanytah and Indrie Ambarsari Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) Central Java, Bukit Tegalepek, Kotak Pos 101, Sidomulyo Ungaran. Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT Fruit maturity indices are used to determine the exact time of harvest and also can be used in fruit grading. Fruits become mature in the midstage of developments, so determining the exact time of harvest is the important things in harvesting to reach the optimal eating quality. Maturity indices of harvested fruits have an important bearing on their quality, shelf life, and may affect the way they are handled, transport, and marketed. Therefore, the simple, easy to apply, non expensive, objective, and consistent methods to determine fruit maturity indices are needed. There is no single factor to determine the maturity of a fruit. Some factors are used to determine fruit maturity indices such as chronological indices, chemical indices, physiological indices, and physical indices. A lot of physical characteristics can be applied to examine the fruit maturity. Size, shape, surface characteristics, texture, and colour of a commodity are typical. The colour change which accompanies maturation in many fruits is widely used as maturity indices. Consumers are very sensitive to colour difference and they have a trend to determine the whole quality of the fruit by surface colour. The manual fruit classification based on skin colour is a subjective methods, took longer time, and low in accuracy and consistency because of the different perception on human in its appliance. But it is useful for farmer and small scale collectors/distributors which have limited access to sorting machine. They can use a simple chart of fruit maturity indices. Maturity indices based on skin colour for some fruits are developed to help farmers in the field. Maturity indices based on skin colour for strawberry, mangosteen, mango, carambola/star fruit, banana, apple, tomato, and peach was developed. Those standard was vary depends on fruit varieties and its commercial purposes. Keywords: Maturity Indices, Fruit, Skin colour

INTRODUCTION An understanding of the meaning and measurement of maturity horticultural products is central to postharvest technology. The maturity index for a commodity is measurements that can be used to determine whether a particular commodity is ready to harvest and also can be used to classify horticultural products. For most perishables, harvest is manual, so the picker is responsible for deciding whether or not the product has reached the correct maturity for harvest. In general, maturity indices for horticultural products devided into 2, they are physiological maturity and horticultural maturity. Physiological maturity is maturity of horticultural products based on physiological changes in the commodity both internal and external. Horticultural maturity is the stage of development when a plant or plant part possesses the prerequisites for utilization by consumers for a particular purpose (Reid, 1992). A given commodity may be horticulturally mature at any stage of development (Figure 1). Figure 1. shows that during it developmental stage, horticultural products passing through some stages starting with growth, mature, ripe, and senescence where product can not be consume. Sprouts or seedlings are horticullturally mature in the early stage of development, whereas most vegetative tissues, flowers, and underground storage organs become horticulturally mature in the midstage, fruits such as apple, pineapple, and orange horticulturally mature when almost fully develop, and seeds and nuts in the late stage of development.

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Development

Initiation

Death

Growth Maturation Physiological maturity

Ripening Senescence Sprouts

Hoticultural Maturity

Stem & Leaves Asparagus, celery, lettuce, cabbage

Inflorescences Artichoke, broccoli, cauliflower

Partially Developed Fruits Cucumber, green bean, okra, sweet corn

Fully Developed Fruits Apple, pear, citrus, tomato

Seedlings

Cut & Potted foliage nursery stock

Potted flowering plants

Roots & Tubers

Seeds

Carrot, onion, potato

Dry bean

Cut flower

Seeds

Ornamental Crops

Fig 1. Horticultural maturity in relation to developmental stages of the plant (Watada et al., 1984). Fruits become horticulturally mature when almost reach its late stage of development, therefore the correct harvesting time is crucial. The maturity of harvested fruit has an important bearing on their storage life and quality, and may affect the way they are handled, transported, and marketed. Since maturity indices is an important component and effect fruit quality and shelf life, maturity measurement is needed. Maturity measures to be made by producers, handlers, and quality control personnel must be simple, readily performed in the field, and should require relatively inexpensive equipment. The index should preferably be objective (a measurement) rather than subjective (an evaluation). The index must consistently relate to the quality and postharvest life of the commodity for all growers, locations, and years. There is no single factor to determine the maturity of a fruit. Many factors are involved to determine the exact stage or time of harvest are: chronological indices, chemical, physiological, and physical. In chronologically, maturity indices measure as days from planting or days from flowering or refined by calculating accumulated heat units during the growing periods. The maturation of fruits is often accompanied by profound changes in their chemical composition such as distribution of starch in the flesh, total soluble solids, the sugar/acid ratio, or old oil content. Physiological changes that related to their maturity are the changes of respiration and ethylene production rate (Hwang, 2005). Maturity indices based on physical index measure based on: a) size, shape, and surface characteristic (change in diameter of the fingers for banana, cuticle formation for grape and 145

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tomato, and degree of net development for musk melon; b) texture (solidity of flower mass for cauliflower, firmness for fruits; and c) colour (the colour change which accompanies maturation is widely used as maturity index for many fruits) (Hwang, 2005). Maturity Indices Based On Skin Colour Maturity indices based on fruit skin colour is one of methods widely used in many fruits. Although fruit skin colour changing is only one of factors that accompanies maturation, but this method is more effective and easy to use in farmer or retailer level. Fruit manual classification based on skin colour is subjective, take long time, low accuracy and consistency due to human different perception. Human have many weakness when do sensoric terms in loud capacity and longterm working hours. Using human as determiner in maturity indices based on skin colour have some weakness due to his subjectivities. According to Mokji and Abu Bakar (2007) although classification has done by an expert, the mistaken in fruit classification by human can not be avoid. One of effort to exceed this weakness is using mechanical tools specially in fruit sorting process. Since in farmer or small retailer level utilizing sorting mechine is expensive, thus maturity indices standards can be develop by using chart. Maturity indices charts based on fruit skin colour for some fruits has been developed. Some fruits such as strawberry, mangosteen, mango, carambola, banana, apple, tomato, and peach have maturity indices based on fruit skin colour changes. Some charts are supplement with other maturity parameters such as chemical content changing and shelf life, but some other only content of fruit skin colour changing. 1. Strawberry Maturity Indices Strawberry are usually harvesting at fully-ripe stage (75-90%) depends on market destination. The ripe strawberry ready to harvest when the colour skin dominate by red colour, reddish green, to reddish yellow (Budiman and Saraswati, 2008). Maturity indices for strawberry is shown in Figure 2.

Firmness (N) TSS (ºBrix) Acidity (%) Sugar/acid ratio Red colour (%) Marketing (hari)

1 3,6 8,3 0,65 12,8 70-80 7-8

2 3,1 8,8 0,59 14,9 80-85 5-6

3 2,3 9,0 0,56 16,1 95 2-4

4 2,1 9,2 0,55 16,7 100 1-2

Figure 2. Strawberry maturity indices (Hwang, 2005). Figure 2 showed that strawberry can be harvested at four maturity indices depends on consumers demand, cunsumtion time, and marketing distribution distances. At index 4, fruit is fully mature with 100% red colour skin, Total Soluble Solid (TSS) 9,2 ºBrix, and can be store for 1-2 days. Harvesting at this index is for direct consumption. Strawberry for fresh fruit market usually harvest at index 2 when skin colour is 80-85% red, and can be store for 5-6 days. 2. Mangosteen Maturity Indices According to Tongdee and Suwanagal (1989), the mangosteen skin colour is the major criteria in determine menentukan its maturity. Malaysia developed 7 index for 146

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mangosteen maturity indices, whereas Thailand used 6 index (Eusebio and Carpio, 2006). Mangosteen growers in Australia used 6 index that supplement with pH, TSS content, rind thickness and firmness index. Direktorat Tanaman Buah (2003) proposed 6 maturity index for mangosteen as shown in Figure 3.

Index 0

Index 1

Index 0 Index 1

: :

Index 2

:

Index 3

:

Index 4

:

Index 5

:

Index 6

:

Index 2

Index 3

Index 4

Index 5

Index 6

Greenish yellow colour skin, too many latex remain on the skin, and not ready to harvest. Yellowish green colour skin, latex still remain on the skin. The pulp and rind are still not separable. Not ready to harvest. Reddish yellow with patches of bright red all over the skin. Fruit is almost ripe with less latex remain on the skin. The pulp and rind are not easy to separate. Brownish red colour skin. The flesh segments is easy to separate from the rind. Fruit at this stage is suitable for export. The fruit colour is now red to purple. The flesh segments is easy to separate and ready to consume. Fruit at this stage is suitable for export. The fruit colour is reddish purple. Fruit is ripe and ready to consume. There is no latex remain on the skin and the flesh segments is easy to separate. Fruit at this stage is suitable for domestic market. The fruit colour is purple, dark purple or black. Fruit is fully ripe and suitable for domestic market and direct consumption.

Figure 3. Mangosteen maturity indices (Direktorat Tanaman Buah 2003). According to Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops (2006), mangosteen harvesting based in maturity index due to its marketing destination. For export purposes, mangosteen harvesting at index 4 and 5, whereas for local market and to be processed as frozen mangosteen is harvesting at index 5 and 6. Khalid and Rukayah (1993) stated that mangosteen skin colour changing from one index to the next colour index occur in one day at ambient temperature (25-30 °C). After harvest, unripe mangosteen would develop poor flavour, so magnosteen should be harvest at optimal maturity. Manimum maturity index to harvest mangosteen to get good quality flavour is when skin colour turn to brownish red and the flesh segments is easy to separate from the rind (Tongdee and Suwanagal, 1989). 3. Mango Maturity Indices Mangos maturity indicator coul be recognize by the time of flower bloom, color changes, and ratio of TSS and total acid (Pantastico et. al., 1989). Quane (2006) stated that there is no single mango maturity parameter that universally applied. But TSS content, acidity, fruit flesh colour, and latex viscosity, could be consider in fruit maturity indices measurements. According to Pantastico et. al. (1989), some mango producer rely on fruit skin colour changing from green to yellow, eventhough that sign could not be apply for mango that mature with green skin colour. Mango maturity indices based on skin colour changes were developed for some mango varities such as Arumanis, Gedong Gincu, and Honey Manila.

Index 1

Index 2

Index 3

Index 4

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Figure 4. Arumanis Mango maturity index (Direktorat Tanaman Buah 2005). Index 1 Index 2 Index 3

: : :

Index 4

:

Index 5

:

Index 6

:

Green skin colour. Fruit flesh is white. Yellowish light green skin colour. Unripe mango with pale yellow flesh. Yellowish green skin colour. Maturity index is <85%. Fruit flesh is light yellow. Fruit is ready to cumsume after > 7 days storage. Skin is green, tinged with a little brownish. Maturity index is 90%. Fruit flesh is yellow to orange. Fruit is ready to consume after 3-5 days storage. Skin colour is green, tinged with brownish in a part of the fruit. Maturity index is 95%. Fruit flesh is orange. Fruit is ready to consume after 2-3 days storage. Skin colour is brownish. Maturity index is 100%. Fruit flesh is dark orange. Fruit is ready to direct consume or maximum 1 day storage.

Quane (2006) stated that Arumanis is mango that ripe with the green skin colour. So, the Arumanis mango maturity indices based on skin colour have low carefulness. Mango maturity indices based on skin colour changes is most appropriate and easy to use for mango with yellow skin when mature such as Honey Manila as shown in Figure 5.

Index 1 Index 2 Index 3 Index 4

: : : :

Index 5

:

Skin colour is light green. Fruit at this stage is suitable for export by sea. Skin is yellowish green. Fruit at this stage is still firm and suitable for export by sea. Fruit with half green and half yellow. Fruit is rather firm but started to ripe. Fruit skin is yellow all over the skin and become rather soft. From the end rot it can be smell the mango flavour. Fruit is suitable to retail market. Fruit skin colour is golden yellow and fully mature with soft flesh. Some stretch on the skin is normal.

Figure 5. Honey Manila Mango maturity indices (Splendid Products, CA, USA in Hong, 2005). 4. Carambola Maturity Indices The carambola skin colour changes from green to yellow which is accompanied by an increase in Total Soluble Solid (TSS) including the total sugar (sweetness). Carambola should be picked when fully yellow to assure good eating quality (Kader, 2009). Fruit harvesting at 60 - 65 days after flower bloom, fruit skin colour is light yellow or yellowish green (about 25% is yellow and 75% is green).

1

2

Index 1 Index 2 Index 3

: : :

Index 4

:

Index 5 Index 6

: :

Index 7

:

3

4

5

6

7

Fruit is dark green and not shiny. Fruit is not ready to harvest. Fruit have light green skin to yellow and shiny. This stage is suitable to export by sea. Fruit is yellowish green and shiny (the yellow colour is less than 25%). Fruit at this stage is suitable to export by sea, air, and fresh consumption. Fruit is greeninsh yellow with 26 – 55 % yellow colour. Fruit at this stage is suitable to export by air and fresh consumption. Fruit is yellow with some green colour at ribs. The yellow colour is about 76 - 100%. The fruit is fully orange. Fruit is suitable for fresh consumption and not recommend to export. The fruit is fully dark orange. Fruit is over ripe, can be consume but with off flavour. The fruit is not suitable to export.

Fig 6. Carambola maturity indices (Direktorat Tanaman Buah 2003 and Anonim, 2009).

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The carambola fruit at index 1 is not suitable to sale due to its acidity. The fruit at index 3 and 4 is physiologically mature with sweet taste and have good eating quality. The fruit at this stage also suitable to export because it has the optimum firmness dan easy to further fresh handling (Anonim, 2009). According to Kader (2009), colour break (1/2 to 3/4 of fruit is yellow) is used as commercial maturity index because these fruits are firmer and easier to handle. Whereas fruit at index 5, is not suitable to export eventhough it has sweet taste, because it has a short shelf life. Mokji and Abu Bakar (2007) stated that the purpose of classifying the carambola into its maturity index is to determine the market suitability. For export use, only Index 2, Index 3 and Index 4 are allowed. Exporting immature fruit is to ensure it will only be mature at the time it arrive its destination. For domestic market, Index 5 and Index 6 are the most suitable indices as it can be eaten at the time the fruit is bought by the consumer. Mokji and Abu Bakar (2007) research showed that using of carambola maturity indices based on skin colour changing usually misclassified the carambola fruit. Most misclassified are for Index 2 and Index 5 while Index 1 and Index 6 samples are perfectly classified. The perfect classification will achieved when classification process is repeated. This shows that although the manual classification is performed by expert, confusion is unavoidable and machine vision approach can certainly avoid the confusion because it involves better precision of computation compared to human. . CONCLUSIONS Fruit maturity indices for some fruits are used to determine the exact time of harvest and also can be used in fruit grading. The maturity indices chart based on skin colour changing for fruit is vary from fruit to fruit and from variety to variety and depends on its destination market. The manual fruit classification based on skin colour is a subjective methods, took longer time, and low in accuracy and consistency because of the different perception on human in its appliance. But it is useful for farmer and small scale collectors/distributors which have limited access to sorting machine. REFERENCES Anonim.

2009. Star Fruit. Phrase_vch=Fruits&fid=5702

http://www.hungrymonster.com/FoodFacts /Food_Facts.cfm?

Budiman, S dan D. Saraswati. 2008. Berkebun Sroberi Secara Komersial. Penebar Swadaya. Jakarta. Direktorat Budidaya Tanaman Buah. 2003. Bagan Indeks Kematangan Buah Belimbing. Budidaya Tanaman Buah, Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura. Jakarta. Direktorat Budidaya Tanaman Buah. 2003. Buku Lapang Komoditas Manggis. Tanaman Buah, Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura. Jakarta.

Direktorat

Direktorat Budidaya

Direktorat Budidaya Tanaman Buah. 2005. Standar Operasional Prosedur Mangga Arumanis Kabupaten Buleleng. Direktorat Budidaya Tanaman Buah, Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura. Jakarta. Eusebio, J.E. dan A.T. Carpio. 2006. Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers. ICUC, Southampton, UK. Hong, S.I. 2005. Postharvest Technology of Fresh Produce for ASEAN Countries. Korea Food Research Institute. Korea.

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Hwang, Y.S. 2005. Maturity Indices and Quality Factors. In Hong, S.I (Ed) Postharvest Technology of Fresh Produce for ASEAN Countries. Korea Food Research Institute. Korea. Kader, A.A. 2009. Recommendations for Maintaining Postharvest Quality. Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA. http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/Producefacts/index.shtml Khalid, M.Z.M. dan Rukayah, A. 1993. Penanaman Manggis. Pertanian Malaysia (MARDI). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Institut Penyelidikan dan Kemajuan

Mokji, M. M. dan Abu Bakar, S.A.R. 2007. Starfruit Classification Based on Linear Hue Computation. Elektrika 9 (2). hlm14-19. http://fke.utm.my/elektrika. Pantastico, Er.B., T.K. Chattopadhyay, H. Subramanyam. 1989. Penyimpanan dan Operasi Penyimpanan Secara Komersial. Dalam Pantastico, Er.B. (ed.) Fisiologi Pasca Panen Penanganan dan Pemanfaatan Buah-buahan dan Sayur-sayuran Tropika dan Subtropika (terjemahan). Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Quane, D. 2006. Pedoman Produksi dan Pasca Panen Mangga. online/phguides/indo/mangga.htm

http://www.deptan.go.id/pesantren/agri-

Reid, M.S. 1992. Maturation and Maturity Indices. In Kader, A.A (Ed) Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. University of California. USA. Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops. 2006. Practical Manual No. 9. mangostana Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers

Mangosteen. Garcinia

Tongdee, S.C. and A. Suwanagul. 1989. Postharvest mechanical damage in mangosteen. ASEAN Food J. 4:151-155. Watada, A.E., Herner, R.C, Kader, A.A., Romani, R.J., and Staby, G.L. 1984. Terminology for the description of developmental stages of horticultural crops. HortScience 19:20-21.

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EFFECT OF CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT FOR INCOME ESCALATION OF HYBRIDS CORN (Zea mays) FARMING S. Yuniastuti, Suhardi, E. Retnaningtyas, Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Jawa Timur E-mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT Kediri is one of the centers of corn production in East Java and more than 90% of it is hybrid corn. Corn productivity mean in Asmorobangun, Puncu, Kediri is still low (4 t/ha), while its potential yield is up to 7 t/ ha. This is because many farmers are still using unlabeled seed and rarely using fertilizers. With improvement of cultivation technology, hopefully it can increase the yield as well as income. Cultivation technology improvement is held simultaneously at wet season 2007/2008 within 50 ha land and 199 farmer families. the components including labeled seed (P11) and balanced fertilizers use (Urea 450 kg, ZA 150 kg, Phonska 200 kg per ha). Planting system is according to local system by combine corn and chili in double row with 140x(20x10) cm planting distance which makes 30.000 plants/ ha population. Observation is done to 25 cooperating and 50 non-cooperating farmer toward yield and production cost. Economic analyzis is done to asses profit level and yield gain from farming for advanced technology and current farming technology. Advanced technology application by labeled seed and balanced fertilizer use yielded 4.8 t/ha of dry yield in combination system with chili, while current farming technology had 3.1t/ ha of dry yield. This means that farming technology improvement can increase yield up to 56%. The production increase could give Rp. 3.922.000,- per ha for profit with RC ratio up to 1,83 so that from corn farming, farmer‘s profit could increase up to Rp. 2.380.000,- per ha or 154% compared with current technology. Keywords: Corn (Zea mays), Cultivation Technology, Yield and Profit

INTRODUCTION Corn is one of food crops commodity which became major priority after rice to be developed in East Java. The need of corn keep increasing because of increase in food needs that follow population number increase. Besides that, needs of feed industry materials and another food industry materials also increasing further. As major foodstuff commodity after rice, there is rather large corn harvest area in East Java on Indonesia which reach 1.3 million ha and up to 75% of it was planted in dry field with rather low productivity which is < 2 t/ha (Kasijadi et al, 2003), under national average yield which reaches 2.1 t/ ha (Mawan, 1992). The low result was caused by a). The use of local variety plants or descended generation of advanced variety plants, b). Fertilizer dose and application that is incorrect, c). Pest and disease control that hasn‘t adequate yet and d). Plant population hasn‘t been perfect (Sudaryono, 1994). In Asmorobangun, Puncu, PRIMA TANI location on Kediri, corn is one kind of crop commodity that become people‘s major priority. From all dry field cultivation area (495.6 ha), more than 80% (406 ha) had been planted with corn and more than 90% of it were using advanced hybrid variety (Yuniastuti et al, 2007). Corn planting usually done in October – November because its irrigation water comes from rainwater. Corn productivity average in Kediri‘s PRIMA TANI location is still low, which is 4 t/ha while hybrid corn potential can reach up to 7 t/ha. This low productivity is caused by inability of farmers in applying cultivation technology as they should be. Farmer still use lesser quality seeds (unlabeled or even 151

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descended generation seed) and unbalanced fertilizer application, also pest and disease attack that can‘t be controlled such as bundel and bajug. This is because the lack of knowledge in cultivation technology and farmer‘s weak capital to fulfill the need of those production facility. Organic fertilizer application was done altogether with chili‘s, because usually corn was planted intercropping with chili. Inorganic fertilizer applied to corn was only Urea 500 kg/ha. Condition like that can cause hybrid corn farming to give low profit. Hybrid corn farming analysis on Asmorobangun at planting season of year 2005/ 2006 shows the loss of Rp. 284,000.-/ha or RC ratio only reach 0.95%. At year 2007, East Java BPTP through PRIMA TANI activity had socialize composite corn utilization (Lamuru, Bisma, Sukmaraga, Srikandi Kuning and Srikandi Putih) as one alternative to suppress production cost because the cost of the seeds are relatively cheaper, do not require high inputs and more tolerant to water restriction (Yuniastuti et al, 2007). Although the outcome can compete with hybrid corn, but with its tall performance so that it is easy to fell down, these composite corns couldn‘t be popular among farmers. Based on that, in order to increase hybrid corn farming profit as well as increase farmer‘s income, there‘s need to increase production through application of cultivation technology improvement including the use of advanced variety and balanced fertilizer application.

MATERIALS AND METHOD Cultivation technology improvement implementation to increase hybrid corn farming gain were done massively by 6 farmer group members in 6 villages on Kediri‘s PRIMA TANI location on Asmorobangun, Puncu with agro-ecology dry climate lowland dry land and altitude 400 m beyond sea level. Before corn farming activity was done there‘s soil analysis was done during fallow phase to know land fertility condition in Asmorobangun. Based on soil analysis results and location- specific fertilization recommendation .standard for dry land corn on Puncu, it‘s decided that fertilization include Urea 450 kg, ZA 150 kg, and Phonska 200 kg/ha (Arifin et al, 1999). Planting were done at rainy season 2007/ 2008 (December 2007 – March 2008) with planting area width 50 ha with number of implementer farmer 199 household. Hybrid corn cultivation technology improvement applied by farmer had been listed on Table 1. Besides balanced fertilizer application, another cultivation technology component improvement is by application of labeled hybrid corn seed (P11). Capital to fulfill production means need were facilitated by Kediri‘s Crop Farming Office. Observation was done toward 25 cultivation technology improvement implementation participant co-operator farmer and 25 non co-operator farmer. Observation was done toward harvest and production cost. Economy analysis was done to know hybrid corn farming profit level and income increase on both cultivation improvement technology as well as farmer technology.

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Table 1. Hybrid corn cultivation component with improvement technology applied by cooperator farmer and non-co-operator farmer technology Corn Cultivation Component

Farmer Technology Improvement Technology

1. Variety 2. Number of seeds 3. Land processing 4. Planting system

5. Planting way

6. Fertilizer dose: Urea (kg/ha) ZA (kg/ha) Phonska (kg/ha) Organik t/ha

7. Fertilizer application

8. Soil loosening weeding out

and

Pioneer 11, labeled 10 kg/ha Being hoed 2 times, made into bed Intercropped with chili which planted in double row with planting gap 140 x (20 x 10) so that population per ha is about 30,000 plants One seed being put per planting hole and Furadan 3G being applied on planting hole to prevent pest attack

Pioneer 11, unlabeled 10 kg/ha Being hoed 2 times, made into bed Intercropped with chili which planted in double row with planting gap 140 x (20 x 10) so that population per ha is about 30,000 plants One seed being put per planting hole and Furadan 3G being applied on planting hole to prevent pest attack

450 150 200 2

550 2

Urea and ZA were given 3 times which at 7 days after planting (dap), 28 dap and 42 dap, each 1/3 of total dose and Phonska were given single times at all during planting. Organic fertilizer was given 1 month before planting. 3 times (first at 2 weeks of age, second at 4 weeks of age or before the second supplement fertilization and the third after canopy covering the land perfectly) (Roesmarkam et al, 2000).

Urea wase given 3 times which at 7 days after planting (dap), 28 dap and 42 dap, each 1/3 of total dose. Organic fertilizer was given 1 month before planting.

3 times (together with Urea fertilizer application)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION P and K content analysis result on farming land soil shows that soil fertility level on Asmorobangun is considered low (Attachment 1), but according to dry land soil test set which done by Agro-climate and Hydrology Research Institute, it shows that fertility level on Asmorobangun was high to very high (Estiningtyas et al, 2007). This was because soil sampling by by Agro-climate and Hydrology Research Institute was done during intensive land cultivation so that soil analysis result was heavily affected. Low soil P and K availability status caused P and K available for plant also low. This caused those elements need for corn plant‘s growth wasn‘t adequate.

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Asmorobangun‘s farmers didn‘t realize or didn‘t realize yet that their farming land P and K nutrient status condition were rather low, so that in hybrid corn farming, besides organic fertilizer, they only depend on N fertilizer, as much as 550 kg Urea/ha. Deteriorated by low quality corn hybrid seed usage, caused result and quality of hybrid corn became less maximal. Labeled seed usage and 3 kind of inorganic fertilizer application (Urea 450 kg/ha, ZA 150 kg/ha, Phonska 200 kg/ha) can support hybrid corn plant performance growth. It is important to know that usage of quality advanced seed characterized by still valid label is a major capital in crop cultivation enterprises because from those seeds were hoped to grow into healthy, rigid and optimally yield plants. According to Arifin et al (1999), corn plants that have deficiency in N commonly shows dwarfing growth and yellowish green leaves which have V shaped from the tip of leaves to the veins and which started from lower part leaves first. P deficiency in corn plants causes plant roots become shallow and the spread become narrow and the stalk become weak. While K deficiency shows in the leaves edge and tip which become yellow and eventually dried up. Those conditions cause plant unable to maximize photosynthesis, so that plant growth will be retarded. Good plant growth conditions apparently were followed by higher harvest. In intercropping with chili, labeled seed using and 3 kind of inorganic fertilizer application (Urea 450 kg/ha, ZA 150 kg/ha, Phonska 200 kg/ha) at hybrid corn farming can yield 4.8 ton/ha dry yield or equivalent with 9.6 ton/ha dry yield in monoculture planting system, while on unlabeled seed using and 1 kind of inorganic fertilizer application (Urea 500 kg/ha), reached result were 3.1 ton/ha dry yield at intercropping planting system with chili or equivalent with 6.2 ton/ha dry yield at monoculture planting system (Table 2). Table 2. Hybrid corn dry yield harvest comparison between farmer technology and improvement technology. Asmorobangun, Puncu – Kediri. 2008. Result

Improvement Technology (t/ha dry yield)

Corn harvest at intercropping system with chili (3000 plants/ha)

4,8

Harvest expectation at monoculture planting system (6000 plants/ha)

9,6

Farmer Technology (t/ha dry yield) 3,1

6,2

Those cultivation technology improvement can increase the result as much as 56%. According to South Kalimantan BPTP assessment result, apparently balanced fertilizer application at Bisi-2 hybrid corn planting on South Kalimantan dry land can yield dry yield corn twice as much compared with corn planting that only used manure (Sumanto, 2004). Hybrid corn farming economy analysis result in Asmorobangun at 2007/2008 planting season shows that apparently in one ha, it needs production cost Rp 4,718,000.for improvement technology and Rp. 4,038,000.- for farmer technology. Those cost difference because there are fertilizer costs as much as Rp. 405,000. - and more expensive price of labeled seed. Increasing production and supported by better price for corn during harvest (Rp. 1,800.-/kg) then at hybrid corn farming with cultivation technology

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improvement can give profit as much as Rp. 3,922,000. - per ha with RC ratio reach 1.83 (Table 3). Hybrid corn farming gain increase through cultivation technology improvement application can reach Rp 2,380,000.- per ha or increase 154% compared with farmer technology. Tabel 3. Hybrid corn farming analysis per ha between farmer technology with improvement technology. Asmorobangun, Puncu – Kediri. Year 2007/2008 Farming component Improvement Technology Production cost Field rent (Rp) Seeds (Rp) Fertilizer (Rp) Pesticide (Rp) Manpower (Rp) Total(Rp) Yield (kg) Production price (Rp/kg) Income (Rp) = yield x price Profit (Rp) = Income – Production cost RC ratio = Income : Production cost

2,000,000 425,000 1,465,000 228,000 600,000 4,718,000 4,800 1,800 8,640,000 3,922,000 1.83

Farmer Technology 2,000,000 150,000 1,060,000 228,000 600,000 4,038,000 3,100 1,800 5,580,000 1,542,000 1.38

CONCLUSION 1. Hybrid corn cultivation technology improvement application with labeled seed usage and 3 kind of inorganic fertilizer application (Urea 450 kg/ha, ZA 150 kg/ha, Phonska 200 kg/ha) can yield 4.8 t/ha dry yield in intercropping system with chili, while with farmer technology the yield is as much as 3.1 t/ha dry yield. That means that cultivation technology improvement can increase hybrid corn yield up to 56%. 2. Those production increase can give profit as much as Rp 3,922,000.- per ha with RC ratio up to 1.83 o that from corn farming, farmer income increases Rp 2,380,000.- per ha or increases 154% compared with farmer technology. REFERENCES Arifin, Z., I. Wahab, Suyamto, F. Kasijadi and H. Sembiring. 1999. Acuan Rekomendasi Pemupukan Spesifik Lokasi untuk Jagung di Lahan Kering. East Java BPTP. Estiningtyas, W., E. Suryani and Sumarno. 2007. Identifikasi dan evaluasi lahan untuk mendukung Prima Tani di desa Asmorobangun, Kec Puncu, Kab Kediri, Prov Jawa Timur. . Laporan Balai Penelitian Agroklimat dan Hidrologi. Kasijadi, F., M.I. Wahab, S. Roesmarkam, H. Suseno, B. Tegopati, Suhardi, W. Istuti, S.R. Sumarsono and Wahyunindyawati. 2003. Pengkajian sistem usahatani jagung di lahan kering. Prosiding Seminar dan Ekspose Teknologi Hasil Pengkajian Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Jawa Timur. Malang, 9 – 10 July 2002. p. 224 – 232. Mawan, I., 1992. Hasil Utama Penelitian Tanaman Pangan 1987 – 1991. Deptan, Balitbangtan, Puslitbangtan, Bogor. 95 pages.

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Prayitno, K.S., H. Hanafi and H. Purwaningsih. 2004. Kajian usahatani tanaman pangan pada lahan kering di Gunung Kidul. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Inovasi Teknologi dan Kelembagaan Agribisnis Tahun 2004. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian. Bogor. P. 126 – 132. Roesmarkam, S., F. Kasijadi, H. Sembiring and Suyamto. 2000. Paket Teknologi Budidaya Jagung Spesifik Lokasi di Jawa Timur. Dalam Rakitan Teknologi Budidaya Padi, Jagung dan Kedelai Spesifik Lokasi Mendukung Gema Palagung di Jawa Timur (Penyunting: F. Kasijadi, Suyamto dan M. Sugianto). BPTP Jawa Timur. P. 21 – 28. Sudaryono. 1994. Rakitan teknologi budidaya jagung pada lahan kering di Jawa Timur. Dalam Dahlan et. al. (eds.) Risalah Lokakaraya Komunikasi Teknologi Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Tanaman Pangan Di Jawa Timur. Ballitan. Malang. P. 58 – 77. Sumanto, 2005. Efisiensi pemupukan terhadap hasil jagung hibrida Bisi-2 di lahan kering Kalimantan Selatan. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Inovasi Teknologi dan Kelembagaan Agribisnis. Malang, 8 - 9 September 2004. p. 160 – 165. Yuniastuti, S., Suhardi, E. Retnaningtyas, L. Amalia, A. Kusyuliono and A. Rosid. 2007. Keragaan lima varietas jagung komposit di desa Asmorobangun, kecamatan Puncu, kabupaten Kediri. Buletin Teknologi dan Informasi Pertanian. Vol 10. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Jawa Timur. P. 80 – 84. Yuniastuti, S., Suhardi, E. Retnaningtyas, L. Amalia, A. Kusyuliono and A. Rosid. 2007. Hasil PRA Laboratorium Agribisnis Pedesaan, desa Asmorobangun, kecamatan Puncu, Kabupaten Kediri – Jawa Timur. Laporan Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Jawa Timur. Malang. 76 pages.

Attachment 1. Farming land soil analysis result in 6 villages, Asmorobangun, Puncu, Kediri. 2007. Analysis kind Villages Dampit Soil physical characteristic Sand (%) Dust (%) Clay (%) Texture Soil chemical characteristic pH 1:1 H2O pH 1:1 KCl 1N Organic (%) Total N (%) C/N ratio S.SO4 (mg/Kg, CaCl 0.025N) P-Bray1 (mg/Kg) K (me/100g, NH4OAc1N,pH 7) Na (me/100g, NH4OAc1N,pH7) Ca (me/100g, NH4OAc1N,pH7) Mg(me/100g, NH4OAc1N,pH7) Kation exchange capacity Base count Base saturation

Jomblang

Prapatan

80 17 3 Clayed sand

85 12 3 Clayed sand

80 17 3 Clayed sand

4.6 3.8 0.30 0.07 4 t.u 71.32 0.30 0.13 3.05 1.98 45.41 5.45 12

5.1 4.3 0.73 0.10 7 23.35 80.69 0.51 0.14 2.13 0.61 9.08 3.40 37

6.2 5.2 1.16 0.13 9 3.05 137.29 0.11 0.61 4.43 1.37 15.18 6.53 43

156

Parangagung

Sidorejo

Sumbe r-suko

77 20 3 Clayed sand

86 11 3 Clayed sand

88 9 3 Clayed sand

5.2 4.1 0.95 0.11 8 1.41 129.51 0.46 0.15 1.90 0.48 9.45 2.98 32

5.0 4.1 0.61 0.10 6 t.u 128.93 0.33 0.13 1.98 0.61 10.08 3.05 30

5.8 4.8 0.70 0.11 7 6.46 176.69 0.32 0.14 3.35 0.45 8.57 4.25 51

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FERTILIZING ADVANCEMENT ASSESSMENT TO INCREASE BASIL (Ocimum basilicum L) PRODUCTION S. Yuniastuti and Lilik Amalia East Java Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology E-mail [email protected]

ABSTRACT Basil (Ocimum basilicum L) is one of plants which potentially can produce essential oil as natural attractant to traps fly fruit. Basil oil is highly needed because until now there‘s none of natural attractant that readily available on market. One of technological improvement for basil cultivation is fertilization that hopefully can increase basil production up to 25%. Assessment is done by using RBD with 5 replications. Treatment includes A. NPK recommended dose, B. NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer C. Half of NPK recommended dose + integrated natural fertilizer. Recommended fertilizer dose is 100 kg Urea and 150 kg NPK applicated 2 weeks after planting. Observations include plant‘s growth, brutto weight yield gain, and Basil oil‘s yield. Fertilization amelioration on green basil cultivation by adding leaf fertilizer (B) will increase canopy‘s width 22.5% at one month, 35% at two months, 37% at three months old and will increase the number of shoot about 21-22.5% at 1-3 month old compared to NPK recommended dose (A). Advancement on plant‘s growth had effect on wet brutto yield gain per plant about 30.2 % on two months harvest and 32.5% on three months harvest compared to control (A). Leaf fertilizer application on green basil cultivation can increase bail oil‘s yield. On three month, the highest yield is on treatment B (0.52 %) and lowest is on A (0,35%). Basil oil yield advancement is up to 48% on treatment B and 26% on treatment C compared to A (control). Keywords: Basil (Ocimum basilicum L), Fertilization, Growth, Yield, Basil oil

INTRODUCTION Mango production from year to year is inclined to increase, but exporting had been fluctuated and inclined to decrease, while demand for mango in foreign country is increasing. In reality, that production hardly can supply foreign demand. This is not only caused by low productivity, but also caused by the low quality of fruits that caused by fly fruit (Bactrocera dorsalis) attack so that excellent mango supply is very low (5% worth for exporting from what taken by exporter or 0.13% from total national production). Insecticide application in controlling fly fruit costs a lot and has negative effects on non-target organism, even including residue danger to human. According to previous study result (Balitro, 2004), fly fruit controlling attempt that quite effective, environmental friendly and leave no residue at fruit is by using essential oils with methyl eugenol (C12H24O2) as active ingredient and one of it came from basil. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L) is one kind of plant that had potential as essential oil source as phytoattractant to attract fly fruit at horticulture plants. Basil oil production is estimated to be able to compete with synthetic attractant which priced today at Rp 1.100.000,- per liter. Basil extract application as attractant in fly fruit controlling is something new because information about fly fruit controlling with basil extract had not yet reach the farmers and basil extract is unavailable at market. Basil plants are easy to get and be cultivated because they capable to adapt with various environment. To produce basil extract, usually wildly grown plants need to be

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cultivated to increase basil production, so that more extract can be produced. One of basil cultivation technology advancement is by fertilizing, which expected to increase basil production around 25%. MATERIALS AND METHOD Assessment was done in Oro-oro Ombo Wetan, Rembang, Pasuruan from May to December 2009 on 0,5 ha field. Materials used are basil seed, compost, polybag, seedling media, leaf fertilizer (Gandasil D), integrated bio fertilizer (Miza plus), Urea, NPK and organic fertilizer (compost). Tools used are watering tools, trimming scissors, hoe, sickle, bucket, basket, sprayer, scales and distillation tools. Experiments were done by using group random design, with 5 times repeating. Fertilization treatments consist of: A. NPK recommended dose, B. NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer, C. NPK recommended dose halved + integrated bio fertilizer. Basil seeds used for assessment are Balitro‘s green basil. Basil seeds were raised on seedling with compost and soil mixed (1:1) as media for one month with twice a day watering. Land was built into beds with width 100 cm, height 20 cm and length adjusted with field length. Gaps between beds are 30 cm for drainage and facilitating cultivation. Planting distance are 50 x 50 cm and 10 cm deep planting hole made by hollowing tools that used to plants tuberose. Watering were done once a week until plants reached 1 month of age and after then once every two weeks. Fertilizing recommendation on basil plant are Urea 100 kg/ha and NPK 150 kg/ha, given 2 weeks after planting. First continued fertilizing is Urea 100 kg/ha applied after first harvest (3- 4 months). Second continued fertilizing is Urea 100 kg/ha applied after second harvest (6- 8 months). Leaf fertilizer started to be applied after plants reach 2 weeks of age, applied once a week. Integrated bio fertilizer was applied during planting on different site with inorganic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer 2 ton/ha applied during planting as basic fertilizer and put into planting hole. Observation includes plant growth which observed every 1 month and basil harvest total mass weight per plant (flower and non-flower parts) at 2 and 3 months. Number of observed sample is 10 plants/bed. Harvested basil at 2 and 3 months distilled to knows yield and to produce basil oil at once. Data were analyzed by variant analyzing to ensure which fertilization technology can ameliorate plant growth, increase basil harvest total mass weight and increase yield of basil oil. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Green basil growth observation results at 1, 2 and 3 months after planting shows that treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) had gave best plant growth (canopy width and number of branches) compared with A (NPK recommended dose) and C (half of NPK recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer). Application of NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer can increase canopy width as much as 22.5% at 1 month, 35% at 2 month, 37% at 3 month and can increase branches number per plants as much as 21- 22.5% at 1 -3 month of age, compared with control (Table 1 and 2), while amelioration fertilizer application didn‘t affect basil plant‘s height (Table 3). From growth phase observation result, generally green basil plant already started to bloom at 1 month

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after planting. Treatment by leaf fertilizer application to plant can increase vegetative growth (canopy width and number of branches per plant) even though plant had already enters generative phase (Figure 5- 6), meanwhile height plant growth didn‘t affected by fertilization amelioration application (Figure 7). Integrated bio fertilizer application did not affected green basil plant growth. This was because of short observation time of basil plant growth (12 weeks after planting) so that effect on growth can be possibly had not shown. Functional effect of integrated bio fertilizer application would only be happened at 26 weeks after inoculation (Widiastuti, Suharyanto and Darmono, 2008). Integrated bio fertilizer application is still needing further assessment into maximum result can be obtained. Table 1. Effect of fertilizer treatments to green basil canopy width at 1, 2, 3 month after planting. Treatments

A. NPK recommended B. NPK recommended dose C. Half of NPK dose (A) + leaf fertilizer recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer

1 month of age 2 months of age 3 months of age

33.36 a 64.04 a 75.48 a

1 month of age 2 months of age 3 months of age

-

Canopy width (cm) 40.88 b 86.44 b 103.44 b Increase (%) 22.54 34.98 37.04

33.68 a 61.08 a 71.04 a 0.96 -4.62 -5.88

Table 2. Effect of fertilizer application to green basil number of branches per plant at 1, 2, 3 month after planting. Treatments

1 month of age 2 months of age 3 months of age 1 month of age 2 months of age 3 months of age

A. NPK recommended B. NPK recommended dose C. Half of NPK recommended dose (control) + leaf fertilizer dose + integrated bio fertilizer Number of branches per plant 30.32 a 36.76 b 104.44 a 127.56 b 110.72 a 135.60 b Increase (%) 21.24 22.14 22.47

34.32 ab 99.60 a 107.20 a 13.19 -4.63 -3.18

Table 3. Effect of fertilizer application to green basil plant height at 1, 2, 3 month after planting Treatments

A. NPK recommended dose (control)

1 month of age 2 months of age 3 months of age

31.28 a 45.68 a 55.92 a

1 month of age

-

B. NPK recommended dose C. Half of NPK + leaf fertilizer recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer Plant height (cm) 32.44 a 47.08 a 55.16 a Increase (%) 3.71

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30.12 a 44.32 a 53.32 a -3.71

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2 months of age 3 months of age

-

3.06 -1.36

-2.98 -4.65

CANOPY WIDTH GROWTH

Canopy width (cm)

120 100 80 60 40 20 1 month

2 months

3 months

Age Fertilizer recommended dose Fertilizer recommended dose + leaf fertilizer 1/2 of fertilizer recommended dose + bio fertilizer

Figure 5. Plant canopy width growth for 3 months with various fertilizer treatments.

Number of branches per plant

NUMBER OF BRANCHES GROWTH 150

120

90

60

30 1 month

2 months

3 months

Age Fertilizer recommended dose Fertilizer recommended dose + leaf fertilizer 1/2 of fertilizer recommended dose + bio fertilizer

Figure 6. Plant branches number growth for 3 months with various fertilizer treatments.

PLANT HEIGHT GROWTH

Plant height (cm)

60

50

40

30

20 1 month

2 months

3 months

Age Fertilizer recommended dose Fertilizer recommended dose + leaf fertilizer 1/2 of fertilizer recommended dose + bio fertilizer

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Figure 7. Plant height growth for 3 months with various fertilizer treatments. Observation results of green basil harvest at 2 and 3 months after planting shows that treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) can increase harvest through wet total mass weight per plants (Table 4). Treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) can increase wet total mass weight as much as 30.2% at 2 months of age and 32.5% at 3 months of age compared to treatment A (control = NPK recommended dose). That total mass harvest increase especially came from weight increase of vegetative parts (leaves and twigs) and generative parts (flowers) per plant (Table 5 and 6). At 2 months of age most of the total mass weight increase mostly came from flowers and at 3 months from leaves and twigs. This means that leaf fertilizer spraying routinely once a week (treatment B) can increase vegetative growth although the plant is going in generative phase. Besides that, increase in plants growth (canopy width and number of branches per plants) at treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) will support increase in green basil harvest total mass weight. Result of low vegetative growth at treatment C (halved recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer) apparently caused the low weight of green basil harvest total mass. Table 4. Fertilization application effect toward total mass wet weight per green basil plant at 2 and 3 months of age after planting. Treatments

2 months of age 3 months of age 2 months of age 3 months of age

A. NPK recommended dose (control)

B. NPK recommended dose C. Half of NPK + leaf fertilizer recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer Total mass wet weight per plant (g) 155.5 a 202.5 b 161.0 a 194.0 a 257.0 b 179.0 a Increase (%) 30.2 3.5 32.5 -7.7

Table 5. Fertilization application effect toward vegetative parts weight (leaves and twigs) per green basil plant at 2 months and 3 months of age after planting. Treatments

2 months of age 3 months of age 2 months of age 3 months of age

A. NPK recommended B. NPK recommended dose C. Half of NPK recommended dose (control) + leaf fertilizer dose + integrated bio fertilizer Leaves and twigs wet weight per plant (g) 85.5 a 99.3 b 86.2 a 112.0 a 151.0 b 116.0 a Increase (%) 16.1 0.9 34.8 3.6

Table 6. Fertilization application effect toward generative parts weight (flowers) per green basil plant at 2 months and 3 months of age after planting. Treatments

2 months of age 3 months of age

A. NPK recommended dose B. NPK recommended dose + (control) leaf fertilizer

70.0 a 82.0 a

Flowers wet weight per plant (g) 103.2 b 106.0 b Increase (%)

161

C. Half of NPK recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer 74.8 a 74.2 a

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2 months of age 3 months of age

-

47.4 29.3

6.8 -9.5

Green basil harvest distillation (branches, leaves and flowers) at 2 months of age after planting shows that basil oil average yield is highest at treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) which is 0.19% and lowest at treatment A (NPK recommended dose) which is 0.11% (Table 7). Based on research results from Balitro, basil oil content from leaves distillation is about 0.18% - 0.56%, from flowers is about 0.7%, and from twigs is about 0.01% (Kardiman, 2003). Observation results of basil oil yield at 2 months of age shows that it is still low. This is because 2 months of age plants still have not contain enough basil oil, so it isn‘t recommended to harvest them at 2 months of age. According Pitojo (1996) basil oil average content is about 0.18 - 0.23% and the yield is depended on plant‘s age. Based on Balitro recommendation, basil plant should be harvested at 3 – 4 months of age. Table 7. Fertilization application effect toward basil oil yield at 2 months and 3 months of age after planting. Treatments

2 months of age 3 months of age 2 months of age 3 months of age

A. NPK recommended B. NPK recommended dose C. Half of NPK recommended dose (control) + leaf fertilizer dose + integrated bio fertilizer Basil oil yield (%) 0.11 a 0.19 b 0.15 ab 0.35 a 0.52 b 0.45 ab Increase (%) 70.6 35.3 47.7 25.7

Harvest distillation at 3 months of age shows that highest yield of basil oil produced at treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) which is 0.52% and lowest at treatment A (NPK recommended dose) which is 0.35%. At 3 months of age, basil oil yield increase was up to 48% on treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) and 26% on treatment C (half of NPK recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer) compared to treatment A (NPK recommended dose = control). Distillation technique is done by drying the harvest (by exposing it) for 2 – 3 days. According to Sutjipto, Sigit and Wildan (2008), to gain 15 cc of basil oil, it would needed 1 kg dried basil leaves.

CONCLUSION 1. Amelioration fertilization at green basil cultivation by adding leaf fertilizer application once a week (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) can increase plant growth, that is increase canopy width 22.5% at 1 month of age, 35% at 2 months of age, 37% at 3 months of age and can increase number of branches 21 – 22.5% at 1 – 3 months of age, compared with NPK recommended dose. 2. Plant growth increase has affecting wet total mass weight increase per plant as much as 30.2% at 2 months of age harvest and 32.5 at % 3 months of age harvest compared to NPK recommended dose. 3. Amelioration fertilization at green basil cultivation by adding leaf fertilizer application once a week (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) can increase basil oil content. 162

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Based on distillation result at 3 months of age plants, basil oil highest content came from treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) which is 0.52% and lowest came from treatment A (NPK recommended dose) which is 0.35%. Basil oil content increase reaches up to 48% on treatment B (NPK recommended dose + leaf fertilizer) and up to 26% on treatment C (half of NPK recommended dose + integrated bio fertilizer) compared to treatment A (NPK recommended dose).

REFERENCES Widiastuti, H., Suharyanto and Darmono, T. 2008. Miza Plus, pupuk hayati terpadu. Leaflet. Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia. Kardiman, A., 2003. Mengenal lebih dekat Selasih, tanaman keramat multimanfaat. PT Agromedia Pustaka. 42 pages. Sutjipto, P. Sigit dan Wildan J. 2008. Pengendali lalat buah Bactrocera dorsalis Hend pada tanaman cabai merah dengan ekstrak daun selasih (Ocimum sanctum L.). Naskah bahan Rakitek BPTP Jawa Timur. 6 pages. Pitojo, S., 1996. Kemangi dan selasih. PT Trubus Agriwidya. 48 pages. Widiastuti, H, E. Guhardja, N. Sukarno, L.K. Darusman, D.H. Goenadi and S. Smith. 2003. Arsitektur akar bibit kelapa sawit yang diinokulasi cendawan mikoriza arbuskula. Menara Perkebunan 71 (1), 26 – 39.

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CORRELATION BETWEEN CITRUS FRUIT (Citrus suhuiensis) QUALITY AND PEATLAND ON WEST SULAWESI

S. Satya Antarlina* and M. Noor** *Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) of East Java Jalan Raya Karangploso Km 4 Malang. Indonesia Telp: 0341-494052. Fax: 0341-471255 e-mail: [email protected] ** Research Institute for Swampland Agricultural (RISA) Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

ABSTRACT West Sulawesi is one of the central area ‖siam‖ citrus production. Part of the citrus plantation on peatland. Based on the observered, citrus fruit have varied quality, so caused different price. One of the different citrus fruit quality caused by different plant management, land characteristic, location, etc. Otherwise, the research about correlation between pre-harvest and post-harvest especially fruit quality not yet do.The objectives of the research: to identification of correlation between citrus fruit quality and peat land. The activities to identify of citrus quality in peatland on 5 villages: Pangale, Salopangkang, Tangkau (Mamuju District) and Dapurang, Tabarudia/Punjuk (North Mamuju District), West Sulawesi. The characteristic of soil on peatland was acid, pH 4.142—4.61, C organic content was medium to high compare with mineral soil between 9.67—12.82%, N total was high between 0.870—1.030%, soil maturity (ratio C/N soil) moderately mature to mature between 10.137—14.476, Ca and Mg were high and that component very effected to citrus fruit quality. Ca content between 7.745—12.746 me/100 g and Mg content between 1.583—5.978 me/100 g. The citrus plant growth on peat land bed compared on mineral soil. Physical quality of citrus fruit, weight is 140.26—151.33 g/fruit, skin color green > yellow and moderately acid taste. The quality of chemical citrus fruit, on TSS (Total Soluble Solid) 9.44—10.05 (low) and acid content 0.40—0.45% (high). TSS/acid content ratio 21,57—25,51 (low), the value to know sweetness level of fruit citrus. There were correlation between Ca and fruit skin (0.314*), Ca and vitamin C (0.441**), Mg and fruit skin (0.571**), C org and TSS/acid ratio (-0.437**). Citrus fruit quality based on weight grade B—A. Depend on TSS/acid ratio, quality of fruit were low, because the fruit harvested on 65% maturity level, the reason marketing long distant. Keywords: correlation, ―siam‖ citrus (Citrus suhuiensis), peat land, fruit quality, INTRODUCTION Siam citrus (Citrus suhuiensis) is a variety of citrus that has an important role in the Indonesian market, because most high-production, preferred by consumers and profitable 164

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economic value (Sunarmani and Soedibyo, 1992). According Wahyunindyawati et al. (1991), gains in siam citrus farming is ten times more than the advantage of seasonal crops. Therefore, it is not surprising that siam citrus plantation acreage in Indonesia continues to increase. In addition, the development of siam citrus ecological areas are quite spacious. From year to year increased of siam citrus groves was followed by increased area harvested and production, but fruit quality is still varied, particularly if the quality is compared with imported citrus, so this affects the amount bid. West Sulawesi is one of the siam citrus-producing areas of potential. Production center is located at Mamuju and North Mamuju. Planting and development of citrus largely implemented in swamp land, namely the tidal wetlands, monotonous, and peatlands. Problem encountered in citrus planting area in swamp land, the difference in the quality of citrus fruit produced. The differences are due to the correlation between nutrient concentrations in the soil-specific nutrient and water quality citrus fruit produced (Antarlina et al., 2005 and 2006). In citrus plantation development in swamplands requires a method/technique specific arrangement of land and wise. The techniques are primarily intended to control the compound pyrite (FeS2), which when oxidized would lead to high soil acidity and the surrounding environment. Development of swamplands for agriculture are faced with land biophysical constraints. Mistakes can lead to problems in managing to land fertility. The traditional methods has been developed to farmers needs to be learned to avoid failure in the development of swampland for planting citrus. According to Rambo (1984) and Lovelace (1984), traditional beliefs invite a large number of empirical potential associated with the phenomenon, process and history of environmental changes that have implications that are useful for planning and development process. Scientific knowledge mixed with the recognition and understanding of natural phenomena through the user community version information on swamplands is expected to open insights that can be taken into consideration to properly utilize swamplands and sustainable (Maas, 2002). The link between pre-harvest management with postharvest quality of citrus (fruit) are rare. Based on literature and field observations there is a relationship between the behavior of pre-harvest with crop yield (total production, fruit appearance, taste, etc.). Therefore, the activities of the research has been carried out physical and chemical characterization of land associated with citrus fruit quality in tidal swamplands and monotonous swamplands. The results Antarlina et al., (2005, 2006) showed that the land characteristics affect the quality of citrus fruit. Elements of the real effect of Ca and Mg. Similar research conducted in swampy areas in. The history of siam citrus in Sulawesi, originated from the area Selayar District, South Sulawesi, and then spread to the area Malanke, North Luwu (400 km from Makassar), South Sulawesi. The development of citrus plants in the area Selayar then decreased, but rapidly growing on Malanke area. Then in Malanke area, in the last 10 years has decreased along with the development in North Mamuju (750 km from Makassar City - via Pinrang about 900 km from the Malanke City), which is now West Sulawesi Province. In the West Sulawesi, siam citrus planted in Mamuju and North Mamuju District, in Pangale, Topoyo, Tobadak, Sarudu, Pasakayu, and Baras Village. Planting siam citrus in the Pangale village, the old of plant between of 5-8 years, with 0-35 cm layer of clay material, some 0-35 cm of peat. Most land is peatland with thickness of peat > 100 cm. Siam citrus was planted in that area, showed average good growth.

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The objectives of the research to identify the quality of citrus fruits in relation to the management of peatlands

MATERIALS AND METHODS The research was conducted in 2007 in five location i.e. (1) Pangale, (2) Tangkau, (3) Salupangkang village (Mamuju District), (4) Dapurang, (5) Punjuk (North Mamuju District), West Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Materials and tools necessary for this research are the the soil driller, pH meters, digital scales, hand refractometer index, a measurement to observation units (beaker glass, shove), knives, and chemical analysis equipment. Chemicals for analysis of soil, water and fruit. Soil sampling equipment (plastic, markers, knives, etc.), citrus fruit sampling equipment (basket, scissors, labels, markers, etc.). The tools for analyzing soil and water, are Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), flame photometry, thermometers, rain gauges. Statistical Analysis done is the correlation between soil characteristic and citrus quality while chemical analysis were done for soil pH-H2O, C-organic, N-total, Ca-dd,-dd Mg, Fe and BV (Bulk Density). Water analysis includes: pH, EC, and sulfate. The analysis of soil and water in the soil laboratory Research Institute for Swampland Agriculture (RISA), Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Chemical analysis of siam citrus fruit include: weight, size (length, width, circumference), skin color, skin thickness, flesh color, total pie, the number of seeds, fruit juice content, moisture content, TSS (Total Soluble Solid), acid content, TSS/acid ratio, and vitamin C. The analysis of siam citrus quality conducted in the postharvest laboratory Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) East Java, Malang, Indonesia.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a. Soil Chemical Characteristic Based on the results of analysis of soil chemical characteristic (Table 1), it can be seen that the study sites included in the category of peat soil with organic C content ranged from 9.67 to 12.82% with a thickness of peat is very varied. soil pH ranged from 4.14 (Dapurang) to 4.61 (Pangale). According to Noor (2001), peat soil pH is determined by the depth of the content of pyrite and organic acids. Organic acids produced by peat, decomposition of organic materials. Organic acids are in the low pH of peat soil. Pangale Village site based on the results of chemical analysis of soil organic C-content has the lowest, with a peat thickness ranged between 100-150 cm, depth pyrite > 150 cm. This condition causes the pH of peat land in the Pangale village higher than the other study sites. C/N ratio at all study sites classified as moderate. This indicates the material has experienced peat decomposition information. Content of Nitrogen and P-total classified as very high, while the P-available varies. The availability of soil P is associated with organic groups are charged depending on pH. Organic acids are able to bind to P and lead to decreased availability (Rasmadi and Kurnain, 2004). The low P-available P is also due to the peat soil was in organic form that requires the process of mineralization to be used by plants (Noor, 2001). In addition, the availability of P is also influenced by the ions of Al,

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this is because aluminum ions capable of forming phosphorus to fixation Al2 (PO4) 3 so that its availability decreased. Table 1. The main soil chemical characteristic of siam citrus planted in Mamuju and North Mamuju, West Sulawesi, 2007. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11. 12. 13

Soil chemical characteristic pH C-Org (%) N-tot (%) Ratio C/N Ca (me/100 g) Mg (me/100 g) P-tot (mg/100g) K-tot (mg/100g) P-tsd (ppm) K (me/100g) Na (me/100g) Al (me/100g) CEC (me/100g)

Punjuk 4.43 l 12.43 vh 0.907 vh 13.729 m 9.618 m 2.708 h 200.93 vh 61.52 vh 23.37 m 0.61 m 0.15 l 0.57 vl 30.83 h

Dapurang 4.42 l 12.20 vh 0.886 vh 14.138 m 7.745 m 1.624 m 219.099 vh 63.77 vh 63.166 vh 0.644 m 0.144 l 0.85 vl 36.5 h

Location (Village) Tangkau Salopangkang 4.252 l 4.54 l 12.82 vh 10.35 vh 0.900 vh 1.030 vh 14.476 m 10.137 m 9.070 m 12.746 h 1.583 m 2.121 h 111.388 vh 125.77 vh 20.402 l 42.87 h 9.791 vl 11.42 vl 0.285 m 0.56 h 0.109 l 0.12 l 1.175 vh 1.00 vl 31.0 h 35.00 h

Pangale 4.61 l 9.67 vh 0.870 vh 11.270 m 10.617 h 5.978 h 97.824 vh 72.604 vh 17.679 m 0.645 h 0.744 h 0.51 vl 31.6 h

Note: The average of the 5-7 soil samples Criteria based on soil chemical characteristic Soil Research Center (1983) vh = very high, h = high, m = moderate, l = low, vl = very low According to Noor (2001), peat soils generally have high nitrogen levels, while Pavailable variety. Soil P availability is also influenced by land management factors, such as SP or NPK fertilizer so that the P-available increases. At Dapurang Village, P-available classified as very high, whereas the other study sites classified as very low-medium. This condition is believed the addition of SP and NPK fertilizer on the sample locations in the Dapurang Village, so the P-available higher. Concentrations of Ca and Mg soil classified as moderately high. Peat soils generally have low Ca and Mg (Noor, 2001), unless already done to the granting of lime soil management so that the availability of Ca and Mg increased. Of Ca and Mg has an important role in improving the quality of citrus fruit. Ca element taken from the soil in the form of cations was instrumental in activate certain enzymes that play a role in photosynthesis, while Mg is very influential in the formation of chlorophyll and activate some enzymes (Hardjowigeno, 1990). In addition, Ca is important in controlling the activity of some enzymes in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts. Mg element is a constituent of chlorophyll and enzyme activators, which play an important role in the process of photosynthesis. Mg was instrumental in the formation of chlorophyll, Mg joined the ATP so that ATP can function in a variety of reactions and the formation of DNA and RNA, and activate enzymes that play a role in photosynthesis and respiration are important in growth and development of citrus fruit. Orange tree that Mg deficiency is generally the fruit would be small in size, low sugar content and acid content increases (Chang and Petersen, 2003). The content of K-total varies from low to very high at 20.4 mg/100g (Tangkau) 72.60 mg/100g (Pangale). While K-available pertained medium - high and it ranged 0.28 me/100g (Tangkau) - 0.65 me/100g (Pangale). Land management factor is the addition of K fertilizer (NPK) is thought to cause the variation of the K availability. Element K is an essential element whose presence in soil is needed by plants to increase endurance, growth

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and yield. Lack of potassium in citrus plants can also cause orange fall so easily reduced production. As with potassium deficiency calcium also memyebabkan small fruit size and sugar content of citrus fruit is low (Chang and Petersen, 2003). Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil is high for all study sites. Peat lands are generally have a high cation exchange capacity, due to a group of organic acids (Rasmadi and Kurnain, 2004). Na concentration is low, except for the location was classified Pangale. Al concentration for all study sites classified as very low. Based on the chemical characteristics of soils at study, and Table suitability of land for citrus crops (Table 1) sites classified according to citrus plants with soil pH inhibiting factor. Through proper land management for example by the addition of either urea fertilizer, SP, KCl, capable of improving soil fertility in the study sites so that the peat land suitability for citrus crop increased. Compaction is also done for plant growth especially steady and strong root growth so the plants do not easily fall down/collapsed. b. Nutrient Status and Quality of Siam Citrus Fruit Nutrient status in peatland is very diverse, depending on the type of peat, peat thickness, building blocks, and the bottom layer of peat. Based on land suitability evaluation CSAR (1994), peatlands including conditional because it is based is still raw (fibrik), pH < 5.5, pyrite depth > 100 cm (Table 1). Forms of plant height, diameter, and thick skin, the number of fruits per tree correlated with Mg and Ca. The quality of citrus fruit Ca correlated with nutrient status in terms of content of vitamin C and ratio levels of TPT/acid (Table 2). From the results of correlation between the quality of the fruit with the status of nutrient/chemical properties of peat soil showed need to straighten or repair to the granting of such fertility and fertilization ameliorant to improve the quality of fruit in addition to productivity. Table 2. Value correlation of chemical characteritic of soil and quality of citrus fruit, Mamuju and North Mamuju, West Sulawesi, 2007 Soil chemical characteristic Ca Mg C-org PH

Total of citrus pie -0.222 -0.320* 0.145 -0.245

Physical fruit characteristic Total seed Ratio H/D 0.024 0.314* 0.338* 0.571** 0.533** 0.226 0.051 0.095

Thick of skin 0.314* 0.571** -0.257 0.245

Vit C content 0.441** 0.223 0.081 0.400*

Fruit quality Acid content -0.196 -0.392* 0.392* -0.172

Ratio TSS/ acid 0.125 0.363* -0.437** 0.153

c. Quality of Siam Citrus Fruits From the results of statistical analysis between location in peat lands showed no differences in physical characteristics of citrus fruit, meaning that almost in all locations, the same quality of citrus fruit. From the characteristics of citrus fruit five locations in the peat lands of West Sulawesi, it seems that quite a large citrus fruit with a weight of 140.26 to 151.51 g, on average by the standards of quality of citrus classified between grades B to A. The quality standard is stated that, grade A in 1 kg of citrus much 6 citrus ( 167 g/fruit), while grade B as much as 8 citrus (. 125 g/fruit) and grade C as much as 10 citrus ( 100 g/fruit). Citrus fruit from Pangale and Salupangkang Village relatively larger. The weight of fruit at the height of high value fruit, fruit diameter, fruit circumference, a thick skin,

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percentage of fruit flesh, and citrus juice. The percentage of fruit flesh around 77.99 to 79.83%, while the orange juice from 31.95 to 33.62%. The number of pie and the number of seeds each ranged between 11.3 to 11.67 and the number of seeds 90-10 (Table 3). The chemical composition of citrus fruit from several locations of the statistical test showed no difference. It appears that the levels of Total Soluble Solid (TSS) ranged from 9.44 to 10.05%. TSS levels are relatively low citrus fruit, citrus fruit contest because according to the high levels of TSS was 12%. Judging from the relatively high acid content of about 0.40 to 0.45%. Acid content of citrus fruit from the tidal swamplands typology A of 0.203, typology C of 0.312 and monotonous swamplands of 0.318 in South Kalimantan (Antarlina, 2007). Given the low value of TSS and high levels of acid content levels, the ratio of TSS/acid was also low at about 21.57 to 25.51 lower than the tidal swampland and monotonous swampland in South Kalimantan that is greater than 30. Table 3. The physical characteristics of citrus fruit from five locations in peat lands, West Sulawesi, 2007 No Fruit characteristic Location (village) Punjuk Dapurang Tangkau Salupangkang Pangale 1 Weight (g) 140.33 140.26 148.96 151.33 151.51 2 Circumference (cm) 20.07 20.30 20.67 20.61 20.55 3 High (H) (cm) 5.62 5.61 5.78 5.64 5.82 4 Diameter (D) (cm) 6.39 6.46 6.58 6.56 6.54 5 Ratio H/D 0.88 0.87 0.88 0.86 0.89 6 Thick of skin (mm) 1.76 1.89 1.78 1.71 2.02 7 Total pie of citrus 11.3 11.33 11.67 11.49 11.43 8 Total seed 9.73 10.20 9.33 10.20 9.89 9 Flash (%) 78.96 79.45 78.22 77.99 79.83 10 Juice (%) 32.63 32.51 32.43 31.95 33.62 11. Skin color green > green > green > green > green > yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow 12. Flash color Light Light Pale YellowPale yellowyellowyelloworange yelloworange orange orange orange Citrus fruit from the location North Mamuju, TSS levels are relatively higher than other locations (Figure 1), and lower acid levels (Figure 2), so the ratio of levels of TSS/acid that is equal to 25.51%. Concentration ratio TPT/acid, this shows the level of sweetness or sour citrus fruit, the higher the value the more sweet taste (Fig. 3). Levels of vitamin C of citrus from peat lands between 23.50 to 26.25 mg/100g (Figure 4) was higher than citrus fruit from the tidal swamp lands in South Kalimantan. Levels of vitamin C in citrus fruit related to the acidic, the higher the acid content of vitamin C is also relatively higher. The water content of fruits ranged from 78.59 to 88.08% (Figure 5).

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TSS Conten (%)

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14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

10.05

9.57

Pjk

Dpr

9.55

9.44

9.64

Tgk

Slp

Pgl

Location

Figure 1. Concentration of TSS siam citrus fruit in five peat land location (Punjuk, Dapurang, Tangkau, Salupangkang, Pangale) West Sulawesi, 2007

Acid Conten (%)

0.8 0.6 0.4

0.43

0.43

0.45

Pjk

Dpr

Tgk

Slp

0.4

0.4 0.2 0 Pgl

Location

Ratio TSS/acid

Figure 2. Acid content of siam citrus fruit in five peat land location (Punjuk Village, Dapurang, Tangkau, Salupangkang, Pangale), West Sulawesi, 2007 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

25.51

Pjk

22.61

22.48

21.57

Dpr

Tgk

Slp

24.53

Pgl

Location

Figure 3. Ratio of TPT/acid siam citrus fruit in five peat land location (Punjuk, Dapurang, Tangkau, Salupangkang, Pangale) West Sulawesi, 2007

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Vitamin C Conten (mg/100g)

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40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

26.25

Pjk

23.5

24.14

26.24

25.06

Dpr

Tgk

Slp

Pgl

Location

Moisture Conten (%)

Figure 4. Vitamin C content of siam citrus fruit in five peat land location (Punjuk, Dapurang, Tangkau, Salupangkang, Pangale), West Sulawesi, 2007

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

78.59

Pjk

88.08

87.43

87.03

87.5

Dpr

Tgk

Slp

Pgl

Location

Figure 5. Moisture content of siam citrus fruit in five peat land location (Punjuk, Dapurang, Tangkau, Salupangkang, Pangale), West Sulawesi, 2007 d. Relationships of Quality and Citrus Fruit Crop Management in Peat Land Based on the physical characteristics of citrus fruit peat lands of West Sulawesi is classified as good quality as the size of fruits including at grade B to A. While based on the chemical composition of citrus fruits which are stated in the levels of TSS, acid concentration and ratio levels of TSS/acid citrus fruit, it appears that citrus fruit could be classified as low to moderate quality. One possible cause is the fruit of citrus in this peat land in North Mamuju and Mamuju, West Sulawesi, about 65% harvested of maturity level. The reason for citrus fruit harvested in these conditions, because the citrus fruit will be marketed outside the Province, with road access is difficult and takes a long journey to reach consumers. Citrus fruit are young harvest is visible from most of the citrus fruit skin is green (green > yellow) and the color orange appears that flash pale yellow to yellow (Table 3). Citrus fruit at optimal maturity level of most of the fruit skin and fruit flesh is yellow orange. Young citrus fruit after a few days stored will decrease the quality of citrus fruit with skin look dull, slightly wrinkled, pale yellow-green, fruit and soft texture. But the sour taste of fruit still can not be sweet for citrus fruit is classified as non-climacteric fruit. This condition often occurs when you reach the consumer so as to lower the price. Physical character of citrus fruit is fair because it appears in Table 3 that in general farmers have been doing citrus fertilizing and maintenance. However, due to the marketing 171

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demands of the citrus fruit is harvested young so visible on the observation that the chemical quality is low.

CONCLUSIONS 1. Citrus fruit quality in peatlands of West Sulawesi Province, correlated with citrus crop management and soil chemical properties 2. Citrus fruit quality based on the dominant fruit taste sour, which is supported by the level of ratio TSS/acid is low (21.57 to 25.51), TSS content is low (9.44 to 10.05 %) and acid content is high (0.40 to 0.45 %), 3. Based on citrus fruit size ranged from grade B and A, with a weight of 140.26 to 151.33 g/fruit 4. TSS/acid ratio positively correlated with soil Mg element and negatively correlated with soil organic C-element. 5. Citrus fruit harvested at maturity level of about 65%, with a view dominant citrus skin color green, this is because the marketing reach of citrus fruit is relatively distant (outside the province) with access to transport (roads) are still difficult and far, it took longer to reach consumers.

REFERENCES Antarlina, S.S., I. Noor, H. Dj. Noor, S. Raihan, Achmadi, Y. Rina and Noorginayuwati. 2005. Technology Increasing Land Productivity and Quality of Citrus in the Swamp Land. Research Report Balittra, Banjarbaru. Antarlina, SS., A. Jumberi, Y. Rina, Noorginayuwati, I. Noor, W. Annie, E. Maftu'ah, Muhammad, M. pious and A. Budiman. 2005. Soil Chemical Properties Relationship Quality With Citrus Fruits In Tidal Land. Research Report Balittra. BB & D SDLP.Bogor. Antarlina, SS., A. Jumberi, Y. Rina, Noorginayuwati, I. Noor, W. Annie, E. Maftu'ah, Muhammad, M. pious and A. Budiman. 2006. Soil Chemical Properties Relationship Quality With Citrus Fruit On Land Lebak. Research Report Balittra. BB & D SDLP.Bogor. Chang, W. N. and Petersen J. B., 2003. Citrus Production. A Manual for Asian Farmers. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for Asian and Pacific Region.Taipei. Hadjowigeno, 1990. Introductionto Plant Physiology. Gramedia. Jakarta. Lovelace, G. W. 1984. Cultural beliefs and the Management of Agroecosystem in Rambo, AT and Sajise, PE (editor) An Introduction to Human Ecology. Maas, A. 2002. Swamp Land as Agricultural Land Now and the Future of the Proceedings of the National Seminar on Dryland Agriculture and Land Swamp.Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology in South Kalimantan. Banjarbaru. Noor, M. 2001. Peatland Agriculture, Potential and Constraints. Canisius. Yogyakarta. 174h. Noorsyamsi and Hidayat. 1974. The Tidal Swamp Rice Culture in South Kalimantan.Ris Cent Contrib Inst. Agric.

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Rais, M. and Nurhadi, 1996. Improved Efficiency of Citrus Farming Technology.Orange monographs. Fruit Research Institute. Solok. 33h. Rambo, A.T. 1984. No Free Lunch: A Reexamination of the Energetic Efficiency of swidden Agriculture in Rambo, AT and Sajise, PE (editor) An Introduction to Human Ecology Research on Agricultural Systems in Southeast Asia. University of the Philippines. Los Banos. Rasmadi, M. and Kurnain, A., 2004. Understanding the Nature of Peat In connection with the Reclamation Activities in Tropical Peatlands. Agrosientiae. Vol 11. No.1. Sunarmani and Soedibyo. 1992. Making Citrus Fruit Juice Concentrate With Vacuum Evaporator. Journal of Horticulture 2 (3) :67-71. Horticulture Research and Development. Jakarta. Wahyunindyawati, S.R., Soemarsono and F. Kasijadi. 1991. Orange Farm Scale Siem in East Java. Journal of Horticulture 1 (1) :61-69. Horticulture Research and Development. Jakarta.

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHINESE CABBAGE AS A PATHOGEN TRAP CROP TO CONTROL CABBAGE CLUB-ROOT DISEASE Salim Widono, Hadiwiyono, Sholahuddin, Endang Sulastri, R. Wijayabti, and M.K. Himawanti The Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sebelas Maret Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Kentingan Surakarta 57126. Telp/Fax. 0271 637457. Contact Person: E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]

ABSTRACT Club-root caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. is the most important disease of cabbage in Indonesia. In the infected land, the disease is very difficult to control due to the pathogen survives soil for years even without any susceptible host. Therefore, pathogen disinfestation is an important tactic in integrated management of club-root. This research aimed to evaluate effectiveness of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) as a trap crop of the pathogen to control club-root of cabbage on some heavy infected lands. The research was conducted by observation on 5 plot kinds of cabbage planting. The plots consist of a control plot without planting of Chinese cabbage, a plot with planting Chinese cabbage as plant rotation planted on the 38th day before planting of the cabbage followed by manual eradication, a plot with planting of Chinese cabbage as plant rotation planted on the 38th days before planting of the cabbage followed by flooding for 14 days and soil tillage, a plot with mix-cropping of Chinese cabbage on the early growth stage of the cabbage, and a plot with intercropping of Chinese cabbage onthe 14th day before planting the cabbage. The results showed that planting Chinese cabbage as trap crop of the pathogen followed by eradication of the infected Chinese cabbage, effectively controlled club-root intensity and significantly restored the partial yields of the cabbage. Key words : cabbage, Chinese cabbage, club-root, trap crop, eradication

INTRODUCTION In farming system of cabbage, the farmers envisage the risk of crop losses caused by pests and diseases.The most important disease of cabbage is club-root caused by Plasmodiphora brassicae Wor and sometime the damage reach up 100% (Hadiwiyono & Supriyadi, 1997). In the infected lands, the disease is difficult to control due to the pathogen is able to survive for years inthe soil even without anyavailablesusceptible host plant (Dixon, 2009). Therefore, pathogen elimination is an important component in club-root management (Donald & Porter, 2009). One of the pathogen elimination techniques in soil is by planting trap crop. The use of trap crop in pest control have been practiced for a long time and some cases are successful (Shelton & Badenes-Perez, 2006), on the other hand in controling disease plantis still limited to apply. Trap crop is susceptible plant for early infection but then the pathogen can not complete the growth due to the plant is resistant to further infection or die or harvested before the pathogen develop completely(Maloy, 1993). One of trap crops for club-root pathogen is Chines cabbage (Brassica chinensis L). the plant is susceptible andhas short of life to be harvested on the age of 25-40 days after germinating. Therefore, the pathogen is not able to complete its infection process (Hadiwiyono, 1999). This research aimed to evaluate effectiveness of chines cabbage (B. chinensis) as trap crop of pathogen to control club-root of cabbage on heavy contaminated land. 174

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MATERIALS AND METHODS This research was conducted on heavy contaminated land of club-root pathogen in Argoyoso Karanganyar Central Java at 800 m above sea level. The study was employed with The experiments conducted on 5 plots of cabbages cv. KK Cross as the major plant and chines cabbage as trap crop of the pathogen. The seedlings were transplanted on the 28th dayafter germinating. The seedlings were planted with 50 cm x50 cm distance on the beds with ±30 cm high, 70 cm wide, and 30 cm distance between the beds. Each plot was sampledfor3 groups of plant and each group was consisted of 10 plants to observe the variables of the yield. The Chines cabbage seed were germinated on the bed with 10 cm x10 cm of planting distance. Whereas the disease variables were area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), disease severity, effectiveness value of control, crop yield per hectare, increase value of the yield, and weigh of crop. AUDPC was accessed by the formulation of: (Compbell, 2008). i 1

AUDPC

Xi

n 1

Xi 2

1

ti

1

ti

by which X = disease incidence and t= time of observation. The disease incidence was based on visual observation of the wilting symptom upper soil at 11-12 am. The observation for collecting data was done weekly. The disease severity was observed by scoring methods with 0-5 levels of scores and pulling out the plant on harvesting time. The disease severity was calculated using the formulation of:

DS

n v N V

100 %

by with DS = disease severity, n = number of diseased plant with a level of score, v = score of the disease, N = total number of observed plants, and V = the highest score. The scores are 0 = no disease, 1 = diseased root at 1-20 %, 2 = diseased root at 21-40 %, 3 = diseased root at 41-60 %, 4 = disease root at 61-80 %, and 5 = disease root at 81-100 % (Hadiwiyono, 1999). The effectiveness value of control was determined by the formulation of:

EV

a b 100 % a

by which EV = effectiveness value of control, a = disease severity on the control plot, and b = disease severity on the treatment plot. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Chines cabbageplanting as trap crop of pathogen was effective to decrease disease severity of club-root (Table 1). Chines cabbages as plant rotation 38 thdaybefore plantingof cabbages followed by manual eradication was effective reduce AUDPC and disease severity with the highest effective value of control of 17,78%. It is verified that Chines 175

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cabbage is susceptible to club-root pathogen and can be used for trapping the pathogen. Some literatures explained that the resting spore of club-root pathogen could be promoted to germinate by susceptible host or some non host plant (Friberg et al., 2005; 2006; Howard et al., 2010). On susceptible plant rhizosphere, the resting spores germinate and then actively move closer to the root tissues to penetrate and infect the plant (Howard et al., 2010; Kageyama & Asano, 2009). The infection process of club-root pathogen on the seedling until sporulation needs 55-60 days, therefore when the infected plants are eradicated or harvested at the age of 38 days after germinating, the pathogen will be dead before completing the disease cycle to generate new spores (Hadiwiyono & Supriyadi, 1998). Manual eradication was employed by pulling the root to be destroyed. Decreasing population of the pathogen was indicated by the decrease club-root severity on cabbage as the major crop. Table 1. The effects of Chines cabbage as the trap crop of club-rootpathogen followed by radiction to AUDPC, disease severity, and the value of effectiveness of control Planting of Chines Cabbage

Eradication of Chines cabbage

No planting 38 DBP(rotation)

No eradication Manual pulling out

38 DBP(rotation)

Land flooding for 14 days

0 DBP (intercropping) 14 DBP(intercropping)

No eradication No eradication

Disease Severity (%)

Value of control effectiveness (%)

138,25±6,66d 61,25±3,64a

45,00±2,40c 37,00±0,79b

17,78

83,13±2,78b

19,00±0,78a

57,78

105,00±3,35c 66,50±1,56a

45,00±0,57c 61,00±0,79d

0,00 0,00

AUDPC

Note: DBP: days before planting of cabbage, AUDPC: area under the disease progress curve, the means in the same column followed by the same letter are nonsignificantly different at level of 5 %.

Table 2.

The effects of Chines cabbage as trap crop of club-rootpathogen and its eradication to the cropyield

Planting of Chines Cabbage

Eradication of Chines cabbage

No planting 38 DBP(rotation)

No eradication Manual pulling out

38 DBP(rotation)

0 DBP (intercropping) 14 DBP(intercropping)

Yields of crop (ton/ha) 27,30±1,06a

Increase value of the yields of crop (%) -

Weigh of crop (kg/plant) 0,91±0,18a

31,90±3,25b

16,84

1,13±0,23b

Land flooding for 14 days

35,40±7,56c

29,67

1,18±0,35c

No eradication No eradication

30,90±3,56b 26,70±2,99a

13,19 0,00

1,03±0,22b 0,89±0,29a

Note: DBP: days before planting of cabbage, AUDPC: area under the disease progress curve, the means in the same column followed by the same letter are nonsignificantly different at level of 5 %.

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Chines cabbages for plant rotation 38th before planting cabbages followed by flooding the land for killing the excess of infected roots was the most effective to reduce AUDPC and disease severity with the highest effective value of control 57,78%. It is considered that the disinfestations are not just only through trapping by chines cabbage, but also by the unaerobic condition in the flooded soil. The facts support the previous research showing that anaerobic condition could significantly decrease population of clubroot pathogen in diseased plant debris (Hadiwiyono et al., 2000). Anaerobic condition along composting diseased plants was reported to be able to eliminate pathogens in the infected soil (Fayolle et al., 2006). Flooding the land could change the soil condition to be anaerobe. It could cause change of community structure of microbes including the antagonistic microbes. The respiration of aerobic microbes including fungi and bacteria will decrease in anaerobic condition due to the oxygen deficiency, and the pathogen will be dying (Goud et al., 2004; Sessiha et al., 2007). Goud et al. (2004) reported that anaerobic conditioning for certain period was effective to decrease propagule population of Verticillium dahlia. Whereas according to Sessiha et al. (2007), the an aerobic conditioning was effective for disinfestations the land from pathogen of brown rot of potato, Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2. The flooding however could reduce biological soil suppressiveness caused by the microbes taking role the suppressiveness were decreased (van Os et al., 1999). Planting Chines cabbage on the early stage of growth in intercropping system on 14 days before planting of cabbage followed by eradication of infected Chines cabbage effectively reduce AUDPC, but the disease severity in the end of growth of cabbage was still high. The decreasing AUDPC was caused by the pathogen trapped by the Chines cabbage in the early growth of cabbage, but due to it was not followed by eradication of trap crop so the pathogen could completion the cycle infection until sporulation. It caused increase population of the pathogen so the disease severity on cabbage as major crop, increased in the end of growth. The results are supported by an opinion that the risk of trap crop was the disease cycle being shorter than the life of trap crop, so pathogens do sporulation and generate new generation being able to increase the disease infection (Shelton & Badenes-Perez, 2006). CONCLUSION The present study suggested that planting Chinese cabbage as trap crop of the pathogen followed by eradication of the infected Chinese cabbage, effectively controlled club-root intensity and significantly restored the partial yields of the cabbage. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This test is a minor part of the research project funded by ‖Hibah Strategis Nasional DP3M DIKTI‖ of Indonesia through Contract Number:0162.0/023-04.2/XIII/2009. REFERENCES Campbell, C.L. 1998. Disease progress in time: modeling and data analysis. In: D.G. Jones (ed). The Epidemiology of Plant Diseases. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p:181-204.

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Cicu. 2006. Penyakit Akar Gada (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) pada Kubis-Kubisan dan Upaya Pengendaliannya. J. Litbang Pert. 25(1):16-21. Dixon, G. R. 2009. The occurrence and economic impact of club-root disease. J. Plant Growth Regul.28: 194-202. Donald, C. & I. Porter. 2009. Integrated control of club root. J. Plant Growth Regul. 28:289-303. Fayolle, L. , Nobel, R. , Coventry, E. , Aime, S. & Alabouvette, C. 2006. Eradication of during composting of wastes. Plant Pathol.55:553-558. Friberg, H., Lagerlof, J. & Ramert, B. 2005 Germination of resting spores stimulated by a non-host plant. Eur. J. Plant Pathol.113:275-281. Friberg, H., Lagerlof, J. & Ramert, B. 2006. Usefulness of nonhost plants in managing Plasmodiophora brassicae. Plant Pathol.55: 690-695. Goud, J-K.C; A.J. Termorshuizen; W.J. Blok; & A.H.C. van Buggen. 2004. Long-term effect of biological soil disinfestations on verticillium wilt. Plant Disease 88(7):688-694. Hadiwiyono. 1999. Jamur akar gada (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.): uji teleransi inang dan pengendaliannya secara hayati dengan Trichoderma. Dalam: Soedarmono, T. Arwiyanto, S. Donowidjojo, H.A. Djatmiko, D.S. Utami, N. Prihatiningsih, E. Pramono, A. Manan, E. Mugiastuti (Penyunting). Pros. Kongr. Nas. XV dan Seminar Ilmiah Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia, 16-18 September 1999 di Purwokerto. Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Fakultas Pertanian UNSOED. p.365-371. Hadiwiyono & Supriyadi. 1998. Penyakit ―Menthol‖ sebagai Pengganggu Baru Kubis-Kubisan di Tawangmangu, Karanganyar. Caraka Tani13(2):16-24. Hadiwiyono, B. Pujiasmanto, & M. Rahayu. 2000. Pengaruh fermentasi dalam air sisa tanaman sakit terhadap propogul patogen akar gada (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) dan penggunaannya sebagai pupuk caisin (Brassica chinensis L). Agrosains. 2(1):23-29. Howard, R.J.; S.E. Strelkov; & M.W. Harding. 2010. Club-root of cruciferous crops - new perspectives on an old disease. Can. J. Plant Pathol.32(1) :43 - 57 Kageyama, K. & T. Asano. 2009. Life cycle of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. J. Plant Growth Regul. 28(3):203-211. Maloy, C.O., 1993. Plant Diseases: Priciple and Pactices. Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore. 346pp.

John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York,

Sessiha, N.A.S.; A.D. van Diepeningen, M. Wenneker; A.R. van Beuningen; J.D. Janse; T.G.C. Coenen; A.J. Termorshuizen, A.H.C. van Bruggen; & W.J. Blok. 2007. Biological soil disinfetation (BSD), a new control method for potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2. Europ. J. Plant Pathol. 117(4):403-415. Shelton, A.M. & F.R. Badenes-Perez. 2006. Concepts and applications of trap cropping in pest management. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 51:285-309. van Os, G.J.; J.P.M.; & W.J.M. van Gulik. 1999. Effects of soil fumigation and flooding on suppression of Pythium root rot in ornamental bulb culture. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 105:791-800.

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ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS INTERMEDIUS FROM CANINE DERMATITIS CASES IN YOGYAKARTA Soedarmanto, I1*., Yanuartono1, Purnamaningsih, H1., Raharjo, S1. Ikliptikawati, D1., and Sakan, G1. 1

Department of Internal Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Fauna 2, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia * Corresponding author: Tel.: + 62-274-560862, Fax. + 62-274-560861 E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Staphylococcus intermedius is a main agent infection of dermatitis dogs. There is less information about the role of S. intermedius in dog skin disease in Indonesia. This study was conducted to isolate and identify of S. intermedius from dermatitis dogs. In this study, 50 skin swabs have been taken from dermatitis dogs in Yogyakarta. The S. intermedius would be identified from these samples based on the cultured, Gram stained, biochemical and sugar (maltose-lactose) tested. Twenty six from 50 isolates in this study grew on mannitol salt agar, with round cells, Gram + and coagulated the rabbit plasma. All of isolates showed negative result Voges Proskouer test, fermented mannitol, lactose and maltose. Based on these results, it could be concluded that most of skin dog infection in Yogyakarta could be identified as S. intermedius. Keywords: Staphylococcus intermedius, dermatitis, dog.

INTRODUCTION Skin disorder is one of the most popular disease which could be often found in dogs. Altough the disease is superficial, but it does not mean this skin disorder could be ignored as it is aesthetically unstylish and could spread to the whole body causing the more serious infection impact (Loeffler et al., 2007). In recent 10 years, the incident of atopic dermatitis increases substantially (De Boer, 2004). Pyoderma is one of many skin diseases caused by bacterial agent. Bacterial agent that has been considered as a cause is Staphylococcus intermedius, as it is also act as a normal flora of the dog skin (Penna et al., 2009). The incidence of dog skin disorders in Indonesia has been widely reported, but the exact cause is still unknown. The lack of research regarding the causes of skin disorders often makescliniciansgive a less apropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Staphylococcus intermedius from dogs with dermatitis in the area of Yogyakarta.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS The main material used in this study are 50 dogs in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, which is clinically suffer from dermatitis. Samples were taken by swabbing the affected dog skin with sterile cotton swabs. Samples were then cultivated into the mannitol salt agar (MSA)media and incubated at 37 º C, overnight. Thereafter, the growing colonies could be examined for its cell morphology using the Gram staining, catalase and coagulase test that has been done previously by several researcher (Kloos and Schleifer, 1975; Lay, 1994; Kanbar, 2009; and Soedarmanto et al., 2010). Isolates were then tested for Voges Proskauer (VP) and its ability to fermented the glucose, lactose and mannitol (Lay, 1994; Soedarmanto et al., 2010). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Staphylococcus is characterized by the ability to grow on mannitol salt agar (MSA)media. In this study, 42 isolates are able to grow in this media, and the colonies show a positive reaction in the catalase test. Staphylococci generally has a catalase-positive, while the streptococci has catalase negative (Schliefer, 1986; Freney et al., 1999; and Quinn et al., 2007). Those isolates have a coccus-shaped, Gram +, opaque with cell diameters ranging from 0.8 to 1.5 μm. The presented result leadsto the identification of staphylococcus bacteria andhas an accordance with the opinion of Holt et al. (1994) that Staphylococci cells are Gram-positive coccus type, which could be seen through a microscopic examination.The cells could be seen in clustered or pairs, and have a shape like an irregular grapes. The cell morphology of Staphylococcus intermediusare Gram positive, coccus, opaque, and the cell diameter was ranged from 0.8 to 1.5 μm, with an irregular edges (Hajek, 1976; Schliefer, 1986; and Freney et al., 1999). On the tube coagulase test, 31 isolates from 50 samples show the existence of clot or gel in the bottom of tube at 24-hour incubation (Figure 1). Murray (2007) has been reported that strains of Staphylococcus intermedius showed positive results in a tube coagulase test for a cultivation more than 4 hours. The aim ofcoagulation test is to determine the ability of bacteria to produce the coagulase enzyme (Abrar, 2001).

A

B

Figure 1. Staphylococcus coagulase test result isolates from dogs with dermatitis,A positive and B negative. Staphylococcus intermedius is a coagulase positive zoonotic bacteria found in dogs, pigeons, foxes, and horses. From the previous reports, all coagulase positive bacteria has 180

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known as Staphylococcus aureus, but since Hajek (1976) found a unique identification of organisms, bacteria previously identified as Staphylococcus aureus subtype E and F, then known as Staphylococcus intermedius (Pottumarthy et al., 2004). Based on the cultivation result in MSA, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase test; then the 31 isolates were suspected as Staphylococcus intermedius, which is furthermore tested in the VP media, glucose, lactose and mannitol. From the 31 VP test results, we were obtained 26 isolates that showed negative results and had a positive resultson glucose, lactose and mannitol. Talan (1989) reported that Staphylococcus intermedius showeda negative results in the VP test. Some organisms which ferment dextrose can produce this substance, while others do not. Therefore this is a one way to differentiate organisms (Marshall, 1951). According to Raus and Love (1983) all strains of Staphylococcus intermedius produce acid from fructose, sucrose, lactose, mannose, and galactose. Meanwhile, according to Hajek (1976) the acid will be produced in lactose and maltose aerobically. The incidence of the disease found in dogs due to Staphylococcus intermedius infection has been reported by Oliveira (2006), with the existence of abnormal otoskopik, or tympanic membrane rupture, and otitis externa (with erytrema, and ulceration of the skin wall). There are also skin infection that resulted in the emergence of pustules, local pain, pruritus, erithrema, and swelling of the epithelium(Penna et al., 2009). CONCLUSION Based on these results, More than a half (52%) of Canine Dermatitis cases in Yogyakarta could be isolated and identified as Staphylococcus intermedius. REFERENCES De Boer, D J. 2004. Canine Atopik Dermatitis: New Targets, New Therapies. J. Nutrition. p 22-31. Freney, J., Kioos, W.E., Hajek., and Webster, J.A. 1999.Recommended Minimal Standards for Description of New Staphylococcal Species.Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol49, p. 489-502 Hajek, V. 1976. Staphylococcus intermedius, a New Species Isolated from Animal. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol, p. 401-406 Holt, J. G., Krieg, N. R., Sneath, P. H. A., Staley, T., and Williams, S. T. 1994. Bergey‘s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edn. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins. p. 235 Kanbar, T. 2009. Diss. Vet. Med. Uni.Giessen. Germany. Kloos, W. E. and Schleifer, K. H. 1975. Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococci from Human Skin. 11 Descriptions of four new species Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcuscapitis, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus simulans.Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 25, p 62-79. Lay, Bibiana W. 1994. Analisis Mikroba di Laboratorium. PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Jakarta. P.70,8385,111. Loeffler, A., Linek, M., Moodly, A., Guardabassi, L., Sung, Julia M.L., Winkler, M., Weiss, R., and Llyod, D H. 2007. Ltd First report of multiresistant, mecA-positive Staphylococcus intermedius in Europe: 12 cases from a veterinary dermatology referral clinic in Germany. J. Comp.p. 412-421.

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Marshal, M.S. 1951. Laboratory Guide in Elementary Microbiology 2 nd edition. Mc Graw Hill Book Company, inc. London. p. 86. Murray, P.R. 2007 Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9 th Edition, Volume 1, ASM Press. WashingtonDC. p.394-405. Oliviera,L. C., Leite, C. A. L., Brilhante, R. S. N., and Carvalho, C. B. N. 2006. Etiology of Canine Otitis Media and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Koagulase-positive Staphylococci in Fortaleza CityBrazil. Brazil. J. Microbial. 37: p.144-147. Penna B., Varges R., Medeiros L., Martins, G.M., Martins, R.R., and Lilenbaum, W. 2009. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolated from Canine Pyoderma in Rio de Janiro, Brazil. Brazil. J. Microbial. 40 p. 490-494. Pottumarthy, S., Schapiro, J.M., Prentice, J.L., Houze, Y.B., Swanzy, S. R., Fang, F.C., and Cookson, B. T.2004. Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Masquerading as Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbial. Quinn, P.J., Markeus, B.K., Carter, M.E., Donnelly.,W.J., and Leonard, dF.C. 2007. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. Blackwell Sience. Iowa. p.43-47 Raus, J and Love, D.N. 1983. Characterization of Koagulase-Positive Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Veterinary Clinical Specimens. J. Clin. Microbial. P. 789-792. Soedarmanto, I., Kanbar, T., Ulbegi-Mohyla, H., Mijazin, M., Alber, J., Lammler, C., Akineden, O., Weiss, R., Moritz, A., and Zschock, M. 2010. Epidemiological relationship of methycillin/oxacillinresistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dog and the dog owner (Submitted). Talan, D A., Staatz, D., Staatz, A., Goldstein, E.J.C., Singer, K., and Overturf, G. 1989. Staphylococcus intermedius in Canine Gingiva and Canine-InflictedHuman Wound Infections: Laboratory Characterizationof a Newly Recognized Zoonotic Pathogen. J. Clin. Mikrobial. p 78-81.

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RESPONSE OF SOME SHALLOT CULTIVARS TOWARD TWISTED DISEASE (FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CEPAE) Sri Wiyatiningsiha), Arif Wibowo b), Endang Tri Wahyu Pangestuti a) a) Faculty of Agriculture UPN Surabaya, b)Faculty of Agriculture UGM Yogyakarta email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT One of the most important diseases of shallots is twisted disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The disease can reduce the production of shallot bulbs up to 50%. This research was aimed to select shallot cultivars which were resistant toward Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae. Disease intensity observation of twisted disease on 7 shallot cultivars showed that there was significantly different of pathogenicity among 8 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The highest disease intensity of twisted disease occurred on Kuning cultivar (originated from Brebes) inoculated with H isolate (isolated from Bauji cultivar originated from Nganjuk), i.e., 81.33%. Whereas the lowest disease intensity was 0% which occurred on some cultivar inoculated with some fungal isolates. Tiron cultivar could reduce all isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae attack showed by no disease symptom developed (disease intensity was 0%). Incubation period observation showed that the shorter the incubation period of twisted disease, the faster twisted disease developed on shallot. Therefore plant damage was higher and plant dead was faster. The fastest incubation period of twisted disease occurred 4 days after inoculation on Kuning cultivar (originated from Brebes) inoculated with H isolate. The longest incubation period was 45 days after inoculation, and it occurred on some shallot cultivar inoculated with some fungal isolates.

INTRODUCTION Shallot is one of vegetables produced in large scale by farmers for generations. Based on vegetable production survey in Indonesia in 2006, shallot harvested area reached 83,614 ha, with production of 762,795 tons, whereas the productivity is still low at 8.76 tonnes / ha (Anonymous, 2007). The main cause of low productivity is pests, diseases and the use of inferior seeds. One of the important diseases of onion is twisted disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The disease caused plant lost up to 50% (Wiyatiningsih, 2003). F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae infects shallot plant tissue through direct penetration into the bulb disc or root and by the bulb disc wounds. The fungus spreads in the soil and the propagules can be spread by the equipments, the infected plant, seed tubers or water flow (Jepson, 2007). As a soil borne fungus, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is able to formchlamydospores so for long period of survival in the soil, difficult to control (Havey, 1995). Soil borne disease control through sanitation, crop rotation and use of fungicide is not effective, therefore alternative control techniques such as the use of resistant cultivars is expected to be developedKorlina & Baswarsiati, 1995). There are many shallot cultivars found in Indonesia and some local cultivars have developed in some regions. Many shallot cultivars are not recognized to be resistant against Fusarium. (Putrasamedja & Permadi, 2001; Anonymous, 2004). Shallot cultivars grown by farmers generally adapted for good production and adapted to the ongoing season. Currently, there aremany farmers doing

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cultivar selection based only on high production, however, resistant cultivars against F. oxysporum f. sp. Cepaewith high bulb production is not available(Wiyatiningsih, 2006). Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to develop resistant cultivarsto F. oxysporum f. sp. cepaeto be available as a source of resilience for assemblingshallot cultivarswhich are resistant to twisted diseases and have high production MATERIAL AND METHOD Isolation of pathogens. Diseased plant tissue was taken from symptomatic shallot plants from 3 different planting locations in Bantul, Nganjuk and Brebes. Roots and tuberswere cleaned, cut into pieces 0.5 cm long, disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite, placed on Komada‘s medium and incubated at room temperature for 3 days to observe the growing colonies of the fungus (Leslie & Summerell, 2006). The fungus was cultured on PDA medium by single spore isolation to obtain pure culture. Pathogenicity test. Pathogenicity test was carried out on 7 cultivars of onions by planting onion seeds in polybags in the greenhouse and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. Cepaeisolates. The experimental design was completely randomized factorial design with 2 factors.The first factor comprised 7 levels of plant cultivars, i. e.,Philip, Bauji and Thailand cultivars (from Nganjuk), Tiron and Biru cultivars(from Bantul), Bima and Kuning cultivars (from Brebes), while the second factor was the fungal isolates isolated from symptomatic shallot plants. The planting medium used was a mixture of soil and manure with the ratio of 2:1. Planting medium was put in polybags (20 cm in diameter, height of 20 cm) and added with basic fertilizer of NPK (25-7-7) with the dose of 10 g/ ploybag (Sumarni & Sumiati, 1995). Shallot seeds were obtained from breeders in each production center. One polybag needed a bulb weighing each of 3.5 g. F. oxysporum f. sp. cepaeinoculum was prepared by growing pure culture ofF. oxysporum f. sp. cepae on V8 juice medium for 7 days. Conidiawere harvested with sterile water and the density was adjusted up to 105 cell/ mL. Inoculation was conducted by pouring the inoculum suspension into planting medium 3 days before planting shallot bulb seeds as much as 20 mL/ polybag. Plant watering was done every day and second NPK fertilizer (16-16-16) was applied at 10 g/ polybag 30 days after planting (Sumarni & Sumiati, 1995). Observed variables consist of incubation period and disease severity.The disease severity was calculated using the formula: I=

a x100 % b

Note: I = disease severity; a = number of diseased plant and b = number of total plants Data analysis. Data were analyzed by ANOVA at 5% confidence level and difference among treatments were analyzed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (Singh & Chaudary, 1977). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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Symptom of twisted disease. Figure 2 shows the symptom of twisted disease on 35 days old of Philip cultivar grown in paddy field in thedistrict ofRejoso Nganjuk. Twisted disease symptom usually begin to appear at 20 days after planting. Common symptom of twisted disease of shallot is that leaves grow Leaves grow twisted or swerve do not grow upright as the normal leaves, the pseudostem grows longer. The leaf color is pale green or yellowish and plant bulbs are smaller and fewer than the healthy plants. In general,whenplants showing twisted disease symptom since the beginning of growth, they do not produce any bulb. In advanced conditions, plant becomes dry and dead.

Figure 1. Symptom of twisted disease on 35 days old shallot Philip cultivar

Isolation of pathogen. From symptomatic shallot plant tissues taken from 3 different planting locations in Bantul, Nganjuk and Berebes, it was obtained 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae as follows: (1). A was obtained from Biru cultivar from Parangtritis Bantul wetland; (2). B was obtained from Biru cultivar from Parangtritis Bantul wetland; (3). C was obtained from Biru cultivar from Sanden Bantulwetland, (4). D was obtained from Kuningcultivarfrom Kemurang Kulon Brebes rice field, (5). E was obtained from Bima cultivarfrom Kemurang Kulon Brebes rice field; (6). F was obtained from Bima cultivarfrom Kemurang Kulon Brebes rice field; (7). G was obtained from Philip cultivar from Ngadiboyo Nganjuk rice field and (8) H was obtained from Bauji cultivar from Ngadiboyo Nganjukwetland. Fungal pathogenicity. Figure 2 shows disease severity of 7 shallot cultivarsinoculated with 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The highest disease severity (88.31%) occurred on Kuning cultivar (from Brebes) inoculated with H isolate (from cultivar Bauji from Nganjuk). Whereas the lowest disease severity (0%) occurred in some cultivars. inoculated with some isolates. Tiron cultivar suppressed the attack of all isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae as indicated by disease severity of 0%.

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Disease Severity (%)

100 80 60 40 20 0 A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Isolates Philip

Bauji

Thailand

Biru

Bima

Kuning

Tiron

Figure 2. Disease severity among 7 cultivars of shallot inoculated with 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae Analysis of variant result of twisted disease severity of 7 shallot cultivar inoculated with 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepaeshowed that there was significant different among treatment (table 1). Table 1. Disease severity of 7 shallot cultivars inoculated with 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp.cepae derived from Nganjuk, Bantul and Brebes production center Isolates

A B C D E F G H

Twisted disease severity (%) on 7 shallots cultivar from 3 production centre Nganjuk Bantul Brebes Philip Bauji Thailand Tiron Biru Bima Kuning 3,33 e 3,33 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 3,33 e 3,33 e 3,33 e 3,33 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 12,00 de 0,00 e 3,33 e 3,33 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 14,67 cde 42,00 bc 42,00 bc 6,67 de 19,33bcde 0,00 e 8,67 de 35,33 bcd 3,33 e 10,67 de 6,67 de 6,67 de 0,00 e 8,67 de 36,00 bcd 22,67 bcde 8,67 de 3,33 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 12,00 de 48,00 b 30,00 bcde 19,33 bcde 3,33 e 0,00 e 0,00 e 8,67 de 19,33 bcde 23,33 bcde 10,67 de 14,00 cde 10,67 de 0,00 e 0,00 e 10,67 de 81,33 a

Description: Means followed by the same letters were not significantly different at 5% level of significant Table 1 shows that in each cultivar, the highest disease intensity occurred if cultivars were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates from areas that were not the same as the origin of these cultivars. Exceptions appeared in E and F isolates obtained from Brebes (from cultivar Bima), which was still causing high disease severity in Bima and Kuning cultivars originating from Brebes. Table 2 shows that the interaction between cultivars and fungal isolates varied from resistant to very susceptible. Tiron cultivar showed resistance to all isolates. Bima cultivar showed resistance only against Aisolate and less susceptible or susceptible to 7 other isolates. Kuningcultivar showed resistance to A, B and D isolates, less susceptible to E and Gisolates, susceptible to C and Fisolates and very susceptible to H isolate.

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Table 2. Interaction between 7 shallot cultivars and 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae derived from Nganjuk, Bantul and Brebesproduction centers Isolates Philip A B C D E F G H

T T T R AR AT AR AR

Nganjuk Bauji T T T AT AT T T AR

Twisted disease response Bantul Thailand Tiron Biru T T T T T T T T T AR T AT AT T AT T T AR T T AT AR T T

Bima T AR AR R R R AR AR

Brebes Kuning T R T AR R AR SR

Description: AT= less resistance; T=resistance; AR = less susceptible; R=susceptible; SR=very susceptible Incubation Period. The incubation period of the fastest twisted disease occurred 4 days after planting in Kuning cultivar (from Brebes) inoculated with H isolate (from Bauji cultivar from Nganjuk). The longest incubation period was 45 days after planting occurred in almost all shallot cultivars inoculated with almost all isolates. The cultivar showed no twisted disease symptom was Tiron (data not shown). The observation incubation period showed that the shorter the incubation period, the faster the damaged and the death of the plant. The longer the incubation period, the slower the damage of the plant, and was able to produce some small bulbs. The fastest incubation period occurred in Kuning cultivar. This indicated that the cultivar was themost susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae, followed by Bima, Thailand, Philip, Biru and Bauji cultivars. The most resistant cultivar (no symptoms for more than 60 days or until harvesting) was Tiron (Figure 3). 70 60

Day

50 40 30 20 10 Kuning

Bima

Biru

Tiron

Thailand

Bauji

Philip

0

Cultivars

Figure 3. Twisted disease incubation period of 7 shallot cultivars

Figure 4 shows incubation period of 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. It appeared that H isolate (from Nganjuk) had the fastest incubation period followed by F, G, 187

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Day

D, C, E, B and A isolates. This indicated that H isolate had the highest virulence compared to 7 other isolates. 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Isolates

Figure 4. Incubation period of 8 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae

CONCLUSION 1. The highest twisted disease severity(81.33%) occurred in Kuningcultivar (from Brebes) inoculated with H isolate (from Bauji cultivar from Nganjuk). 2. The fastest incubation period occurred in Kuning cultivar, whereas in Tiron cultivar no symptom developed. 3. Kuning cultivar showed high susceptible, whereas Tiron cultivar showed resistant response towards twisted disease. REFERENCES Anonim, 2004. Sertifikasi Benih Bawang Merah. Direktorat Perbenihan, Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Hortikultura. Jakarta. _______, 2007. Survei Pertanian Produksi Tanaman Sayuran dan Buah-Buahan. Biro Pusat Statistik. Jakarta. Frantzen, J., 2000. Resistance in Populations. In A.J. Slusarenko, R.S.S. Fraser, & L.C. van Loon (eds). Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Disease. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht. Pp. 161 – 187. Guest, D. & J. F. Brown, 1997. Plant Defences Against Pathogens. InJ.F. Brown & H.J. Ogle (eds). Plant Pathogen and Plant Disease. Rockvale Publications. Armidale. Pp. 264 – 286. Havey, M.J., 1995. Fusarium Basal Plate Rot. In Howard F.S. & S. Krishna M (eds). Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases. APS Press. Minnesota. Pp.10 – 11. Jepson,

S.B., 2007. Fusarium Rot of Garlic Bulbs.http://www.bcc.orst.edu/bpp/Plant_Clinic/Garlic/Fusarium.pdf. (accessed in 1 September 2007).

Korlina, E. & Baswarsiati, 1995. Uji Ketahanan Beberapa Kultivar Bawang Merah Terhadap Penyakit Layu. Prosiding Konggres Nasional XIII dan Seminar Ilmiah Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia. Mataram. Pp. 535 – 539.

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Leslie, J.F. & B.A. Summerell, 2006. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell Publishing. Ames, Iowa. Putrasamedja, S. & A. H. Permadi, 2001. Varietas Bawang Merah Unggul Baru Kramat-1, Kramat-2 dan Kuning. Jurnal Hortikultura 11 (2):143 – 147(V). Singh, R.K. & B.D. Chaudary, 1977. Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. Sumarni, N. & E. Sumiati, 1995. Ekologi Bawang Merah. In Anonim.Teknologi Produksi Bawang Merah. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hortikultura, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Jakarta. Pp. 8 – 11. Wiyatiningsih, S., 2003. Kajian Asosiasi Phytophthora sp. dan Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Penyebab Penyakit Moler pada Bawanng Merah. Mapeta5: 1-6 ___________, S., 2006. Intensitas Penyakit Moler di Tiga Daerah Sentra Produksi Bawang Merah. Mapeta 8: 172-181.

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BACULOVIRUS EXPRESSION OF ALL THE MYCOREOVIRUS 1 GENOME SEGMENTS AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE CORE PARTICLE-ENCODING SEGMENT Supyani1*, Bradley I. Hillman2, and Nobuhiro Suzuki3 1. Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University. 2. Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, USA. 3. Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, Japan. *Email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT A member of the family Reoviridae, Mycoreovirus 1 (MyRV1) was isolated from a hypovirulent strain 9B21 of the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica), is a candidate for biocontrol agent against the fungus. The virus has a genome composed of 11dsRNA segments (S1 to S11). All of he segment have single open reading frames on their capped, plus-strands and the conserved terminal sequences, 5‘GAUCA----GCAGUCA-3‘. The segments were each subjected to be expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells via the baculovirus system toward functional analysis of the encoded proteins. Infection by beculovirus recombinants carrying full-length cDNAs of S1 to S10 resulted in over expression of protein products of sized expected from nucleotide sequences. As a first step, we utilized this expression system to identify the S2- encoded protein as a composerof viral core particle. Infection by beculovirus recombinant carrying full-length cDNAs of S2 resulted in formation of 50 nm diameter core-like particles in S. frugiperda cells.

Key words: Mycoreovirus 1, Baculovirus expression system, Particulation.

INTRODUCTION Mycoreovirus 1 (MyRV-1) is a member ofthe newly described genus Mycoreovirus of the familyReoviridae, and was isolated from hypovirulent strain 9B21of the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica)(Hillman et al., 2004; Suzuki et al., 2004;Mertens et al., 2005).Virulence tests with apples revealed that MyRV-1 caused higher levels of host hypovirulence than CHV1 as a references, the established biocontrol agent. These properties may contribute to enhance environmental fitness of MyRV-1-infected strains as a biocontrol agent against the chestnut blight disease. Molecular analysis showed that MyRV-1 had 11 dsRNA genome segments that were termed S1 to S11 with an increasing order of mobility in acrylamide gel. The sizes of genome segments ranged from 4127 bp for the longest segment (S1) to 732 bp for the shortest segment (S11). Each segment had a single open reading frame (ORF) on itsplussense strand. All the 11 genome segments of the virus had common terminal sequences on both 5‘- and 3‘- termini (5‘GAUCA----GCAGUCA) and 5‘-cap structures only on their plus-sense strands. Virus particles purified by differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation had a double-shelled structure of approximately 80 nm in diameter. Furthermore, cryo-electron microspcopy showed turrets on MyRV-1 core particles (Suzuki et al., 2004).

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It is known from previous studies on other reoviruses that their particles (especially core particle) play important roles in intracellular replication that is similar irrespective of members (Furuichi and Shatkin, 2000). A motif search showed that S1-coded VP1 and S6coded VP6 are RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and NTP binding protein. VP1 and VP6 are assumed to be constituents of core particles based on their predicted roles (Suzuki et al., 2004). No other information on composers of core particle. For further molecular dissection of core particles, the 11 dsRNA genome segments of MyRV-1 were expressed via a baculovirus vector system. This system was utilized to identify the S2- encoded protein as a composerof viral core particle. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cloning of MyRV-1 full-length cDNA Total genomic dsRNA of MyRV-1 was prepared following the method of Hillman et al., 2004. To construct a full-length cDNA of each segment, a set of primers pair from each terminal with specific enzyme restriction sites were designated and used in RT-PCR amplification. All forward primers contain BamHI sites, whereas all reverse primers contain NotI sites, except for primers for segments S8 to S11. The forward and reverse primers for S8 contain EcoRI and NotI sites. For segments S9 to S10, both forward and reverse primers are without restriction enzyme recognition site. All the primers used in this reaction are available. The total genomic dsRNA was denatured in DMSO at 65 oC for 20 min in the presence of the pair of primers (Asamizu et al., 1985). Both strands of cDNA to each segment were synthesized by reverse-transcriptase reaction using RevertAid TM H minus M-MuLV reverse transcriptase (Fermentas). The cDNA then was amplified by PCR using KOD polymerase with high fidelity (Toyobo) using the same sets of primers as in cDNA synthesis. PCR for S9-S11 were performed using Long-expand polymerase . The PCR products from S1 to S8 were cloned into BamHI or EcoRI and NotI site of pBlueScript II (SK+), whereas The PCR products from S9 to S11 were cloned into pGEM T-easy (Promega). These ligates were transformed into Escericia coli DH5α(Takara). Some clones were obtained and at least 3 clones of each segment were subjected to sequence analysis. All clones are identical in nucleotide sequence to the genetic library as reported by us (Hillman et al., 2004; Suzuki et al., 2004). MyRV-1 proteins expression in insect cells via baculovirus system The Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) were cultured in TC100 insect medium (Gibco) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum as described by Matsuura et al., 1987. Two kinds of baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleo polyhedrosis virus (AcMNV) transfer vectors were used in this experiment. The MyRV-1 S1-S8 cDNA were cloned into the BamHI-NotI site of pBacDual transfer vector (except for S8 which is cloned into the EcoRI-NotI site) downstream of the polyhedrin promoter. These fragments then transposed to the baculovirus DNA accommodated in the bacmid housed in E. coli DH10 Bac cells. Recombinant baculovirus DNA were isolated from E. coli cells according to the manufacturer‘s protocol (Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System, Invitrogen). The resulting bacmid clones were transfected into insect cells to generating baculovirus recombinants according to the same manufacturer‘s protocol.

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The last three segments of MyRV-1 (S9-S11) cDNA were cloned into the other baculovirus transfer vector, pAcYM1 and transfected to sf9 cells along with the BaculoGold baculovirus DNA. Baculovirus recombinants were cloned by plaque purification (Matsuura et al., 1987). SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins expressed in insect cells were according to Suzuki et al. (1994). Particulation of MyRV-1 viral proteins The recombinants baculovirus carrying the cDNAs of MyRV-1 genome segment 2 to 7 obtained from previous study were used to infect S. frugiperda cells (Sf9) according to Matsuura et al., 1987. Four combinations of cDNAs of MyRV-1 genome segment 2 to 7 were infected to the sf9 cells. Then, 72 hours after infection, sf9 cells were collected and formation of core-like particles (CLPs) was observed by electron microscopy. Electron microscopy The recombinants baculovirus infected sf9 cells were prepared for transmission electron microscopy by placing a drop of preparation onto copper grids and stained with 2% uranyl acetate. Grids were allowed to dry and then examined in a Hitachi model H7100 transmission electron microscope, and photographed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION MyRV-1 proteins expression in insect cells All of 11 genome segments of MyRV-1 were expressed in insect cells via baculovirus system toward functional analyses of the encoded viral proteins. SDS-PAGE analysis of insect cells lysate infected with recombinants baculovirus carrying the fulllength cDNAs of MyRV-1 S1 to S11 (AcMyRV-1 S1-S11) is shown in Fig 1. All of the MyRV-1 genome segments were well expressed in insect cells using this system except for the last segment S11. Here, a single polypeptide of approximately 140 kDa was expressed from S1 (lane 1). Then, polypeptide of approximately 120 kDa, 110 kDa, 65 kDa, 63 kDa, 60, kDa, 58 kDa, 65 and 60 kDa , 30 kDa , and 24 kDa were expressed from S2 to S10 respectively (lane 2-10). Regarding for S11, a slight single band around 11 kDa was visible on 18.5% SDS-PAGE analysis (lane 11). All of the specific protein bands above were in accordance with the molecular sizes expected from the nucleotide sequences. Regarding for S8 in which produce two protein bands, some possibility may account for it including leaky scanning of ribosome, post-translational protein modifications, or proteolytic degradation of the larger polypeptides. The baculovirus expression system has proven to be usefulfor structural and functional analyses of reoviruses, asexemplified by studies on the dissection of replicasecomplexes and their template specificity, structure determinationof core-like particles, and functional assessment ofviroplasms (e.g. Patton et al., 1997; Estes, 2001; Roy, 2001;Wei et al., 2006). We used this system toshow that VP2 is a structural protein composing MyRV-1 core particle. Expression of the 11MyRV-1 segments will be a basis for further functionalanalysis of the encoded proteins. Particulation of MyRV-1 viral proteins Expression of combinations of the recombinants baculovirus carrying the cDNAs of MyRV-1 genome segment 2 to 7 resulted in the assembly of core-like particles (CLPs). No

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baculovirus particles and no specific shaped objects were observed from the uninfected sf9 cells. From the sf9 cells infected with recombinants baculovirus carrying the cDNAs of MyRV-1 genome segment 2 were observed specific CLPs with diameter around 50 nm (Fig. 2). Similar CLPs were also observed from sf9 cells co-infected with recombinants baculovirus carrying the cDNAs of MyRV-1 genome segment 2 and 3. Some more complex CLPs were also observed from sf9 cells co-infected with recombinants baculovirus carrying the cDNAs of MyRV-1 genome segment 2, 3 and 4. These results showed that viral protein (VP) 2 encoded by MyRV-1 genome segment 2 is a composer of MyRV-1 core particle. Supporting this suggestion, electrophoresis analysis showed that S2-coded VP2 expressed in insect cells co-migrated with a major protein in purified virus preparations (data not shown).

Fig 1. SDS-PAGE analysis of MyRV-1 proteins expressed by baculovirus vectors. Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses MNPV-VP1 to VP11 were lysed at 3dpi. The cell extracts were fractionated on SDS-PAGE gel, and then were stained with Coomassie blue. The numbers at the top refer to the segments carried by baculovirus recombinants. Each expected VP band is pointed by an arrow. M: marker.

Fig 2. Electron micrographs of uranyl acetate-stained MyRV-1 core-like particles (CLPs). Left, low magnification; Right, inset of CLP.

CONCLUSION 

Infection of S. frugiperda cells by beculovirus recombinants carrying full-length cDNAs of S1 to S10 resulted in over expression of protein products of sized expected

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 

from nucleotide sequences. Infection of S. frugiperda cells by beculovirus recombinants carrying full-length cDNA of MyRV-1 S2 resulted in formation of 50 nm diameter core-like particles. VP2 encoded by MyRV-1 S2 is a composerof viral core particle. REFERENCES

Asamizu, T., Summers, D., Motika, M. B., Anzola, J. V. and Nuss, D. L.1985. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genome of wound tumor virus: a tumor-inducing plant reovirus. Virology144, 398–409. Estes, M. K. 2001. Rotaviruses and their replication. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, vol. 2, pp. 1747–1785. Edited by D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Furuichi, Y. and Shatkin, A. J. 2000. Viral and cellular mRNA capping: Past and prospects (review): Advances in Virus Research, 55, 135-84. Hillman, B. I., Supyani, S., Kondo, H. and Suzuki, N. 2004. A reovirus of the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica that is infectious as particles and related to the Coltivirus genus of animal pathogens. J Virol 78, 892–898. Matsuura, Y., Possee, R.D., Overton, H.A., and Bishop, D.H.L. 1987. Baculovirus expression vectors: The requirements for high level expression of proteins, including glycoproteins. J. Gen. Virol.68:1233−1250. Mertens, P. P. C., Attoui, H., Duncan, R. and Dermody, T. S. 2005. Reoviridae. In Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, pp. 447–454. Edited by C. M. Fauquet, M. A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger & L. A. Ball. London: Elsevier/Academic Press. Patton, J. T., Jones, M. T., Kalbach, A. N., He, Y. W. and Xiaobo, J. 1997. Rotavirus RNA polymerase requires the core shell protein to synthesize the double-stranded RNA genome. J Virol 71, 9618–9626. Roy, P. 2001. Orbiviruses. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, vol. 2, pp. 1835–1869. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Suzuki, N., Sugawara, M., Kusano T., Mori, H., Matsuura, Y. 1994. Immunodetection of rice dwarf phytoreoviral proteins in both insect and plant hosts. Virology, 202(1):41–48. Suzuki, N., S. Supyani, K. Maruyama, and B. I. Hillman. 2004. Complete genome sequence of Mycoreovirus-1/Cp9B21, a member of a novel genus within the family Reoviridae, isolated from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.J Gen Virol 85:3437-3448. Wei, T., Shimizu, T., Hagiwara, K., Kikuchi, A., Moriyasu, Y., Suzuki, N., Chen, H., Omura, T. 2006. Pns12 protein of Rice dwarf virus is essential for formation of viroplasms and nucleation of viral-assembly complexes. J Gen Virol 87: 429-438.

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EFFECTS OF SOIL MINERALOGY ON PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY IN RED SOILS OF INDONESIA Syamsul A. Siradz Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia; [email protected], HP: 08121561683

ABSTRACT

Red (acid mineral) soils play an important role in agricultural extension in Indonesia. These soils were viewed as a marginal soil since the productivity level is low due to severely deficient in P and micronutrients. The high fixation of P presumably related to high contents of Fe and Al oxides and soil kaolin. Soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm from surface from Lampung, West Java, and Central Java. Soil kaolin was concentrated from the clay fraction by removal of iron oxides in buffered dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate solution. Iron oxides were concentrated by dissolving kaolin with strong alkali solution. Measurements of P sorption by soil, kaolin and iron oxides were conducted by equilibrating 200 mg of air dry samples in 20 mL 0.2 M KCl containing 0-30 gP/mL. P concentrations in filtrate were determined by the molybdate blue method. The reaction between phosphate and soil, kaolin and iron oxides concentrates has been described mathematically by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. Values of Langmuir P sorption maximum for soil, kaolin and iron oxides ranged from 7192747, 760-1393, and 4048-19637 μgP/g with median values of 1825, 1019, and 11487 μgP/g respectively. For kaolin concentrates statistical analysis indicates that the Langmuir sorption parameter xm is positively related to specific surface area, AEC and to lesser extent to coherently scattering domain (CSD). These associations indicate that P sorption by this mineral is sensitive to the crystal size and order. There is no single property of iron oxide concentrates that can be used to predict variations in P sorption maximum. Assuming that no other component in the soils sorbed P, the contribution of kaolin and iron oxides to maximum sorption capacity of the soils may be calculated. Since the soils consist mostly of kaolin it appears that on average the contribution of kaolin to P sorption is 62 % and that of iron oxides is 38 % to the total P absorbed by soil. This means that the major portion of P from fertilizer sorbed by many acid mineral tropical soils may be retained by kaolin, the amount being almost double that sorbed by iron oxides. This finding requires reconsideration the view that the P fixation problem of acid mineral soils is due mainly to the oxide minerals. Keywords: red soils, P sorption, kaolin, iron oxides, tropical soils

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INTRODUCTION In Indonesia many of the agricultural regions have developed upon highly weathered red soils where kaolin is commonly the dominant clay mineral. These soils are infertile being inherently deficient in phosphorus, molybdenum, zinc, copper and other essential plant nutrients. It is believed that in these soils iron oxides sometimes play an important role in determining the availability to plants of both native and applied plant nutrients. Therefore, the occurrence and abundance of different species of iron oxides, their abundance, crystallinity, composition and surface reactivity may influence the properties and management of these soils. The present study investigates the nature and properties of iron oxides and relates these properties to the phosphorus adsorption capacity and trace element contents of these soils. The adsorption and fixation of phosphate ions onto natural soil kaolin is not fully understood. Most studies on the adsorption of phosphate on kaolin have been carried out using macrocrystalline (>1μm) well ordered kaolins of geological origin with the main aim being to investigate mechanisms of adsorption (Muljadi et al 1966). Little attempt has been made to determine the phosphate adsorption behaviour of soil kaolin and to relate this behaviour to other characteristics of the mineral. Soil kaolin may differ substantially in structure, morphology and composition from mineral kaolin (Singh and Gilkes, 1992). Similarly there has been little work on P sorption by micro-crystalline iron oxides removed from soil in contrast with the large number of experiments with synthetic iron and aluminium oxides. Soil iron oxide commonly differ substantially from most synthetic iron oxides (Anand and Gilkes, 1987) and may exhibit quite different P sorption behaviours. The contribution of kaolin and iron oxides present in soil to phosphate sorption by some Indonesian soils is investigated in this work.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The sampling sites extend from highly dissected highland consisting mainly of reworked volcanic tuff of quaternary age in Lampung in the southern part of Sumatra in the west to volcanic breccia and limestone of lower to middle miocene age in Central Java in the east. Precipitation range from more 3500 mm/year in the west to less than 2000 mm/year in the east. Soil sampling sites were on cleared and developed land but from minimally disturbed sites. Soil samples were taken at the depth of 20-40 from surface after discarding the uppermost few cm consisting of an accumulation of litter. Soil kaolin was concentrated from the clay fraction by removal of iron oxides in buffered dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate solution. Details of the procedure are presented elsewhere (Siradz, 2000). Iron oxides were concentrated by dissolving kaolin with strong alkali solution. Measurements of P sorption by soil, kaolin and iron oxides were conducted by equilibrating 200 mg of air dry soil (<0.5mm), kaolin and iron oxides concentrates in 20 mL 0.2 M KCl containing 0-30 gP/mL, P concentrations in filtrate were determined by the molybdate blue method (Murphy and Riley, 1962).

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Characteristics of Phosphate Sorption Isotherms All samples showed strong P sorption. The overall shapes of isotherm curve for each samples were remarkably similar despite the great differences in the amount of P sorbed at a particular P concentration in solution. Each isotherm was characterized by a large increase in the amount of P sorbed for equilibrium solution (concentration range of 0 to approximately 1.0 gP/mL). The P sorbed in this concentration range is generally attributed to chemisorption involving ligand exchange between phosphate and OH at the surface of clay particles. Fitting adsorption data to the adsorption equations was carried out by plotting the data in the transformed linear forms of the adsorption equations. The goodness of fit was assessed by simple linear regression coefficients calculated for the linear transforms. Plotting the adsorption data in the linear form of the Langmuir and Freundlich equations resulted in highly significant relationships (r ~ 0.99) between P in equilibrium solution and P sorbed by soil (Table 1). Table 1. Langmuir and Freundlich equation parameters for soils (n = 33) Sample Langmuir Isotherm Freundlich Isotherm a xm r b k r (mL/μgP) (μgP/g) min max mean median

0.210 3.563 0.974 0.655

719 2748 1784 1823

0.9637 0.9992 0.9916 0.9971

0.1708 0.3685 0.2657 0.2765

388 1783 896 871

0.9341 0.9986 0.9798 0.9853

There are a wide range of values of the Langmuir maximum sorption capacity for soils. However, the sorption parameters were similar for soils from Lampung and West Java. For this group of soils the median value of sorption parameter xmis about 2000 µgP/g soil. For soils from Central Java the value of xm is about 1500 µgP/g soil. Similarly, the value of k derived from Freundlich equation which is indicative of the number of sorption sites was about 1000 unit for soils from Lampung and West Java and about 500 unit for sample from Central Java. Compared to some published data the present data for P sorption by Indonesian red soils indicate moderate levels of P sorption with median value of about 1800 (μgP/g) (Table 1). Fontes (1988) reported an average value of 4482 μgP/g for xm of Brazilian Oxisols derived from sandstone, clay stone, mafic rock and schist. Ultisols from Nigeria had average xm values of 183 μgP/g. Syarif (1990) found the xm value for Andosols from Indonesia was 4510 μgP/g. Clearly there is a large diversity of xm values both within and between soil types. Phosphate Sorption and Soil Properties Some workers proposed that amorphous Fe and Al compounds (determined as oxalate soluble Fe and Al) governed the sorption capacity of acid mineral soils (Owusubennoah et al, 1997; Vanderhove et al., 1998). In contrast with these authors, in this study it has been found that Al d (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate soluble Al) was a 197

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superior indicator (r = +0.549**) of P sorption capacity. A strong correlation between Ald and P sorption by soil has been reported by several workers (Singh and Gilkes, 1992). Much of Ald may be present in Al substituted iron oxides. Fed showed a positive relationship with xm but the relationship is less significant than for Ald. However, since there is a strong relationship between Al d and Fed and the amounts of Fed in soils are about 8-10 fold those of Ald, Fed may play a more important role in the overall P sorption by the Indonesian red soil for present study. Positive relationship between P sorption and Fe d have been identified by many workers (Siradz, 1985; Bonifacio and Barberis, 1999). P sorption maximum (xm) and the sorption site coefficient (k) are positively and significantly correlated to pH(NaF). Gilkes and Hughes (1994) suggested that pH(NaF) would provide an accurate and convenient estimate of potential P sorption by soils since NaF solution releases surface hydroxyl from poorly ordered compounds which correspond to the oxalate soluble Al fraction. For this study a strong positive relationship exists between P sorption capacity and Ald which is considered to be free Al in crystalline oxides in soil. This indicates that NaF solution released OH not only from poorly ordered but also from well ordered Al compounds. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of kaolin Kaolin has long been recognized for its reactivity with phosphate. The abundance of kaolin in extensive areas of land occupied by Ultisols, Alfisols and Oxisols makes its reactivity with phosphate an important consideration in determining soil fertility and agricultural production. The mechanism of P adsorption on both clay mineral and sesquioxide surfaces is by the phosphate ions replacing exposed OH groups and/or other sorbed anions. Muljadi et al (1966) also suggested that when P is sorbed by exchange of edge OH groups in kaolin and hydrated sesquioxide minerals a coordinated covalent bond is formed between Al of the surface and O of the phosphate ion by replacement of coordinated H2O or other anions. Sorption data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherm equations. In general, the shapes of the curves are similar to those for P sorption by soil. The amounts of P sorbed by kaolin were slightly lower than for soil at corresponding P concentrations in solution. The data for all kaolins and for standard Georgia kaolinite were well described by both Langmuir and Freundlich equations (Table 2). Table 2. Langmuir and Freundlich equation parameters for soil kaolin (n=27) Langmuir Isotherm Freundlich Isotherm a xm Sample r b k r (mL/μgP) (μgP/g) min max mean median Georgia

0.048 0.966 0.449 0.388 1.731

760 1393 1025 1019 145

0.9783 0.9998 0.9926 0.9930 0.9961

0.1593 0.7034 0.4675 0.4807 0.1143

155 515 328 315 109

0.9616 0.9985 0.9837 0.9895 0.9914

The P sorption maximum of soil kaolin ranges from 760-1393 μgP/g with mean and median values of 1025 and 1019 μgP/g respectively. The value for sorption maximum of 198

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Georgia kaolinite determined under identical condition was 145 μgP/g, thus the xm of soil kaolin is about seven times larger than for Georgia kaolinite. The values xm of kaolin for the present study are about double those of kaolin from soils in south-west Western Australia (range ~ 486-654 μgP/g) as reported by Singh and Gilkes (1992). Prasetyo and Gilkes (1994) found that the xm of kaolin for Ultisols from West Java ranged from 134-454 μgP/g with an average value of 285 μgP/g. The high values of xm of soil kaolin compared to standard kaolin and those soil kaolins reported by Gilkes and his colleagues can be partially explained by the smaller crystal size (coherently scattering domain size) of the soil kaolin under investigation. These kaolins have much higher surface area and thus expose more Al-OH sites on faces and edges where P sorption is believed to occur (Mulyadi et al, 1966). Further, greater structural disorder may result in more P sorption sites. In addition Fe-OH groups in soil kaolin due to the occurrence of structural Fe might also contribute to greater P sorption by soil kaolin. P sorption parameters for soil kaolin derived from the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms have been related to other properties of soil kaolin. P sorption maximum (xm) is positively and highly related to surface area (N2-BET) and is positively correlated with the asymmetry index (AI) for X-ray diffraction line 002. If assymetry is assumed to indicate structural disorder this result indicates that the microcrystalline, poorly ordered kaolin would sorb more P than better ordered counterpart and in support to the finding of Gilkes and Hughes (1994). Values of xm was also significantly correlated with AEC and to a lesser extent with negatively related to coherently scattering domain (CSD) size for 001, 002 and 060 reflection. The value of a(Langmuir coefficient related to bonding energy) was positively correlated (r = 0.49*) with CSD 060 and the values of k (an indicator of the number of sorption sites estimated from the Freundlich isotherm) were negatively related to CSD 002 (r = -0.48*) thus positively related to width of peak at half height (WPHH) 002 (r = 0.49*) since CSD 002 is inversely related to WPHH 002. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of iron oxides From the point of view of sorption reactions important properties of Fe oxides are their high surface area and the dependency of surface charge on pH. In the presence of water, the Fe ions located at the surface of crystals complete their ligand shell with hydroxyl ions so that the surface become completely hydroxylated. The hydroxylation of the surface is then followed by the adsorption of H2O molecules through H-bonding and a mono-layer of water is formed. The amount of sorbed H2O present in the monolayer increases with increasing surface area e.g. with decreasing crystal size. The P sorption parameter of iron oxides derived from a linear transforms of Langmuir and Freundlich equations are listed in Table 3 The maximum sorption capacity (xm) derived from the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4049-19637 μg/g with mean and median values of 11619 and 11488 μgP/g respectively. The dimensionless Freundlich constant k ranged from 937-8369. Singh and Gilkes (1991) reported that xm of iron oxide concentrate from soils of south-western Australia ranged 3361-16092 μgP/g and the Freundlich coefficient k range 567-2591.

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Table 3. Langmuir and Freundlich equation parameters for iron oxides (n=30) Langmuir Freundlich Sample a xm r b k r (μL/μgP) (μgP/g) min max mean median

0.066 4.245 0.826 0.569

4049 19637 11619 11488

0.9110 0.9994 0.9807 0.9909

0.2982 0.7698 0.4304 0.4341

938 8369 4198 3772

0.9103 0.9994 0.9806 0.9919

Prasetyo and Gilkes (1994) found the xm for iron oxide concentrates from West Java soils ranged from 11400-23600 μgP/g, and k ~ 4049-22777. The statistical analysis of P sorption data showed that strong and positive relationships exist between Al substitution in hematite and the values of dimensionless Freundlich constant k (r = 0.616**). Further there are significant relationship between k and ao (r = -0.609**) and d300 (r = 0.492*) of hematite but these variables are not independent and they are also related to Al substitution. There is no single property of the iron oxide concentrates that can be used to predict variation in P sorption maximum. Poor relationship between P sorption and the properties of iron oxide concentrates were also found by Singh and Gilkes (1991) working with iron oxide concentrates derived from lateritic soils of south-west Australia. One factor that may prevent a close relationship existing between P sorption parameters and surface area of iron oxides concentrates would be the presence of sorbed Si and other species on the surface of crystals that would limit P sorption. In these particular soils where kaolin is a dominant soil constituent the caustic treatment used to dissolve kaolin will release Si in substantial amount to solution and some Si may have been adsorbed or deposited on the surface of the iron oxides. Several previous studies have shown that P sorption by iron oxides depends more on the total surface area of the iron oxides than the absolute amounts of iron oxides in soils. However, it is unclear if crystal size derived from XRD line broadening provides a useful indication of the surface area of iron oxides particles. Strauss et al (1997) working with synthetic goethite found that coherently scattering domain size (~crystal size which is inversely related to surface area) as determined by XRD line broadening was smaller than values of crystal size determined by transmission electron microscopy. This was because each crystal was composed of several domains, and the XRD data reflects the size of the domains. A further consideration is that caustic digest of kaolinitic soils may precipitate amorphous (or possible crystalline) silicates in the iron oxide concentrates that would then contribute to P sorption. Several worker have shown that sodalite may crystallize (e.g. Singh and Gilkes, 1992) and the concentrate must be treated with acid to dissolve this contaminant. No sodalite was identified in the concentrates investigated here.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS P sorption data for soils, and concentrates of kaolin and iron oxides were fitted to simple Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations and both equations described the data equally well. Langmuir P sorption maximum (xm) for soil, kaolin and iron oxides ranged from 719-2747, 760-1393, and 4048-19637 μgP/g with median values of 1825, 1019, and

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11487 μgP/g respectively. The dimensionless Freundlich parameter k which is believed to indicate the abundance of sorption sites ranged from 388-1569, 154-514, 937-8369 with median values of 922, 315 and 3771 μgP/g respectively. There were systematic decreases in the values of Langmuir sarption maximum (xm) for soils from Lampung > West Java and Central Java. This trend is likely to be related to the inverse relationships of P sorption with pH and organic matter which is a consequence of climatic factors e.g. different rainfall in these sampling areas. Values of pH(NaF), Ald, and exchangeable Ca were most predictive of P sorption in these soils. For kaolin concentrates statistical analysis indicates that the Langmuir sorption parameter xm is negatively related to asymmetry index (r = -0.578**), and positively to AEC (r = 490*) and to lesser extent to coherently scattering domain (CSD 001, 002 and 060). These associations indicate that P sorption by this mineral is sensitive to the crystal size and order. The Freundlich parameter k appeared to be most strongly related (r = 0.616**) to Al substitution in hematite. This may indicate that Al substitution in hematite relates to the abundance of sorption sites in the iron oxide concentrates. Assuming that no other component in the soils sorbed P, the contribution of kaolin and iron oxides to maximum sorption capacity of the soils may be calculated. For example, if the clay content of the soil = 80 % and it consists of kaolin 90 %, iron oxides 5 % and others 5%. Thus, for a gram of soil 0.72 g kaolin and will adsorb a maximum P = 0.72 x 1000 μgP/g soil = 720 μgP/g soil. Similarly iron oxide will sorb = 0.8 x 0.05 x 11000 μgP/g soil = 440 μgP/g soil. The total of P sorption maximum of 1160 μgP/g soil due to kaolin and iron oxides is considerably smaller than the measured median value of ~ 1800 μgP/g soil which indicate that others P sorbing compound are present or that separation of kaolin and iron oxides has substantially reduced their P sorption capacity. This reduction may be due to dissolution of highly reactive phase or modification of the surfaces of kaolin and iron oxides by adsorp-tion/desorption/reorganisation processes. From the calculation above, it appears that the contribution of kaolin to P sorption = 720/1160 = 62 % and that of goethite will be 38 % to the total P sorbed by soil. This means that the major portion of P from fertilizer sorbed by soil is actually retained by kaolin, the amount being almost double that sorbed by iron oxides. This finding requires reconsideration the view that the P fixation problem of red soils is due mainly to the oxide minerals. REFERENCES Anand, R.R. and R.J. Gilkes. 1987. Iron oxides in lateritic soils from Western Australia. J. Soil Sci 35: 607622. Bonifacio, E. and E. Barberis. 1999. Phosphorus dynamics during pedogenesis on serpentinite. Soil Science. 164: 960-968. Fontes, M.P.F.1988. Iron oxide mineralogy in some Brazilian Oxisols. Phd thesis. NCSU-Raleigh, North Carolina. Gilkes, R.J. and J.C. Hughes. 1994. Sodium fluoride pH of south-western Australian soils as an indicator of P sorption Australian Journal of Soil Research. 32: 755-766.

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Muljadi, D., A.M. Posner and J.P. Quirk. 1966. The mechanism of phosphate adsorption by kaolinite, gibbsite and pseudoboehmite. Part II. The location of the adsorption sites: J Soil Sci. 17: 230-237. Murphy, J. and J.P. Riley. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters: Analytical Chimica Acta 27: 31-36. Owusu-Bennoah E., C. Szilas, H.C.B. Hansen and O.K. Borggaard.1997. Phosphate sorption in relation to aluminum and iron oxides of oxisols from Ghana. Commun in Soil Science & Plant Anal. 28: 685697. Prasetyo, B.H. and R.J. Gilkes. 1994. Properties of iron oxides from red soils derived from volcanic tuff in West Java. Aust. J Soil Sci. 32: 781-794. Singh, B. and R.J. Gilkes. 1991. Phosphorus sorption in relation to soil properties for the major soil types of South Western Australia. Aust. J, Soil Res. 29: 603-618. Singh, B. and R.J. Gilkes. 1992. Properties of soil kaolins from south–western Australia. Journal of Soil Sci. 43:645-667. Siradz, S.A. 1985. Distribution, properties and phosphorus requirements of soils of the Cobiac valley, Darling Range Western Australia. M.Sc. thesis. Univ. Western Australia. Siradz,S.A. 2000. Meneralogy and chemistry of red soils of Indonesia. PhD thesis, University of Western Austyralia. Strauss, R., G.W. Brummer and N.J. Barrow. 1997. Effects of crystallinity on goethite: I. Preparation and properties of goethite of differing crystallinity. European Journal Soil Sci. 48: 87-99. Syarif, S. 1990. Some characteristics of Andosols from western Indonesia, Ph D thesis, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, The University of Western Australia. Vandenhove, H., S. Perera, W. Maduraperuma, R. Merck. 1998. Phosphate sorption by Sri Lankan soils used for rice production: Relation between Tempkin sorption coefficients and soil and plant parameters. Tropical Agriculture 75: 355-362.

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BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF MITE ATTACKING MUSHROOM IN YOGYAKARTA Tri Harjaka, Suryanti and Sakti Widya Pratama Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. Email : [email protected]

ABSTRACT Mite is one of the arthropod that cause serious damage on ear mushroom. The body shape of some mites are globular and transparent with thediameter up to 1 mm. One mite species causes problem on ear mushroom in Yogyakarta called Krepes. Krepes is a swollen female hyterosoma of mite. The morphology of krepes mites in Yogyakarta determined with the adult female is elliptical (oval), transparent 0,19 + 0,04 mm in length and 0,11 + 0,0 mm in width, has big foreleg form. Adult male is elliptical (oval), transparent 0,14 + 0,00 mm in length and 0,11 + 0,00 mm in width. In one hysterosoma item there were a number of 43,8 + 22,1 mites, range from 21-29. Krepes will alive for 6 to 9 days with the average of 7,15 + 1,11 days. In one life cycle after braking of the hysterosoma there are three stages of growth, that are immature stage (―krepes‖), adult stage 1 and adult stage 2. The egg stage in the hysterosoma stay for the average period of 146,4 + 15,05 hours, adult stage 1 goes on for 24 + 0,00 hours and that of aduls stage for 22,4 + 10,39 hours. Optimum temperature for the growth of krepes mite ranged at 28-320C. Key words : mite, ear mushroom, hysterosoma, krepes

INTRODUCTION In Indonesia, edible ear mushroom (Auricularia spp) has been cultivated in several production centers, including Sleman (Yogyakarta), Purwokerto, Temanggung, Wonosobo, Semarang (Central Java), Malang (East Java), Bandung, Cianjur, Sukabumi (West Java). Red ear mushroom (Auricularia auricula judae) is a larger type and the color is slightly reddish and the most widely cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia and other Asian regions. There are three species of mites attacking mushroom include Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Histiogaster sp. and Schwiebea sp.. They are often found in the cultivated mushroom in Japan, which act as carriers of fungal spores causing contaminants. In Indonesia, those mites also become pests in the edible mushroom (Kalshoven, 1981). Several types of mites can be found in the place mentioned the development of edible mushroom, and able to act as vectors of fungal spores contaminant carriers. These mites eat the myceliu, caps, and stems of mushroom.In 2002, it was reported that mites become a problem in the cultivating ear mushroom in the district of Sleman, Yogyakarta (Suryanti and Harjaka, 2007). Mites cause damage to the mycelium in the fungal seed cultural rooms and to the fruiting bodies in the production rooms. Information about the biology and ecology of mite attacking ear mushroom in Yogyakarta is still limited, therefor, research is required to obtain information useful for determining the control strategies. This study was conducted to determine the biology and ecology of mites as thepests of mushroom cultivation in Sleman, Yogyakarta.

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MATERIAL AND METHOD Ear mushroom was grown on potato dextrose agar (200 g of potato, 20 g of dextrose, 20 g of agar and 1000 ml distilled water). Inoculation of a female mites were conducted when the mycelium has been growing. The parameters observed in the study include: (1) female mite behavior that taking hold of the life cycle, (2) the period of time required for each stage of the growth, and (3) the effect of temperature on the stage development of mites. To find out the period of time required for the development of mite from egg to adult female inoculations were made into the growing mycelium in the petridishes (diameter 9.0 cm), incubated at room temperature (28-320C). The period of time for the development was observed starting from the first time a female Breaks the cyst to the formation of the next cyst. The period of time required for each stage development was observed by inoculating female in the growing mycelium in the petridish and then broken down after forming a cyste.The observation of different stages was based on the changing of the mite body form started from immature. Morphological observations was conducted by stereoscopic microscope. To determine the effect of temperature on the development stage of mites on ear mushroom, the female mite was inoculated on growing fungal mycelium on PDA, then incubated at the temperatures of 5 0C, 100 C, 150C, 200C, 250C, 300C and 350C. Mature stage were counted based on the number of female hysterosoma formed and broken frequently. Each treatment was repeated with five replications. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Female mites that live in mushroom fruiting bodies form a colony of white cyste at the size of approximately 1.0 to 2.0 mm containing immature mites. Adult mites will get out soon when the cyste broken and then second generation of cyste will be formed. The development of mites are more prevalent in the cysts are. The mushroom farmer in Yogyakarta call this pest problem as "krepes" because if it is pressed would burst and pop sound. The cystes attached to the mushroom fruiting bodies as the female mites were and with the dying of mature females, the eggs will be hatched and developed.Immature stage of mite feed on mushroom fluids. The damage symptom of mushroom caused by krepes mites include browning and rotten of mycelium, development of abundant cysts and when they are broken spilling out of some liquid followed by bacterial colonization and finally the mushroom is decaying. Hysterosomas were found on the krepes mites invested mushroom cultivated in Sleman(Fig 1). In one ear mushroom fruiting body there were found more than 1000 individual female mites, which meant there were more than 1000 female mites multiply and caused severely damage of mushroom. The results of previous studies mentioned that in one cyst there were more than 412 immature mites found, and within 30 days they grow 100fold (Suryanti and Harjaka, 2007). Zao et al 1993 reported that similar morphology of mites that formed granules as like krepes mites producing cysts or hysterosoma destroyed ear mushroom in China. Adult female is elliptical (oval), transparent with big foreleg form (0,19 + 0,04) in length and 0,11 + 0,0 mm in width. Adult male is elliptical (oval), transparent 0,14 + 0,00 mm in length and 0,11 + 0,00 mm in width (Table 1). In one hysterosoma there were the number of 43,8 + 22,1 mites, range from 21-29. The life cycle length of 6 to 9 days with

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averageof 7,15 + 1,11 days. In one life cycle after breaking the hysterosoma there were three stages of growth, included krepes or immature stage, adult stage 1 and adult stage 2. Egg was in the immature stage with the period of time of average 146,4 + 15,05 hours, adult stage 1 length of 24 + 0,00 hours and adult stage 2 length of 24,0 + 10,39 hours. Optimum temperature for the growth of krepes ranged from 28-320C.

Fig 1. Ear mushroom attacked by mites (left) and female mites die swell hysterosoma (right)

Fig 2. Hysterosoma contain hundreds of immature mites (left) and after breaking out of adult mites are about 0.2 mm (right). Table 1. The morphology of the ear mushroom mite obtained from in Yogyakarta Mite stadia Female s

Size (mm) Lengthy 0,19 + 0,04

Broad 0,11 + 0,00

Description

Males

0,14 + 0,00

0,11 + 0,00

Hysterosoma of mites

1,00

1,00

Oval shaped, white nodes, and the front footenlarged Elongated, translucent white, Smaller front feet than those of female‘s

Mite development in general starts from eggs, prelarvae, protonympha, tritonympha and adults. When the development is in progress, some change is occurred on the feet, skeletons, and the number of setae change of foot, sklerotisation and the number of setae (Mulyadi, 1997). Mite eggs are kept in the female hysterosoma until the eggs are hatched

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to develop immature mites with legs and the hystrosoma may be swollen more. When hysterosoma is broken further development of mites occurred in the open space of the host tissue surface (Fig 2). The period of time required to complete one life cycle of mites was 7.15 + 1.11 days. The development of egg to adult in a swollen hysterosoma needed146.4 hours (6, 1 day), and outside of hysterosoma alive only for 24 hours (1 day). In one hysterosoma could be found the number of 43.8 +22.11 adult mites. The result from the previous studies reported that the number of mites in each hysterosoma reached 412 adults. The observation for 30 days after inoculation found that 5 hysterosomas containing more than 500 adults of mites, and the results of inoculation of approximately 100 individual adult mites were able to develop more than 500 hysterosomasin less than 8 days (Suryanti and Harjaka, 2007). The number of individuals in one hysterosoma depending onthe size. Hysterosoma that forms on thefarmer could reach the diameter of 2.00 mm with the number of mites in it more than 400 individuals, on the other hand those in the laboratory were only maximum of 1.00 mm in the diameter with the number of mites in each one reached 43.8 individuals respectively. Table 2. Single life cycle development of ear mushroom mite in Yogyakarta at different temperature Temperature (0C)

Period of time (days)

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Room temperature (28-32)

0a 0a 8,00 + 1,41 c 7,00 + 0,00bc 10,20 + 1,92d 6,35 + 0,72b 0a 7,15 + 1,11 bc

Description: Figures followed by same letter are not significantly different at 5% level according to Duncan's Range Test The effects of temperature on the development of mite attacking ear mushroom suggested that these pest was able to develop at the temperature ranged from 15oC-30oC (Table 2). This mite did not develop at 50 C, 100 C and 350C. Those data were collected from the observations made in the territory of mushroom development in Sleman with the ambient temperature ranged from 180C - 260C (Suryanti and Harjaka (2007). According to Zou et al. (1993) the best developmentofmite of ear mushroom (Luciaphorus auriculariae) in China was at the temperature ranged from 250C - 300C. CONCLUSION Mite attacking ear mushroom in Yogyakarta is a destructive species because with the temperature range from280C-320Cthe pesthas a short life cycle and high reproductive potentialdevelopment. The pest's life cycle takes only 7.15 + 1.12 days and single adult

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parent was able to produce 43.8 + 22.11 eggs in the laboratory or even more than 400 eggs producedin the field. REFERENCES Kalshoven, L.G.E. 1981. The Pests of Crops in Indonesia. PT. Ichtiar Baru, van Hoeve, Jakarta Mulyadi, 1997. Acarology. Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Yogyakarta, Indonesia Suryanti and T. Harjaka. 2007. Host Range of Mite as Pest of Ear Mushroom. J. Indo. Plant. Protec. (13) : 135-140 Zou, P., Gao, J.R. and E.P. Ma 1993. Plemenery Studies on the Biology of the Pest Mite Luciaphorus auriculariae (Acarai : Pygmephoridae) Infesting Je‘s Ear Mushroom Auricularia polytricha in China. Experimental Applied of. Acarology (17) : 225-232.

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SUSCEPTIBILITY OFLEPIDIOTA STIGMA (F.) (COLEOPTERA : SCARABAEIDAE) TO METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE (METCH.) (HYPOCREALES : CLAVICIPITACEAE) Tri Harjaka Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, Email : [email protected] ABSTRACT Lepidiota stigma (F.)is a destructive grub found in sandy soils and attacks sugarcane in Indonesia.Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokinis one of the entomopathogenic fungi infects soil dwelling insects. The research aimed to know the potency of M. anisopliae isolated from Phyllophagahelleri to infect L. stigma. The fungus were tested against all stadia of L. stigma in laboratory by contacting to sporulating fungal cultures and soil application methods. The result showed that M. anisopliae isolated from P. helleri was able to infect L. stigma. All stadia of L. stigma were susceptible toward M. anisopliae infection include egg, first instar larvae, second instar larvae and the beetle. It has a potency to be improved as biological control agent of L. stigma. Key word : Lepidiota stigma, Metarhizium anisopliae, biological control

INTRODUCTION White grub is one type of pest that has generally become a problem in the cultivation of sugarcane in the world. White grubs associated with sugarcane plants were reported more than 80 species of the subfamily Melolonthinae, 40 species of the subfamily Rutelinae and 65 species of the subfamily Dynastinae (Wilson, 1969). Three types of white grub also became an important pest of sugarcane in Mauritius those were Heteronychus licas, Hoplochelus marginalis and Phyllophaga smithi (Paray and Rajabalee, 2008). Lepidiota reuleauxi was reported as an important pest of sugarcane in Papua New Guinea (Kuniata and Young, 1992). Dermolepida albohirtum, Lepidiota noxia and Lepidiota pictoralis were as important problems in sugarcane in Australia (Allsopp et al. 1995; Britton, 1985; Samson et al. 2006), Leucopholis irrorata was in the Philippines and in Hawaii there was Anomala orientalis (Wilson, 1969). In Indonesia there are 30 species of white grubs recorded, and four genera of them have the potential as the pests of sugarcane include Lepidiota, Leucopholis, Phyllophaga and Apogonia (Kalshoven, 1981). Based on the survey in various fields of sugarcane plantations in Indonesia, especially Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi indicated that there were six species from three genera of white grub, besides there were also foundLepidiota stigma and Hollotricia (= Phyllophaga) helleri (Anonymous, 2009). L. stigma is commonly found in Java (Suhartawan, 1995) and based on the record during the last two years in sugarcane plantations in the southern region of Central Java (District Purworejo) these pests caused extensive damage to 32% cropping, although mostly in the categories of mild damages. L. stigma lay eggs in a specific place according to the type of host or host habitat and planting system of sugarcane. Eggs and larvae live in the soil until they get into the cocoon phase. Mahrub et al. (1975) reported that at the life cycle of L. stigma in sugarcane 208

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plantation reached 385 days or more than a year. In Indonesia, the female beetles of L. stigma lay their eggs in the quite moist soil with the depth varying from 5 to 30 cm. Eggs hatch after the age of 1 to 2 weeks (in the laboratory the eggs hatched in 12-13 days). First instar of L. stigma unity eat the excess of dead plants or roots surrounding the area, then enter the second instar larvae that eat the living plant roots. L. stigma develop in four instars where the most vicious and harmful is the third instar. The heaviest damage of sugarcane occurred in February until June (Suhartawan, 1995). L. stigma was difficult to control because it lives in soil and the presence in the planting of sugarcane is difficult to be monitored from the early stage. Damage of sugarcane generally occurs after the pests are entering the phase of the third instar larvae and in Indonesia (especially Java) occurred around February to May (Kalshoven, 1981).The efforts to control chemically with a systemic insecticide is the most frequently performed in several sugarcane plantations, and those age done every year. Various efforts in the integrated control need to be done in order to achieve a higher effectiveness compared to a single technique. Biological control with entomopathogenic fungi, apart from being environmentally benign, it is likely to be cheap in the long-term as the bio-control agent will be selfperpetuating. Experiments with insect pathogens to control L. stigma in Indonesia were not successful (Kalshoven, 1981). Applications of fungus M. anisopliae in sugarcane plantation prove to reduce the population reached 42% at the concentration of 7.5 x 10 10 spores / plant (Lislie, 2004). M. anisopliae in the soil was also reported to effectively control Phyllophaga smithi (Parae and Rajabalee, 2008) and in Nepal white grub control has been directed using M. anisopliae (Dhoj, 2009). In Australia it was reported some successes of using M. anisopliae against scarabs (Milner, et al. 2003; Sallam, et al., 2007). A preliminary bioassay to study the potency of M. anisopliae isolated from P. helleri to control eggs and larval stages of L. stigma was conducted in laboratory during December 2008 until May 2010. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in the laboratory of Biological Control, Faculty of Agriculture UGM. Fungal isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained from P. helleri (Harjaka, 2006). The fungus grown on potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) in 9 cm diameter petri dish, then transferred into test tube cultures and incubated for 20 days. For infection tests, the fungus reproduced using a natural medium of sterile corn grains. Larvae of L. stigma at the second instar and third instar collected from the field were used as the materials for infection tests. Larvae were maintained in the laboratory in plastic pots buckets with the sandy soil medium at the volume of 1.0 liter and fed with carrot. To maintain soil moisture 40 ml of water was given, and replacement of feed was done every 5 days. Infection test was conducted by the rolling method, ie 20 individual larvae were rolling into the fungus M. anisopliae culture in corn medium, then left them with the fungal culture for about 10 minutes to get direct contact between the fungus and the body surface of larvae of L. stigma. Later the larvae were removed and kept in the pots with the same soil media. Infection test was also done by mixing fungal culture on corn medium of 60 grams with 3.0 L of soil medium, and then invested with 10 individual larvae. Observations were done every day to see the development of fungal infection of the larvae.

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The fungus that grow on the inoculated L. stigma was used today as a starter for testing the next infection. The fungus were grown on corn medium for 30 days, then 200 grams of the culture was mixed with 20 liters of soil to maintain 20 individuals of third instar larvae. The soil that has been treated with the fungus were used again for maintaining eggs, larvae and pupaes of L. stigma in the next periods. Observations were carried out at intervals of 5 days according to the feeding schedule for larvae and 14 days for hatching eggs of L. stigma. Incidence of fungal infection of M. anisopliae on the inoculated eggs, larvae, pupae and adult of L. stigma were recorded. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION M. anisopliae var. anisopliae is one of the entomopathogenic fungi infected soil dwelling insects. The use of the fungus M. anisopliae in Indonesia has been more widely used for controlling rhinoceros bettle (Oryctes rhinoceros) the coconut pest than that for white grub attaking sugarcane (P. helleri and L. stigma). M. anisopliae was isolated from rhinoceros bettle was not able to infect P. helleri larvae, on the other hand the fungus isolated form P. helleri was potential to infect white grub (P. helleri) attacking upland rice in Central Java (Harjaka, 2006). The result showed that M. anisopliae isolated from P. helleri has the potency to infect all stages of L. stigma. The infection of M. anisopliae on the second instar of L. stigma was only able to get the mortality at 10%. Larvae of L. stigma that was infected showed white mycelium covering the cadaver and the formation of conidium appeared in two weeks later, however it was not completely covering the whole cuticle surface. The symptoms M. anisopliae infection on the third instar of L. stigma did not seem like the symptoms of M. anisopliae infection. It was considered due to the sensitivity of the tested insect and the number of fungal inoculum in contact with the host cuticle. The experiment with contaminated inoculum did not show any fungal on the third instar larvae of L. stigma. The total number of 20 larvae tested were all successfully became imago. M. anisopliae was reported to have a fairly wide host range, however, they have a host specificity. The isolates of M. anisopliae isolated fromP. helleri was able to infect the egg, all instars of larvae and the bettle of L. stigma (Fig 1, Fig 2 and Fig 3). The eggs and first instar larvae of L. stigma were more susceptible to the fungal infection. M. anisopliae isolated form P. helleri was able to kill the embryonic development and newly hatched instars (Fig 2). When the fungus was inoculated on the second and third instar of L. stigma the symptom of infection took more than a month. Therefore, the development and the use of the fungus as an active ingredient of bioinsecticida was suggested to control the eggs and early instar. M. anisopliae is one of the natural enemies of insects that essentially a soil inhabitant fungus. It is persistent in soil and infecting the immature stage of L. stigma.

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Fig 1. M. anisopliaeinfection on Phyllophaga helleri (left) and second instar of Lepidiota stigma larvae (right)

Fig 2. Eggs dan first instar larvae of L. stigma develop normally (left) and abnormal infectedby M. anisopliae (right)

Fig 3. Infection of M. anisopliae on third instar larvae (left) and imago of L. stigma (right) The technique for mass production and application of the fungus as biological control agent has to be focused on the formulations of bioinsecticides with M. anisopliae as the active ingredient for controlling L. stigma. 211

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CONCLUSION 1. The fungus M. anisopliae was able to infect all stadia of L. stigma. 2. Eggs and early instar larvae of L. stigma were more sensitive to the than the third instar larvae and the adults. 3. M. anisopliae is persistent in the soil and available to infect the insect host (L. stigma). REFERENCES Allsopp, P.G., McGill, N.G. and R.M. Bull. 1995. Use of suSCon Blue against Larvae of Lepidiota pictoralis Lea (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) in Australian Sugar Cane and the Effect of Infestations on Yield. Crop Protection (14) : 69-75. Anonymous, 2009. Major Insect Pest Crop.http://dacnet.nic.in/Sugarcane/PestManage.htm

Management

Of

Sugarcane

Britton, E.B. 1985. Lepidiota noxia (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae : Melollonthinae), A Pest of Sugar Cane in Queensland. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. (24) : 117-119. Dhoj, Y. 2009. Microbial Control of White Grub in Nepal : the Way Forward. J. Agric. and Environ. (19) : 134-142. Harjaka, T. 2006. Isolation of Metarhizium anisopliae from the Larva of Phyllophaga helleri. Proceding of National Seminar of Agricultural Research. Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Pp : 200-205. Kalshoven, L.G.E. 1981. The Pests of Crops in Indonesia. PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, Jakarta. Mahrub, E., Rasdiman, S. and M. Prawirodisastro. 1975. Biology of Lepidiota stigma in Laboratory. Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Yogyakarta. Milner, R.J., Samson, P. and R. Morton. 2003. Persistence of Conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae in Sugarcane Fields: Effect of isolate and formulation on persistence over 3.5 years. Biocontrol Science and Technology, (13) : 507-516 Paray, N.B. and A Rajabalee. 2008. Preliminary Studies on Entomopathogens Associated with Sugarcane Pest in Mauritius.http://www.uom.ac.mu/Faculties/foa/ Sallam, M.N., McAvoy, C.A., Samson, P.R. and J.J. Bull. 2007. Soil Sampling for Metarhizium anisopliae Spores in Queensland Sugarcane Fields. BioControl (52) : 491-505. Samson, P.R., Stair, T.N. and J.I. Bull. 2006. Evaluation of an Application Procedure for Metarhizium anisopliae in Sugar Cane Ratoons for Control of the White Grub Dermolepida albohirtum. Crop Protection (25) : 741-747. Suhartawan, 1995. Mechanical control of Lepidiota stigma F. at Madukismo Plantation. Sugar Research (31) : 45-53 Wilson, G. 1969. White Grubs as Pests of Sugar Cane. In : Pests of Sugar Cane. Williams, J.R., Metcalfe, J.R., Mungomery, R.W. and R. Mathes (Eds). Elsiver Publishing Company, New York. Pp 237-254

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EVALUATION OF API 20E AND API 20 NE IN COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONALMETHODS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP Zahirotul Hikmah Hassan South Kalimantan Assessmnet Institute for Agriculture Technology Jl. Panglima Batur Barat no. 4 Banjarbaru 70711 South Kalimantan Tel. +62 511 4772346 Fax.+62 511 4781810 email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Two systems of identification methods for Vibrio spp, API 20E and API 20NE, were compared with conventional methods for their ability, accuracy, and specificity to identify Vibrio spp isolates. A total of 55 isolates of Vibrio spp including 13 references strains from various sources were examined for assessing these three methods. Comparative analysis, compared to conventional method, among two systems (API 20E and API 20NE) revealed API 20E system to be the most practical and precise for identification purpose which showed a higher specificity (87.27% of correct identifications) in comparison with the API 20NE (70.91% of correct identifications). Furthermore, a better performance of API 20E system has been confirmed also by the results of the identification quality. The correct identification by API 20E system gave a higher significance of identification quality (with 56.25% having an excellent identification of ≥99.9%) compared to the correct identification by API 20NE system (none having an excellent identification of ≥99.9%). Keywords: API 20E, API 20NE, conventional methods, Vibrio spp.

INTRODUCTION Vibrioare Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, curved rod shape, non spore forming bacteria. These bacteria produce catalase and oxidase (Austin, 2009; Nair et al., 20062). These bacteria are motile, with polar flagella, and inhibited by the vibriostatic compound 0129 (Hofer et al., 2001). Vibrios are ubiquitous bacteria that are naturally present in marine environment, and particularly resistant to high salt concentrations. Several species within the genus Vibrio are associated with foodborne infections and food spoilage. Some species are more specifically pathogenic to humans, such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, which are the most common causes for severe intestinal diseases. Among the 65 species that have now been described in the genus Vibrio(Twedt, 1989), twelve (V. cholerae, V.mimicus, V. metschnikovii, V. cincinnatiensis, V. hollisae, V. damsela, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. carchariae) are recognized as human pathogens (Nair et al., 2006), with 8 species are known to be directly food associated (Oliver and Kaper, 2007). Of these, 3 species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus) are the most important and responsible for most cases of food-borne illness (Austin, 2009; Nair et al., 2006b; Sakazaki et al., 2006). For the last decades, the use of two stage enrichment followed by plate culture method has been recognized to be the most commonly used method to detect Vibrio spp. The identification to determine the species was normally done by standard microbiology method. These methods have been considered to be cheap and simple. However, the limitations of these methods (slow, time consuming, and laborious) have enhanced the use 213

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of other newer techniques. Alternatively, commercial diagnostic kits such as API 20E, API 20NE, and BBL Crystal have become more widely used. A regular improvement in the detection method of these bacteria is continuously conducted. Since these bacteria can be included into what is called VBNC (viable but not culturable)group(Lyon, 2001), the use of molecular techniques following the enrichment step now are considered to be the best, rapid and more reliable methods for detection and identification Vibrio spp.(Bej et al., 1999; Blackstone et al., 2003; Blanco-Abad et al., 2009), since these methods do not need culturable cells for the detection. However, the use of molecular techniques requires specialization beyond the means of many diagnostic laboratories and expensive. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate API 20E system, API 20NE system, and to compare these two systems with the conventional identification methods/the standard microbiological method based on the ISO/TS 21872-1 (detection of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae) and ISO/TS 21872-2 protocols (detection species other than V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae).

MATERIALS AND METHODS Bacteria A total of 55 Vibrio spp isolates including 13 references strains of Vibrio spp from various source were examined. All the isolates were retrieved from our strain collection (stored at -80°C). The strains taken from frozen stocks were grown overnight on TSA plates and incubated at 37°C. Subsequently, the bacteria were grown overnight on slants of inclined saline nutrient agar (SNA) at 37°C. Overnight cultures on slants of inclined SNA were used as working stock, while cultures stored at -80°C were used as stock cultures. The 55 isolates examined in this study are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Strains examined in this study

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Identification of Vibrio spp by conventional identification methods The 55 isolates examined in this study were grown overnight on TSA agar plates at 37°C for 24 h ± 3 h. Subsequently, the isolates were tested for the biochemical characteristics by following the protocols on ISO/TS 21872-1:2007 for the detection of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus, while ISO/TS 21872-2:2007 is used for the detection of other species, including V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and V. mimicus, but not V. hollisae(Anonymous, 2007). Identification of Vibrio spp by using API 20E system All the isolates tested were grown overnight on TSA agar plates at 37°C for 24 h ± 3 h. The inoculation of the inoculums was done according to the manufacturer‘s instructions, however the bacterial inoculum was prepared by suspending one single colony in 9 ml PPS, instead of in 5 ml 0.85% NaCl. The strips were incubated at 37°C for 24 h ± 3 h. The biochemical tests identified with API 20E are β-galactosidase (ONPG), arginine dihydrolase (ADH), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), citrate utilization (CIT), H2S production (H2S), urease (URE), tryptophane deaminase (TDA), indole production (IND), Voges–Proskauer (VP), gelatinase (GEL), glucose (GLU), mannitol (MAN), inositol (INO), sorbitol (SOR), rhamnose (RHA), saccharose (SAC), melibiose (MEL), amygdalin (AMY), arabinose (ARA) and cytochrome oxidase (OX). The results were checked, recorded and interpreted referring to the reading/description table provided in the package. The species was determined using the apiweb™ software. Identification of Vibrio spp by using API 20NE system An identical experiment on the identification of the 55 isolates was carried out using API 20NE. The bacterial inoculums were prepared according to manufacturer‘s instruction (the colonies were inoculated into 5 ml 0.85% NaCl and the turbidity was adjusted to 0.5 MacFarland). The biochemical profiles identified with API 20NE are reduction of nitrates to nitrites/reduction of nitrates to nitrogen (NO3), indole production (TRP), fermentation glucose (GLU), arginine dihydrolase (ADH), urease (URE), β-glucosidase (ESC), gelatinase (GEL), β-galactosidase (PNPG), glucose (GLU), arabinose (ARA), mannose (MNE), mannitol (MAN), N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), maltose (MAL), potassium gluconate (GNT), capric acid (CAP), adipic acid (ADI), malate (MLT), trisodium citrate (CIT), phenylacetic acid (PAC), and cytochrome oxidase (OX). The same as the API 20E, the results were checked, recorded and interpreted according to the reading/description table provided in the package, and the species identification was determined using the apiweb™ software. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed by variance analysis using the one way ANOVA procedure, SPSS ver. 15 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). An α of 0.05 was used for statistical significance. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The biochemical reactions of 55 isolates examined using standard microbiological method based on ISO/TS 21872-1 and ISO/TS 21872-2, API 20E system, and API 20NE systems were evaluated. Prior to the examination, a PCR-based method were conducted to

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confirm the strains tested. The results of the identification were found to be in agreement with those obtained by the conventional method. Hence, we here compared the two commercial diagnostic kits (the API 20E and API 20NE systems) by referring to the conventional method. The comparative analyses on overall performance of these two commercial diagnostic kits are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Identification results with API 20E and API 20NE systems

As shown in Table 2, the API 20E system correctly identified 87.27% (48 out of 55) of the isolates. While with API 20NE system, there was 70.91% agreement with the conventional method (39 out of 55) of the isolates were correctly identified. All V. parahaemolyticus strains were correctly identified by both systems. Additionally, neither API 20E nor API 20NE gave correct results on the identification of V. fluvialis, V. metschnikovii, and V. furnissii. However, statistical analysis showed the accuracy of these two methods (API 20E and API 20NE system) to be not significantly different (t-test, P≥0.05). Furthermore, we also compared the identification quality of the correct identification tests. The results showed that the correct identification by API 20E system gave a higher significance of identification quality compared to the correct identification by API 20NE system (Table 2). Table 2. Identification quality of API 20E and API 20NE systems Number of the strains Identification quality (%) With API20E With API 20NE ≥99.9 27 0 90
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identification by API 20NE system (71.79%) gave a significance of identification quality only by 90-99.9%. . DISCUSSION In our work, the comparative assessment of three identification methods in parallel on a large number of isolates (55 isolates) was able to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method for the confirmation of presumptive identifications.The results of the study showed that comparing to the other two methods (API 20E and API 20NE systems), the standard microbiological method based on ISO/TS 21872-1 and ISO/TS 21872-2 was apparently to be the most inefficient method for identification of Vibrio spp. It is time consuming and more laborious. With respect to references strain ofV. furnissi DSM 14383, the result on the identification by both API 20E and API 20NE system revealed this strain to be V. fluvialis.. Based on the literature, strains belonged to the aerobic biogroup 2 of V. fluvialis are now designed as V. furnissi. V. furnissi can be differentiated from V. fluvialis on the production of gas from the fermentation of carbohydrates. The distinct features of V. furnissii compared to other halophilic vibrios include positive reaction for L-arginine, L-arabinose, maltose, and D-mannitol and negative reaction for L-lysine, L-ornithine, lactose and Voges-Proskauer (Brenner et al., 1986; Oliver and Kaper, 2007). The available identification methods of Vibrio spp still often lead to misidentification. Present methods for detecting these bacteria are reliant upon the biochemical characteristics of these bacteria which may take days to be detected. As observed in this study, the identification using standard microbiological method are very time consuming and laborious. The use of commercial test kits as alternative to standard microbiological method is more rapid and practical. As observed in this study, the identification of Vibrio sp at species level by using API 20E and API 20NE took only 1 and 2 day/days respectively before the results were obtained. However, the reliability and reproducibility of these rapid test kits were relatively low. There was still a possibility to misidentify the species of the isolate as what observed in this study. To date, as the development of improvement in the detection and identification method, molecular-based methods such as PCR assay have been found to be the most rapid and accurate method for detection V. cholerae(Ghosh et al., 1997; Gubala, 2006; Gubala and Proll, 2006) and V. parahaemolyticus(Blackstone et al., 2003; Kim. et al., 2008; Tyagi et al., 2009; Venkateswaran et al., 1998; Ward and Bej, 2006). CONCLUSION In conclusion, by studying three methods for identification of Vibrio spp, our results lead to API 20E system to be the most practical and precise for identification of Vibrio spp. REFERENCES Anonymous. 2007. ISO/TS 21872-1 : Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal medhod for the detection of potentially enteropathogenic Vibrio spp. - part 1. : Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae., In I. O. f. S. (ISO), (ed.), Switzerland.

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Anonymous. 2007. ISO/TS 21872-2 : Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal medhod for the detection of potentially enteropathogenic Vibrio spp. - part 2. : Detection of other than Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae., In I. O. f. S. (ISO), (ed.), Switzerland. Austin, B. 2009. Vibrios as causal agents of zoonoses. Veterinary Microbiology In Press, Corrected Proof. Bej, A.K., D.P. Patterson, C.W. Brasher, M.C.L. Vickery, D.D. Jones, and C.A. Kaysner. 1999. Detection of total and hemolysin-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish using multiplex PCR amplification of tl, tdh and trh. Journal of Microbiological Methods 36:215-225. Blackstone, G.M., J.L. Nordstrom, M.C.L. Vickery, M.D. Bowen, R.F. Meyer, and A. DePaola. 2003. Detection of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster enrichments by real time PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods 53:149-155. Blanco-Abad, V., J. Ansede-Bermejo, A. Rodriguez-Castro, and J. Martinez-Urtaza. 2009. Evaluation of different procedures for the optimized detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mussels and environmental samples. International Journal of Food Microbiology 129:229-236. Brenner, D.J., F.W. Hickman-Brenner, and J.V. Lee. 1986. Vibrio furnissii (formerly aerobic biogroup of Vibrio fluvialis), a new species isolated from human feces and the environment. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:816-824. Ghosh, C., R.K. Nandy, S.K. Dasgupta, G. Balakrish Nair, R.H. Hall, and A.C. Ghose. 1997. A search for cholera toxin (CT), toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the regulatory element ToxR and other virulence factors in non-O1/non-O139Vibrio cholerae. Microbial Pathogenesis 22:199-208. Gubala, A.J. 2006. Multiplex real-time PCR detection of Vibrio cholerae. Journal of Microbiological Methods 65:278-293. Gubala, A.J., and D.F. Proll. 2006. Molecular-Beacon Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Vibrio cholerae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:6424-6428. Hofer, E., E.M.F. Reis, B.R. Quintaes, D.P. Rodrigues, I.S. Feitosa, M.R.F. Angelo, and L.H.F.F. Ribeiro. 2001. Vibrio cholerae Resistant to 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine (O/129) Isolated from Patients with Enteritis in Ceará, Brazil J Health Popul. Nutr. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh 19:39-42. Kim. , J.S., G.G. Lee, J. Kim, J.Y. Kwon, and S.T. Kwon. 2008. The development of rapid real-time PCR detection system for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oyster. Letters in Applied Microbiology 46:649-654. Lyon, W.J. 2001. TaqMan PCR for Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, Non-O1, and Non-O139 in Pure Cultures, Raw Oysters, and Synthetic Seawater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:4685-4693. Nair, G.B., A. Safa, N.A. Bhuiyan, S. Nusrin, D. Murphy, C. Nicol, M. Valcanis, S. Iddings, I. Kubuabola, and H. Vally. 2006a. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains similar to pre-seventh pandemic El Tor strains during an outbreak of gastrointestinal disease in an island resort in Fiji. J Med Microbiol 55:1559-1562. Nair, G.B.N., S.M. Faruque, and D.A. Sack. 2006b. Vibrios, p. 332-372, In Y. Motarjemi and M. Adams, eds. Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. CRC Press. , Cambrige England. Oliver, J.D., and J. Kaper. 2007. Vibrio Species, p. 343-379, In M. P. Doyle and L. R. Beuchat, eds. Food Microbiology Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third edition ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

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Sakazaki, R., C. Kaysner, and C.J. Abeyta. 2006. Vibrio Infections, p. 185-204, In H. P. Riemann and D. O. Cliver, eds. Foodborne infections and intoxications, Third edition. Academic Press. Washington. Twedt, R.M. 1989. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, p. 543-568, In M. P. Doyle, ed. Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. Tyagi, A., V. Saravanan, I. Karunasagar, and I. Karunasagar. 2009. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical shellfish by SYBR green real-time PCR and evaluation of three enrichment media. International Journal of Food Microbiology 129:124-130. Venkateswaran, K., N. Dohmoto, and S. Harayama. 1998. Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the gyrB Gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Its Application in Detection of This Pathogen in Shrimp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:681-687. Ward, L.N., and A.K. Bej. 2006. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish by Use of Multiplexed Real-Time PCR with TaqMan Fluorescent Probes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 72:2031-2042.

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ASSESMENT PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERISTIC SUMENEP LOCAL VARIETIES ONION Zainal Arifin and Amik Krismawati Institute Assesment of Agriculture Technology of East Java Jl. Raya Karangploso KM 4, Malang ABSTRACT Sumenep district represent new development region of onion in East Java with wide of yield of Sumenep local variety equal to 240 hectare with tired productivity 62,89 qu/ha. Onion of Sumenep local variety have to manner of compound faction of atsiri oil highest among other variety that is counted 8 faction cover faction of sulfide, trisulfida, tiopen, furan, sulphur acid, hydrocarbon, dialilsulfon and tiol. Onion of Sumenep local variety relative hold up to disease of antraknose and also have to feel delicious onion, crispy, and odorous typically so that according to for onion fry. This research aim to know manner of onion production and morphology character of Sumenep local variety. This Research is executed in rainfed lowland of Bunbarat village, Rubaru subdistrict, Sumenep district with elevation 65 m above sea level in wide 3.000 m2 and location of Kepuharjo village, Karangploso subdistrict, Malang district with elevation 450 m above sea level in wide 300 m2 at DS I 2009. Onion seed the used is Sumenep local variety and as comparator is Monjung and Super Philip variety. Perception of crop cover : highly of crop, amount of leaf, amount soriyt, yield of corm, and morphology character is manner of leaf and corm and also dwindle corm wight. Result of research indicate that onion of Sumenep local variety local to planted in Sumenep district obtained by result of dry corm equal to 11.249 kg/ha and Super Philip variety 11.236 kg/ha, while in Malang district result of dry corm of Sumenep local variety 17.635 kg/ha and Super Philip variety equal to 17.062 kg/ha. To gift of accompanied by organic manure of usage of inorganic manure lessen fast dwindle corm wight during is depository (56 day) about 8,19 - 8,23% compared to only using inorganic manure. Leaf colour to top and bottom at onion of Sumenep local variety there are difference with Super Philip and Mojung variety. Mean of corm long, corm diametre, corm coat and corm wight of Sumenep local variety of proportional with Super Philip variety, while Monjung variety is lower Keyword : Assesment, Production, Onion characteristic, Sumenep local variety

INTRODUCTION Centre produce onion in East Java for example in Probolinggo, Nganjuk, Malang, Mojokerto and some of district in Madura island. Sumenep district represent new development region of onion by using Sumenep local variety. Wide onion of Sumenep local variety equal to 240 hectare with tired productivity 62,89 qu/ha (Diperta Kab. Sumenep, 2007). Productivity which not yet optimal one of them because farmer still use seed of promiscuously with not certificate or seed quality is planted by its perity still less good (Anwar et al., 2008), with simple conducting technique. Onion have chemical compound characteristic able to stimulate its exit of tear is so-called lakrimator and also release typical aroma in the form of atsiri oil (Lancaster and Boland, 1990; Randle, 1997). Onion Variety exist in Indonesia very immeasurable and recognized for the consumption of Indonesia society there are 10 cultivar, among others Sumenep local variety (Putrasamedja and Suwandi, 1996). Sumenep local Variety have to manner of compound faction of atsiri oil highest among other variety that is counted 8 faction cover faction of

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sulfide, trisulfida, tiopen, furan, sulphur acid, hydrocarbon, dialilsulfon and tiol (Wahyu et al., 2005). Main problem in onion farming is risk height failure of crop because less beneficial environment, especially pest and disease attack. Pest and disease important at onion for example : onion caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua) and Thrips, while its disease cover antraknose, alternaria, fusarium and trotol (Sastrosiswoyo, 1998; Rosmahani et al., 1998). Onion of Sumenep local variety which relative hold up to disease of antraknose but less hold up to disease alternaria. Excess of differ from Sumenep local variety that is feeling delicious onion, crispy and odorous typically so that according for onion fry (Baswarsiati et al.,. 1998). Some other problems which always emerge at farming and agribusiness seed that is : age keep seed very short (3-5 months), dwindle wight very high (30-40 %), pest and disease attack which many so that cause to lossy, either through quantitative and also qualitative. Loss that can happened in the form of light damage up to failure of crop (Nasikin, et al., 2007; Ditlinhort, 2005). Usage of organic manure at onion crop can increase product and also lessen energy dwindle wight of corm during is depository (Arifin, 2010). From other side that pass handling of post harvest which good to lengthening a period to keeping and also can assign added value to be made onion fry (Purwaningsih et al., 2003) This research aim to know manner onion production and morphology character of Sumenep local variety.

MATERIALS AND METHODS This research is executed by rainfed lowland of Bunbarat vilage, Rubaru subdistrict, Sumenep district with elevation 65 above sea level in wide of 3.000 m 2 and Kepuharjo village, Karangploso subdistrict, Malang district with elevation 450 m above sea level in wide of 300 m2 at DS I 2009. Onion seed the used is Sumenep local variety and as comparator is Monjung and Super Philip variety (Picture 1). Used manure cover : Urea 250 kg/ha, ZA 500 kg/ha, SP36 200 kg/ha, KCl 200 kg/ha and 4 t/ha organic manure.

Lokal Sumenep variety

Monjung Variety

Super Philip Variety

Picture 1. Onion seed

Ridge made with widely 1 m and length 9 m. Distance between ridge 0,40 m with height of ridge 0,40 m. Before planting, onion seed truncated by 1/4 shares to quicken the growing of bydm soriyt, and planted with distance 20 cm x 15 cm.

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Fertilization time that is organic manure 4 t/ha, SP-36 200 kg/ha and KCl 200 kg/ha given as elementary fertilizer. At age 7 day given ½ dose of Urea (125 kg/ha ½ dose of ZA (250 kg/ha) and in the some breath with sprinkler at onion crop. At age 25 day given ½ dose of Urea (125 kg/ha) + ½ dose of ZA (250 kg/ha). Time sprinkler of onion crop that is old age 7 day sprinkled every day; among age 8 until 25 day sprinkled by 3 - 5 day once; old age 26 until before harvest to sprinkled by 5 7 day once.Perception of crop cover : highly of crop, amount of leaf, amount of soriyt, yield of corm, and morphology character that is manner of leaf and corm and also dwindle corm wight. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Growth and Yield a. Sumenep district Research location in Bunbarat village, Rubaru subdistrict, Sumenep district have dry climate with climate type of E4 (Oldeman). Soil texture is sandy clay with level soil fertility pertained to lower, that is C-organik, N-total, P, and K very low (Table 1). Soil condition of pertained less fertile and also limitation of irrigation water, needed by management of anion crop in an optimal with usage of organic and inorganic fertilizer by is proportional (250 kg Urea/ha + 500 kg ZA/ha + 200 kg SP-36/ha + 200 kg/KCl/ha + 4 t/ha organic manure), accompanied by irrigating supply from reservoir water. Table 1. Soil nutrition analysis in Bunbarat village, Rubaru subdistrict, Sumenep district. Element Tekstur (%) : Pasir Debu Liat Klas tekstur pH : H2O C-organik (%) N total (%) P2O5 Olsen (ppm) K cmol(+) kg-1 Na cmol(+) kg-1 Ca cmol(+) kg-1 Mg cmol(+) kg-1 KTK cmol(+) kg-1 Source : BPTP Jawa Timur (2009)

Content

Criterion

57 28,24 14,64 7,5 0,80 0,04 54 0,27 0,11 32,45 1,73 10,00

Sandy clay Neutral Very low Very low Low Low Low Very high Enough Low

Onion of Sumenep local variety for planting in Bunbarat village, Rubaru subdistrict, Sumenep district have highly of crop, amount of leaf per clump and Amoun of soriyt per clump proportionate with anion of Super Philip variety (Table 2). Table 2. High of crop, amount of leaf, amount of soriyt, yield of dry corm, Bunbarat village, Rubaru subdistrict, Sumenep district, DS I 2009. Variety Sumenep Monjung Super Philip CV (%)

Amount of High of crop (cm) leaf/clump 14 DAP 28 DAP 14 DAP 28 DAP 20,0a 33,75a 22,2a 32,1 b 21,5a 27,75 c 15,1 c 23,3 c 20,5a 31,25 b 19,1 b 48,0a 6,14 3,51 3,24 3,72

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Amount of soriyt /clump 14 DAP 28 DAP 5,1a 8,5 b 4,1 b 5,5 c 4,7ab 10,1a 8,67 6,30

Yield of dry corm (kg/ha) 11.267a 9.467 b 11.233a 6,39

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Numbers followed by same letter is same column do not differ reality with DMRT at level 0,05

Anion of Sumenep local variety local have highest of high of crop significan, while amount of leaf per clump and amount of soriyt per clump highest met by Super Philip variety. Result of onion corm of Sumenep local variety equal to 11.267 kg/ha and do not differ reality with result of dry corm of Super Philip variety that is 11.233 kg/ha, while growth and yield corm of lower met at onion of Monjung variety equal to 9.467 kg/ha. b. Malang district Result of soil analysis in research location Kepuharjo village, Karangploso subdistrict, Malang district indicate that content of C-organik, N-total and K pertained to lower, while content of P2O5 very high (Table 3). Table 3. Soil nutrition analysis in Kepuharjo village, Karangploso subdistrict, Malang District Element Tekstur (%) : Pasir Debu Liat Klas tekstur pH : H2O C-organik (%) N total (%) P2O5 Olsen (ppm) K cmol(+) kg-1 Na cmol(+) kg-1 Ca cmol(+) kg-1 Mg cmol(+) kg-1 KTK cmol(+) kg-1 Sumber : IAAT East Java (2009)

Content

Criterion

54 13 14,64 5,9 1,4 0,16 185 0,39 0,59 22,0 6,83 34,54

Sandy loam Enough Low Low Very high Low Enough Very high High High

Differ from Sumenep district, research location in Kepuharjo village, Karangploso subdistrict, Malang district have level soil fertility of better with irrigating system of technical middle so that very influencing of growth and yield corm (Table 4). Tables 4. High of crop, amount of leaf, yield of dry corm of Sumenep local variety and Super Philip variety in Kepuharjo village, Karangploso subdistrict, Malang district, DS I 2009. Variety

High of crop (cm) 45 DAP 15 DAP 30 DAP

Amount of leaf/clump 15 DAP

30 DAP

45 DAP

Yield of dry corm (kg/ha)

Sumenep

Average Super Philip

20 19 20 20 20 19,8

38,4 30,3 34 30 34 33,34

48,2 48,2 44,5 43,8 47,2 46,38

10 12 11 8 11 10,4

25 30 25 28 30 27,6

21 30 31 33 28 28,6

23 24 25 23

39,2 32,9 31,8 30,1

44,5 48,1 44 47,8

10 12 11 12

30 25 40 35

50 50 42 40

223

17.635

17.962

61st Universitas Gadjah Mada Anniversary

29 24,8

Average

35,5 33,9

44,8 45,84

16 12,2

31 32,2

51 46,6

Onion of Sumenep local variety which planting in Kepuharjo village, Karangploso subdistrict, Malang district show good growth and yield of corm, seen with existence of difference of growth and yield of corm which do not significan compared to onion of Super Philip variety. Onion of Sumenep local variety have the amount of leaf per clump to lower, but dry corm which yielded reach 17.635 kg/ha, while onion of Super Philip variety equal to 17.062 kg/ha. Quality of corm Onion represent commodity which cannot be kept by old time, only staying 3-4 months though consumer require him every moment (Duriat et al., 1995; Hadisoeganda et al., 1994). Onion corm of happened easy of damage and difficult defended in the form of fresh because too long will experience of changes of effect process physiology, biological, physicochemical and microbiological. If unfavourable handling will happened rot or even grow depository in place. Treatment of fertilization at onion also influence the quality of shallot. Fertilizer type given to onion of Sumenep local variety can influence to dwindle wight corm during is depository (Picture 2). Dwindling Wight of Onion Susut Bobot Umbi Corm (% ) (%) 600

E

500

100

98,14

97,57

96,20

89,75

88,38

87,36

86,48

87,57

83,77

81,94

80,16

78,80

94,85

94,19

93,09

91,77

400 100

D 300

C 200

B

95,92

100

98,24

97,49

95,95

100

96,95

95,63

91,81

94,67

93,99

92,94

91,81

100

97,88

97,08

95,35

93,82

92,98

90,52

89,42

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

100

A

93,86

0

W1

W2

W3

Minggu (M) W5 W4

W6

W7

W8

Keterangan : WEEK (W) A. OM 4000 kg/ha+ Urea 250 kg/ha+ ZA 500 kg/ha+ SP 18 400 kg/ha+ KCl 200 kg/ha B. OM 4000 kg/ha+ Urea 100 kg/ha+ ZA 200 kg/ha+ SP 18 200 kg/ha+ KCl 100 kg/ha C. OM 4000 kg/ha+ Urea 150 kg/ha+ ZA 300 kg/ha+ SP 18 300 kg/ha+ KCl 150 kg/ha D. Urea 250 kg/ha+ ZA 500 kg/ha+ SP 18 400 kg/ha+ KCl 200 kg/ha E. OM 4000 kg/ha Source : Arifin (2010)

Picture 2. Graph influence of fertilization to percentage of dwindling wight of onion corm of Sumenep local variety

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61st Universitas Gadjah Mada Anniversary

To gift of accompanied by organic manure of usage of inorganic manure can lessen fast dwindle wight of corm during is depository, where at perception of week to 8 (56 day) happened decrease of corm wight about 8,19-8,23%, while if only using inorganic manure (without organic manure) will happened decrease wight of corm 21,2%. Characterization of morphology Characterization of morphology onion influences adaptation energy or interaction to environment grow various agroclimate and also his resilience to disease and pest. Pursuant to characterization visually to onion of Sumenep local variety, Monjung and Super Philip variety, showing character difference of growth of leaf and corm (Table 5). Table 5. Onion crop character of Sumenep local variety, Monjung and Super Philip variety in Bunbarat village, Rubaru subdistrict, Sumenep district, DS I 2009. NO 1.

CHARACTERIZATION VISUALLY LEAF Colour of top leaf Colour of bottom leaf Form of leaf Pointed of leaf Base of leaf Type of leaf

VARIETY SUMENEP Green darkness White greenness Circular Ellipse Sharp Circular Straightening To gang

MONJUNG Old green Yellow greenness Circular Ellipse Sharp Circular Straightening To gang

SUPER PHILIP Purple green Yellow purple Circular Ellipse Sharp Circular Straightening To gang

Formation of leaf Direction leaf face Amount of leaf High of leaf Circle of leaf 2.

CORM

Form tip of corm Form jetty of corm Colour husk tip of corm Colour husk jetty of corm Colour flesh of corm Amount coat of corm Length of corm

60° - 90°

60° - 90°

60° - 90°

32 33,75 cm 0,65 cm Very ellipse

23 27,75 cm 0,50 cm Ellipse

48 31,25 cm 0,45 cm Few ellipse

Circular Ellipse

Roundish

circular

Pink

Red to yellowing

Carmine

Pink

Red to yellowing

Carmine

White pink

White to reding

White to reding

4,4

4,0

4,9

3,6 cm 2,6 cm

3,5 cm 2,3 cm

3,0 cm 2,5 cm

5,3 gr

4,9 gr

7,0 gr

Diametre of corm Wight per corm

Leaf colour to top and bottom at anion of Sumenep local variety were green darkness and white greenness, while Manjung variety is old green and yellow greenness 225

61st Universitas Gadjah Mada Anniversary

and also Super Philip variety is purple green and yellow purple. Amount of leaf, high of leaf and circle of leaf of onion of Sumenep local variety were 32 leaf, 33,75 cm and 0,65 cm, while Monjung variety is 23 leaf, 27,75 cm and 0,50 cm and also Super Philip variety is 48 leaf, 31,25 cm and 0,45 cm. Leaf character visually other among Sumenep local variety, Monjung and Super Philip variety is much the same. Form tip of corm, form jetty of corm and colour husk tip and jetty of corm of Sumenep local variety were very ellipse, pink and circular ellipse, while Monjung variety is ellipse, roundish and red to yellowing color and also Super Philip variety is rather ellipse, circular and carmine. Mean of corm long, corm diametre and corm wight of Sumenep local variety each 3,6 cm; 2,6 cm and 5,3 gr/corm, while Monjung variety each of 3,5 cm; 2,3 cm and 4,9 gr/corm, and also Super Philip varietas each of 3,0 cm; 2,5 cm and 7,0 gr/corm. Amount of corm coat of Sumenep local variety counted 4,4 enduing corm, Manjung variety 4,0 enduing corm and Super Philip of variety 4,9 enduing corm.

CONCLUSIONS 1. Onion of Sumenep local variety to planted in Sumenep district obtained by result of dry corm equal to 11.267 kg/ha and do not far differ from Super Philip variety that is 11.233 kg/ha, while research location in Malang district show result of dry corm of onion of Sumenep local variety is 17.635 kg/ha and Super Philip variety is 17.062 kg/ha. 2. To gift of accompanied by organic fertilizer with usage of inorganic fertilizer lessen fast dwindle corm wight during is depository (56 day) about 8,19-8,23%, compared to only using inorganic fertilizer. 3. Leaf colour to top and bottom at onion of Sumenep local variety there are difference with Super Philip and Monjung variety. Mean of corm long, corm diametre, corm coat and corm wight of Sumenep local variety of proportional with Super Philip variety, while Monjung variety is lower.

REFERENCES Anwar H, Endang Iriani, Dede Juanda JS, Yulianto, Anggoro Hadi P., Sunardi dan Nurhalim. 2008. Pemurnian Benih Bawang Merah Varietas Bima Dan Varietas Kuning. http://jateng.litbang.deptan.go.id/index.php?option=com_content& task =view&id=84&Itemid=46. Arifin, Z., 2010. Pengaruh pemupukan organik dan anorganik terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil bawang merah lokal sumenep. Seminar Nasional Pertanian Organik. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Bali. 8p. Baswarsiati, L. Rosmahani dan F. Kasijadi. 1998. Rakitan Teknologi Usahatani Bawang Merah dalam Monograf Rakitan Teknologi. BPTP Karangploso. Diperta Kab. Sumenep, 2007. Grand Design Pembangunan Pertanian Kabupaten Sumenep. Direktur Perlindungan Hortikultura. 2004. Kebijakan pengendalian OPT dan penggunaan pestisida pada komoditi hortikultura. Makalah Pertemuan Apresiasi Perlindungan Hortikultura. Surabaya, 11-12 Oktober 2004. 6 hal. Duriat, A.S., T.A. Soetiarso, L. Prabaningrum, R. Sutarya. 1994. Penerapan Pengendalian Hama dan Penyakit Terpadu pada Budidaya Bawang Merah. Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Lembang. Puslitbanghort. Badan Litbang Pertanian.

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Hadisoeganda, W.W., E. Wuryaningsih dan T.K. Moekasan. 1995. Penyakit dan hama bawang merah dan cara pengendaliannya. Dalam. Teknologi Produksi bawang merah. Puslitbanghort. Balitbangtan.Jakarta Hal 57 – 73. Nasikin, Juliastuti dan Adhirasa, R.B.2007. Sosialisasi pemasyarakatan PHT pada tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura di Jawa Timur. Makalah pada ‖Pengelolaan Tanaman Secara Terpadu Untuk Menuju Pertanian Berkelanjutan‖ PEI,PFI dan Maporina Malang, 9 Januari 2007. Lancaster, J.E and Boland M.J. 1990. Flavor Biochemistry. Dalam Brewster, J.L. Onions and Aliied Crops, CRC Press. (Medicinal and Poisonous Plants). Purwaningsih, H., C. Khairani, Maskardan T. Rumayar. 2003. Peluang pengembangan bawang merah palu sebagai komoditas agribisnis. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Yogyakarta. 5p. Putrasamedja, S., Suwandi. I996. Bawang Merah Di Indonesia. Monograf no. 5. BALITSA. Lembang. Randle, M.H. 1997. Onion Flavor Chemistry and Factors Influencing Flavor Intensity. J. Department of Horticulture, University of Georgia, Athens.Rideng, I.M. 1989. Taksonomi Tumbuhan Biji. Depdikbud Dirjen Dikti Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendididkan Tenaga Kependidikan. Jakarta Rosmahani, L., E. Korlina, Baswarsiati dan F. Kasijadi. 1998. Pengkajian tehnik pengendalian terpadu hama dan penyakit penting bawang merah tanam di luar musim. Eds. Supriyanto A.dkk. Prosid. Sem.Hasil Penelitian dan Pengkajian Sisitem Usahatani Jawa Timur. Balitbangtan. Puslit Sosek Petanian. BPTP Karangploso. 116-131.

Sastrosiswoyo, S. 1996. Sistem Pengendalian Hama Terpadu dalam Menunjang Agribisnis Sayuran. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Komoditas Sayuran. Eds. Duriat, A.S dkk. Balai Penelitian Tan. Sayuran Bekerjasama dengan PFI Komda Bandung dan CIBA Plant Protection. 15 hal.

Wahyu, Y., Budi I., dan Muchtaridi, 2005. Studi Kemotaksonomi Kultivar Bawang Merah di Jawa Barat. Seminar Nasional PTTI, November 2005 di UPI Bandung. 5p.

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RELATIONSHIP OF BASAL ROT OF GARLIC IN TAWANGMANGU TO BASAL PLATE ROT OF SHALLOT FROM SOME AREA IN JAVA Zainal D. Fatawi and Hadiwiyono The Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Sebelas Maret Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Kentingan Surakarta 57126. Telp/Fax. 0271 637457. Contact Person: [email protected]; [email protected]

ABSTRACT For about ten years, the farmers in Tawangmangu Karanganyar face a new disease of garlic with rooting symptom on the basal. The disease was caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae (Hanz.) Snyd. et. Hans. It is different from the causal agent of basal rot in some literatures, which is caused by Fusarium culmorum (Wm.G.Sm.) Sacc. F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae is also the causal agent of basal plate rot, an important disease in some center of shallot in Indonesia, with local name of ―penyakit moler‖ (mean: twisting disease). In the early of 1990s, there was an introduction of shallot variety tolerant to high land environment. Then the shallot was planted continually in mixcropping system with the garlic. Thus it is thought that the presents of basal rot in Tawangmangu was related to introduction of the shallot in the area. The shallot might carry Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae which then generate new virulent strain to the garlic. The prediction was supported by the current evidences showing that all isolates from the garlic were virulent on shallot, while as isolates from the shallot were avirulent or very mild virulent on garlic. Keywords: garlic, shallot, basal rot, basal plate rot, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae.

INTRODUCTION For about ten years, the farmers in Tawangmangu Karanganyar face a new disease of garlic with rooting symptom on the basal. The disease was caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae (Hanz.) Snyd. et. Hans. In some field, the disease intensity of basal rot of garlic could reach over 60% (Fatawi et al. 2003; Hadiwiyono & Fatawi, 2004). F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae is also the causal agent of basal plate rot, an important disease of shallot in Indonesia, with local name of ―penyakit moler‖ (mean: twisting disease). The pathogen is also endemic in some center of shallot production in Java, such as Brebes, Bantul, and Nganjuk. In the field, the disease intensity is varied from 1% to over 70 % (Wiyatiningsih, 2007). It occur both on garlic (Fatawi et al., 2003; Hadiwiyono & Fatawi, 2004) and shallot (Wiyatiningsih, 2007; Lopez et al., 2009). In the early of 1990s, there was an introduction of shallot variety having tolerant to high land environment. Thus it is though that the present of basal rot in Tawangmangu was related to introduction of the shallot in the area. The shallot might carry Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae by then generate new virulent strain to the garlic. This paper reported cross virulence of a number isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae on garlic and shallot. METERIALS AND METHODS This research was conducted inthe Laboratorium of Pest and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University at Surakarta.Eight garlic isolates of F. oxysporum

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f.sp. cepae used in the test were isolated from Tawangamangu Karanganyar Central Java, whereas 10 shallot isolates were isolated from Tawangmangu, Bantul (DIY), Brebes (West Java) and Nganjuk (East Java). The virulence test of F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae was conducted with cv RRT of garlic and cv. Biru of shallot. The virulence test was conducted by germinating the seed of garlic and shallot on infested soil with 10 6 cfu per g of soil. Each pot of 10x20 cm2 was filled with 1 kg sterilized soil and then 10 seeds of garlic or shallot were planted into the medium. The inoculation was incubated for 28 days and observed periodically. The virulence variable is disease severity with 0-4 levels of score. 0: no disease, 1: diseased seed at 1-25 %, 2: diseased seed at 26-50%, 3: diseased seed at 51-75%, and 4: diseased seed at more than 75%. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results showed that all isolates from garlic were virulent and caused disease severity at 100 % on 28 days after incubation (Table 1), whereas the isolates from shallot were avirulent or very mild virulent on the garlic. Until 20 days after incubation, there was no seed of garlic being infected by isolates from shallot. On 28 days after incubation, there was just 5 isolates being able to infect on the garlic and even with very mild severity (Table 2). The results of the research showed that all isolate of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae from garlic were virulent to shallot, but not all isolates from shallot were virulent to garlic. Presumably it is right that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae infecting garlic were new generation of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae the virulent strain on shallot. All isolates from garlic have new character, virulent to garlic in addition virulent to shallot the character of the parent. The current results support the prediction that the occurrence of basal rot of garlic in Tawangmangu is from F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae brought by the shallot introduced into the area. Since the times, the farmers plant shallot continually in mixecropping system with garlic. The cropping system might increase the chance of interaction of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae from shallot to garlic the new host. It leads the pathogen to develop virulence on the garlic. The phenomena are interesting to further study. It would be clearer if supported by the evidence of genetic relationship between the isolates. Presenting, a study to evaluate the genetic relationship between isolate of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae from garlic and shallot is on progress. Table 2. The virulence of F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae isolated from garlic on the shallot Isolate

1

Disease Severity (%) 1

0 dai

4 dai

8 dai

12 dai

16 dai

20 dai

24

28

FCp-1 FCp-2 FCp-3 FCp-4 FCp-5 FCp-6

0 0 0 0 0 0

16,25 8,75 6,25 20,00 10,00 28,75

28,50 22,75 26,50 34,75 43,25 45,00

78,25 65,25 69,00 77,25 78,00 82,00

83,25 82,50 80,25 86,50 82,75 85,25

88,25 89,00 87,75 94,50 90,50 92,00

94,50 95,50 94,25 100 94,25 96,25

100 100 100 100 100 100

FCp-7

0

25,00

70,75

94,75

96,25

99,25

100

FCp-8

0

30,00

58,00

88,75

94,25

96,25

100 99,00

dai: days after incubation

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61st Universitas Gadjah Mada Anniversary

Table 2. The virulence of F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae isolated from shallot on the garlic Isolate

Disease Severity (%) 1

0 dai

4 dai

8 dai

12 dai

16 dai

20 dai

24 dai

28 dai

FCm-1 FCm-2 FCm-3 FCm-4 FCm-5 FCm-6 FCm-7

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0,41 0 0,82 0

0 0,82 0,82 1,63 1,65 1,23 0

FCm-8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

FCm-9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

FCm-10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

dai: days after incubation CONCLUSION

The results showed that all isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepaefrom garlic were virulent on shallot, whereas the isolates from shallot were avirulence or very mild virulent on garlic. It implies that F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae virulent strain on garlic was new generation of F. oxysporum f.sp. cepae virulent strain on shallot, but it is still needed to further study to gain more evidences such as the genetic relationship between the isolates. REFERENCES Fatawi, Z.D., H.S. Gutomo, & Hadiwiyono. 2003. Studi lini dasar terjadinya epidemi penyakit busuk pangkal bawang putih di Tawangmangu. Laporan Hasil Penelitian Sumber Dana DUE-Like TA.2003. PS. Agronomi. F. Pertanian. UNS. 45hal. Hadiwiyono & Z.D. Fatawi. 2004. Serangan Fusarium pada pertanaman Bawang putih di Tawangmangu Jawa Tengah. Pp.203-210 in: S. Susanto (ed) Prosiding Simposium Nasional I tentang Fusarium. PFI Komisariat Purwokerto dan Jur. Hama & Penyakit Tumb. F. Pertanian Unsaoed Purwokerto. Lopez, J. And C.S. Carmer. 2009. Screening NPGS Short-Day Anion Accession for Resistance to Fuasrium Basal Rot. Dep. Of. Agronomy and Hort. New Maxico State Univ. Accessed: 11 st May 2009. Wiyatiningsih, S. 2007. Studi Epidemi Penyakit Moler pada Bawang Merah. Disertasi PS. Fitopatologi UGM. Yogyakarta. Tidak dipublikasikan.

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EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF HERBAL-PROTEIN MIX CONCENTRATE ON DAIRY MILK QUALITY AND PRODUCTION Ali Agus, Andriyani Astuti, and Sigit Bintara Faculty of Animal Science Universitas Gadjah Mada author‘s email: [email protected] ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the dairy milk quality and production supplemented with herbal-protein mix concentrate. Sixteen early lactating Friesian Holstein dairy cows at PT. Jaten Lembu Gemilang were devided into two groups, each consisting of 8 cows. Group I was supplemented with 300 g/l milk produced/day High Quality Feed Supplement and 350 g herb Curcuma xanthorriza that called HerbalProtein Mix (HPM) concentrate and group II (control group) was not suplemented with HPM. Observation was performed for 56 days for the two groups for milk production, milk quality (specific grafity, fat content, milk protein, solid non fat, and total solid), body weight, and analysis of worm‘s eggs. The observed data was analyzed by using t-test. The results showed that there was no significant difference between control and treatment group on milk density (1.09 vs 1.07), fat content (4.18% vs 3.98%), solid non fat (8.63% vs 8.44%), total solid (12.09% vs 11.86%) and protein content (3.17% vs 3.10%). Milk production of HPM group compared to the control group did not show any difference (12,1 l vs 11,7 l), and so the body weight (470 kg vs 442 kg) and ADG (0.20 vs 0.05). Variance analysis for the percentage of the decrease of the worm‘s eggs did not show significant difference on the two groups. It was concluded that HPM supplementation at the level of 300 g did not improve yet milk quality and production. Further trial, on the more important level of supplementation is required. Key words: Herbal-Protein Mix Concentrate, Dairy milk quality, Milk production

INTRODUCTION Cattle farming in Indonesia, including dairy cattle, is dominated by small scale farming and therefore the production performance is still less than expected. There are at least two factors influencing the poor production performance, they are feed and disease. The most often disease occurred is liver and alimentary worm. While the factor of feed and feeding are generally under nutrition and low quality feed especially concentrate offer to the animal. Total milk production of a dairy cow depends mostly on the ability of the cow to reach the peak production with high persistency in one period of lactation (Strout, 1983). To reach the high total milk production, the farming management has to be performed properly and carefully (Ruiz, 1983), such as the knowledge of nutrition (Coppock, 1983ª and 1983b) besides the knowledge of reproduction (Stout, 1983). Due to the low quality of feed and uncertain availability of forages, it is necessary to anticipate the high need of nutrition by supplementing feed containing energy, protein and minerals. Improving the feed management is easier, by providing feed with quality nutrition and certain characteristics, it can improve milk production. Besides that, the effect of feed on milk production and quality can be identified in relatively short time compared to the breeding channel (Agus, 1997). Feed supplementation with high content of energy, protein and mineral (High Quality Feed Supplement/ HQFS) combined with herb which may overcome disease especially worm is hoped expected to solve the existing problem. HQFS combined with herb is called herbal-protein mix. The aim of this research was giving an alternative solution through the feed management by providing better qualified concentrate through technological innovation of supplementation of herbal protein mix (HPM), which was expected to decrease the worm

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problems, especially haemonchus contortus worm on the dairy cows and giving benefits to businessmen and farmers in increasing their cattle productivity, such as milk production, milk quality and reproduction performances. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data of cattle were obtained from PT. Jaten Lembu Gemilang, Sumber Diren, Garum, Blitar, East Java. Sixteen lactating Friesian Holstein breed cows with the average weight of 350 kg and the average milk production of 12 liter/day were used in this trial. Cows were grouped into two treatment groups: control group (K) which got basal feed of 30 kg king grass, 7 kg commercial concentrate, 2 kg tofu waste, and 4 kg cassava, and treatment group (HPM) which added of HPM containing HQFS of 300 g/l milk produced/day and 350 g Curcuma xanthorriza. The steps of the research were 1) identification of dairy cows (age, production level, parity, body weight), 2) collection and preparation of curcuma flour 3) formulation and production of HPM, 4) data collection of early milk production and composition, worm‘s egg content in the feces, and cattle weighing, 5) cattle grouping (control vs treatment) 6) research activities and data collection (feed intake, milk sampling, live body weight, feces collection for worm‘s egg/larvae analysis, 7) laboratory analysis (feed, milk, worm‘s egg/larvae), 8) data analysis using t-test and exploration of the results of data analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Milk Production Early, mid and late dairy milk production and total milk production is shown in Table 2. Table 2. Dairy milk production during research Treatment t-test Parameters HPMHPM Control Control Early (liter/cow/day) 12.4 11.6 0.8 ns Late production (liter/cow/day) 12.1 11.7 0.4 ns Total production for 56 days (liter) 707.4 670.5 24.9 ns ns : non significant Variance analysis of early, mid, late and total milk production during the research (56 days) showed no significant difference. This showed that the average milk production at the end of the research did not show increase. By adding herbal medicine, it was expected that the number of worm‘s egg in the cattle decreased, so as to minimize the worm disease and to increase energy supply. Improper level of the medicine might not give positive effect. As shown in Figure 1, milk production increased on HPM group from the beginning to the end of the research, while on the control group, it was relatively stable, even it decreased at the end of the research. Adding HPM to HPM group could supply nutrient needed to produce milk especially on the early lactation, and thus milk production was higher compared to the control group which was not added HPM supplementation. Efficiency of nutrient use for producing milk depends on the equilibrium between nutrition of glucogenic, lipogenic, and aminogenic which are absorbed from the alimentary canal and absolutely needed by mammary glands for each nutrient needed (Chilliard, 1991 cit Astuti, 2008).

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The average milk production during 56 days of the research is shown in Figure 1.

Milk Production (l)

14 13 12

HPM Control

11 10 9 8 1

8

15

22

29 Day

36

43

50

Figure 1. Daily milk production chart during the research

Milk Quality In this research, observation of milk quality or milk composition was conducted 3 times: at the begining, mid and end of the research period. Data observed were milk density, fat content, solid non fat, total solid and protein content. The average composition of milk is shown in Table 3. Milk Density. Milk Density on the two groups showed no significant difference, even the two were almost the same, there were 1.03 gram/cm3 at the beginning of the research and 1.07 gram/cm3 at the end. After further analyzing to see the difference between before and after the research, it showed that the average milk density of milk indicated significant difference (P<0.05), there were 1.02 gram/cm3 at the begining and 1.08 gram/cm3 at the end of research. According to Sudono (1983) cited by Sudjatmogo et. al. (1988), specific gravity of milk positively correlate with the milk produced, while according to Sujono et. al (1999), specific gravity of milk positively correlate with the SNF content and negatively correlate with fat content. The result of variance analysis indicated that the specific grafity of the milk positively correlated with SNF content (correlation value = 0.95) and negatively correlated with fat content (correlation value = 0.81). Fat content. Fat content of the two groups showed no significant difference at the beginning, mid and end of the treatments, even though the average fat content on the treatment group was higher than that on the control group (3.46% vs 3.41%). The average fat content of milk at farmers in DIY is around 3.18 to 4.07% (Sugiarto, 1998), while the result of fat content analysis on the two groups treatment was in comformity with the standard of the average fat content (3.90% vs 3.41%).

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Solid Non Fat (SNF). The result of variance analysis showed that there was no significant difference on the SNF content, both at the beginning, mid or the end of the treatment. It was observed that SNF on the two groups from the beginning to the end of the treatment increased, especially on the HPM group. The analysis of SNF at the beginning and at the end of the research showed no significant difference. The average content of SNF at farmers in DIY is around 6.86 to 9.42% (Sugiarto, 1998). Total Solid. The total solid content on the two groups of treatment showed no significant difference, both at the beginning, mid and end of the treatment. Total solid content at farmers in DIY is around 10.04 to 13.49% (Sugiarto, 1998). Compared to the analysis results (Table 7), it was observed that at the beginning, mid, end or the average on both the control and treatment group, total solid content was within the range. Table 3. The average composition of milk during 56 days of treatments Items

HPM

Control

T-test

1.01 Not analyzed 1.09

1.03 Not analyzed 1.07

ns

3.37 3.56 4.18

3.26 3.56 3.98

ns ns ns

8.01 8.15 8.63

8.15 8.22 8.44

ns ns ns

11.38 11.71 12.09

11.41 11.75 11.86

ns ns ns

2.95 3.00 3.17

3.00 3.00 3.10

ns ns ns

3

Milk density (gram/cm ) Day 1 Day 29 Day 56

Fat (%) Day 1

ns

Day 29 Day 56

Solid non fat (%) Day 1 Day 29 Day 56

Total solid (%) Day 1 Day 29 Day 56

Protein (%) Day 1 Day 29 Day 56

ns : non significant 234

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Body Weight and Average Daily Gain (ADG) Data of body weight and ADG is shown in Table 4. Table 4. Data of body weight and ADG of dairy cows during the research Items HPM Control T-test Body weight (kg) Beginning (day 1) Mid (day 29) End (day 56) Body weight difference (kg) ADG (kg/day)

459.25 457.00 470.25 11.00 0.20

439.25 436.25 442.25 3.00 0.05

ns ns ns ns ns

ns : non significant At the end of the research, the two groups of treatment has undergone the increased body weight, especially on the HPM group that underwent higher gain compared to the control group (11 vs 3 kg), although the difference was not significant. Addition of HQFS for 8 weeks (56 days) provided the effect of high gain. HQFS is high energy feed supplement which is hoped to increase body weight and milk production at early lactation. It proved that HQFS could increase higher body weight on the HPM group than the control group. Worm’s egg Analysis Analysis of the number of worm‘s egg was conducted at the beginning of the research (before HPM supplementation) and at day 7, after HPM supplementation was stopped. The number of worm‘s egg chart at the beginning, day 3 and day 7 of the research is shown on Figure 3.

the number of worm's egg

1400 1200 1000 800

Kontrol

600

HPM

400 200 0 1

2

3

Times

Figure 3. The number of worm‘s egg chart during the research

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Variance analysis for the decreased percentage of the number of worm‘s egg showed no significant difference on both groups of treatment. Supplementation of HPM containing curcuma was aimed at decreasing the number of worm‘s egg in the cattle. The decreased number of worm‘s egg with the addition of the HPM is a cheap alternative medicine for combating worm naturally. The use of HPM would lower the production cost and increase farmers‘ income. CONCLUSION Supplementation of herbal-protein mix (HPM) which contain high quality feed supplement (HQFS) and herb of Curcuma xanthorriza as anthelmintic was new innovation and the level of the herb was unable to affect the milk quality, milk production and number of worm‘s egg. The proper level was suggested in order to increase milk production and quality,while decreasing worm‘s egg. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT High appreciation is presented to PT. Jaten Lembu Gemilang in Blitar, Agus Dwi H, S.Pt., Rosita, S.Pt, dan Haryono, S.Pt for their help and active participation in this research. REFERENCES Agus, A. 1997. Pengaruh tipe konsentrat sumber energi dalam rumen sapi perah berproduksi tinggi terhadap produksi dan komposisi susu. Buletin Peternakan. Fakultas Peternakan UGM, Yogyakarta. Astuti, A. 2008. Pengaruh Penggunaan High Quality Feed Supplement terhadap Kecernaan Nutrien dan Kinerja Produksi Sapi Perah Awal Laktasi. Tesis. Coppock, C.E. 1983a. More economical milk production with computer use in nutrition and feeding management. In Dairy Science Handbook Vol. 15 Westview. Coppock, C.E. 1983b. Greater reproductive performance with nutrition and feeding strategies. In Dairy Science Handbook Vol. 15 Westview. Ruiz, M.E. 1983. Supplementing dairy cows in the tropic. In Dairy Science Handbook Vol. 15 Westview. Stout, J.D. 1983. Dairy cattle management by DHI objective. In Dairy Science Handbook Vol. 15 Westview. Sudjatmogo, Sunarso dan Iswanti. 1988. Pengaruh pemberian berbagai tingkat konsentrat dalam ransum terhadap produksi, kadar lemak dan berat jenis air susu sapi perah Friesian Holstein. Dalam Proceeding Seminar Program Penyediaan Pakan Dalam Upaya Mendukung Industri Peternakan Menyongsong Pelita V (Sunarso et al., Eds). Facultas Peternakan Univ. Diponegoro, Semarang. Sugiyarto. 1988. Perubahan Kualitas Susu dalam Tataniaga Persusuan di DIY. Fakultas Peternakan UGM, Yogyakarta. Sujono, A. Malik dan Suyono. 1999. Milk quality dairy cattle PFH on different environment. EX-FARM, No.7, Tahun VI, Januari-Juni 1999.

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IMPROVING THE END USED PROPERTIES OF INSTANT COCONUT MILK POWDERSBY FLUIDIZED BED AGGLOMERATION Alwani Hamad1,2, Manop Suphantharika2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto, Dukuh Waluh Road PO BOX 202 Purwokerto Indonesia 2 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 Thailand Corresponding author: Tel:+62(0281)636751 Fax: +62(0281)637239 Email address: [email protected]

1

ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the end used properties of instant coconut milk powders commercial product from three different countries. A further agglomeration of spray dried coconut milk with different drying time was investigated. Spray dried coconut milk was flowed in the fluidized chamber with hot air at 50oC and also was sprayed 200 ml of binder solution (15% w/v maltodextrin). Agglomerates were dried at 50oC with various drying time i.e. 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minute. Products were investigated in physical, handling and reconstitution properties. Spray dried of all the commercial products having small particles led to poor handling and reconstitution properties. Agglomeration of spray dried coconut milk powders improved those properties. The increasing of drying time not significantly affected to physical properties. Friability was found to be decrease with drying time up to 10 minutes and then increase there after. These result indicated 10 minutes was the best drying time The wetting time of the agglomerated powder (7 s) was good instant properties but its dispersibility (67%) could be further improved. This study showed that fluidized bed agglomeration could improve the end used properties of the instant coconut milk powders. Keywords: Coconut milk, Powder, Spray dry, Agglomeration, Drying time

INTRODUCTION Coconut milk is the natural oil in water emulsion, extracted from the endosperm of mature coconut either with or without addition water. It had been used widely as an important food material in Asia and Pacific Regions. Spray drying is the method of choice used in the commercial instant coconut milk powders (Seow & Gwee, 1997). The spray-dried powders usually have a small particle size, typically in the range of 10 – 100 µm. This small particle size may result in poor end use instant properties (handling and reconstitution properties) (Jinapong et al., 2008). To solve this problem, the spray dried powders are often agglomerated. Fluidized bed agglomeration is one of the most suitable processing leading to agglomerates with high porosity, good mechanical resistance and to improve handling and reconstitution. These properties depending on the nature and amount of binder that used, on the process way it is introduced, on the drying time and agitation (Turchiuli et al., 2005). The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristic of the coconut milk powder in term of instant properties of commercial product from three different countries; Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand and to determine effects of the fluidized bed agglomeration in drying time variation was investigated from one of that product. The characteristics of the coconut milk powders were investigated before and after agglomeration in terms of physical, morphological, handling and reconstitution properties.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Coconut milk powders based on the spray dried powder from three different countries. (Sample A, B, C and D). Maltodextrin (D-Perse 3) was purchased from Siam Modified Starch Co. Ltd Pathum Thani Thailand with dextrose equivalent (DE) value 12-15. Experimental 1. Fluidized Bed Agglomeration Agglomeration of the spray-dried coconut milk powders was performed in a topsprayed fluidized bed granulator and dryer (Strea-1, Fluid Bed Laboratory, AeromaticFielder AG, Bubendorf, Switzerland) with two liters vessel capacity. In this study, aqueous solutions of maltodextrin with DE value 12-15 were used as binders. Spray dried coconut milk was weighed at 200 gram was placed in the product container, and fluidized by means of an upward flowing air stream. The temperature of the inlet fluidizing air entering the bed was set at 50 C. The binder solution (maltodextrin 15% w/v) at 200 ml was fed by a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 8 ml/min to a two-fluid spray nozzle where the binder was sprayed onto the fluidized bed of the coconut milk powders. The air pressure on the nozzle was 0.15 MPa. During agglomeration, it was necessary to regularly increase the fluidizing air flow to maintain a good fluidization of the growing agglomerates. To study the effect of the drying time after fluidized, the product was dried for 0, 5, 10,15 and 20 min at a temperature of 50 C. Methods Of Analysis 1. Moisture contents Moisture content of the spray dried coconut milk powders was determined using AOAC methods(AOAC, 2000) 2. Particle size of powders For the agglomerated coconut milk powders, due to their much larger particle sizes, sieve analysis using a vibratory sieve shaker (Model Octagon Digital 2000, Endecotts Ltd., London, UK) with a series of eight sieves was used to determine their particle size distributions. The aperture sizes of sieves were 125, 180, 250, 355, 500, 710, 1000, and 1400 m. The agglomerated coconut milk powder (50 g) was put on the sieve‘s series and shaken at a vibration speed of 3,000 min-1 with a displacement‘s amplitude of approximately 3 mm for 15 min. In order to improve flowability of the powder through sieves were added by aluminum sodium silicate (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Germany) as a free flowing agent at a level of 1% (w/w) (Early, 1992). The geometric mean particle size and the geometric standard deviation of the agglomerated powders were determined by graphical method using a log-probability plot (Jinapong et al., 2008) 3. Density and porosity Bulk, Tapped and Particle density of the powder sample was analyzed according to A/S Niro Atomizer (1978). Porosity ( ) of the powder samples was determines by using the relationship between the tapped ( tapped) and particle ( particle) densities of the powder (Jinapong et al., 2008): 4. Flowability and cohesiveness Flowability and cohesiveness of the powder were evaluated in terms of Carr index (CI) (Carr, 1965) and Hausner ratio (HR) (Hausner, 1967), respectively. Classification of the flowability and cohesiveness of the powder based on the CI and HR values are represented by Carr, 1996 (Carr, 1965) and Hausner, 1967 (Hausner, 1967), respectively. 5. Scanning electron microscope The appearance, size, and shape of the agglomerated samples were investigated by placing the agglomerates on aluminum stubs using a double-sided adhesive tape. The samples were then coated with platinum and palladium blend and then were examined with

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a scanning electron microscope (SEM S-2500, Hitachi Science Systems, Ibaraki, Japan) operating at 15 kV accelerating voltage. 6. Wettability and dispersibility Wettability of the powder sample was determined according to A/S Niro Atomizer (Atomizer, 1978). An amount of distilled water (100 ml) at 40 1 C was poured into a 250 ml beaker. A glass funnel held on a ring stand was set over the beaker with the height between the bottom of the funnel and the water surface of 10 cm. A test tube was placed inside the funnel to block the lower opening of the funnel. The powder sample (10 g) was placed around the test tube and then the tube was lifted while the stop watch was started at the same time. Finally, the time was recorded for the powder to become completely wetted (visually assessed as when all the powder particles penetrated the surface of the water). Dispersibility measurement was performed according to the procedure described in A/S Niro Atomizer (Atomizer, 1978). Distilled water (100 ml), at 40 1 C, was poured into a 250 ml beaker. The powder (10 g) was added into the beaker. The stop watch was started and the sample was stirred vigorously with spoon for 15 s making 25 complete movements back and forth across the whole diameter of the beaker. The reconstituted solution was poured through a sieve (212 m). The sieved solution (10 ml) was transferred to a weighed and dried aluminum pan and dried for 4 h in a hot air oven at 105 1 C. The dispersibility of the powder was calculated as follows: % Dispersibility

(100

a ) x%TS 100 b a.x. 100

(1) Where a is the amount of powder (g) being used, b is the moisture content in the powder, and % TS is the dry matter in percentage in the reconstituted solution after it has been passed through the sieve. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Characteristics Of Commercial Coconut Milk Powders The properties of the commercial product from three different countries are showed in Table 1. All the product show poor in handling properties except in product D. Product C has good dispersibility but poor in flow and wettability. Even product C mention that the product is instant, however the wetting time is still longer time and dispersibility is less than 85 %. The recommended wetability of an instant whole milk powder is less than 15 s and dispersibility is more than 85% (Atomizer,1978). Table 1. Comparison of characteristic with commercial product of the coconut milk powders from three different countries Properties

Product A

Product B

Product C

Product D

Bulk density (g/cm3) Tapped density(g/cm3) Particle density(g/cm 3) Porosity (%)

0.32±0.01e 0.45±0.01d 1.43±0.23ab 68.18±5.27a

0.37±0.09c 0.47±0.00c 1.63±0.25a 70.57±3.97a

0.34±0.01d 0.46±0.01cd 0.79±0.03c 42.31±4.11c

0.52±0.01a 0.59±0.01a 0.72±0.05c 24.00±5.55d

1.55 ±0.05d 27.67±1.76a 1.38 ±0.03a 2876.67±112.29a 69.59±7.67b

2.80±0.12b 22.00±2.65b 1.28±0.04b 156.00±23.39d 70.89±14.64b

2.00±0.03c 24.11±1.11b 1.31±0.02b 2213.67±251.74b 94.89±3.75a

1.92±0.12e 12.18±1.08c 1.13± 0.01c 706.00±65.81c 95.98± 5.09a

Moisture content (%) Carr index, CI Hausner ratio, HR Wettability (s) Dispersibility (%)

Assays were performed in triplicate. Mean ± SD values in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (p≤ 0.05)

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B. Effect Of Fluidized Bed Agglomeration On The End Used Properties 1. Physical Properties Of Instant Coconut Milk Powders Physical properties of the agglomerated powders are presented in Table 2. After fluidized bed agglomeration, larger agglomerates were obtained with a geometric mean diameter ranged from 758.5 to 909.09 µm depending on the times of drying after fluidized. The size of the particle size distribution to be in good agreement with the log-normal distribution (R2 = 0.89 – 0.987). Table 2. Physical properties of agglomerated powders produced from spray dried powder (control) with different drying time Drying Bulk Tapped Particle Moisture Porosity Friability time density Density density (%) ( %) (%) 3 3 3 (min) (gr/cm ) (gr/cm ) (gr/cm ) ControlA 2.00±0.03d 0.35±0.01c 0.46±0.01b 0.79±0.03b 42.31±4.11b 0.00±0.00d 0 3.46±0.37a 0.50±0.01ab 0.55±0.00a 1.21±0.09a 54.29±3.32a 2.73±0.36b 5 2.99±0.31b 0.49±0.01ab 0.56±0.00a 1.32±0.08a 58.04±2.95a 2.74±0.10b 10 2.84±0.18bc 0.51±0.01a 0.57±0.01a 1.33±0.08a 57.10±0.96a 2.09±0.01c 15 2.54±0.17bc 0.48±0.01b 0.56±0.01a 1.29±0.02a 56.77±1.25a 2.88±0.13b 20 2.74±0.05bc 0.48±0.01b 0.56±0.01a 1.32±0.09a 57.55±2.55a 4.18±0.12a Assays were performed in triplicate. Mean ± SD values in the same column with different superscripts are significantly different (p≤ 0.05) A Control is a spray dried coconut milk powder without agglomerated (Product C) The physical properties of agglomerated coconut milk powders were significantly higher than spray dried coconut milk powders. These results indicated that particle size influence to the physical properties of the powders. The increasing of the particle size would effect to the increasing of the inter-granular porosities of the powders, thus resulting higher porosity and density (Jinapong et al., 2008). The increasing of drying time did not significantly affected to the physical properties of the agglomerated powders excepted moisture content and friability. The longer drying would be influence to the amount of outbound water in inter-granular of the agglomerated powders.(Buffo, Probst, Zehentbauer, Luo, & Reneccius, 2002). Whereas the friability decrease as the drying time was increased from 0 to 10 minutes, however the longer drying up to 20 minutes resulting more fragile agglomerates. The amount of outbound water would influence to solid bridge of the powders. The higher amount of the outbound water excess would influence to powders to easy to break due to week of the interfacial bond. While of the smaller of outbound the powders became tight and more fragile (Turchiuli et al., 2005) The optimum outbound water was sufficient to bond the powder together made solid bridge was indicated at 10 minutes due to the smallest of friability.

a

b

Figure 1. Scanning electron micrographs of coconut milk powders a) spray dried , b) agglomerated powders

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The morphology studies were investigated by scanning electron micrograph. The agglomerated coconut milk powders obtained in this study had a loose, porous structure and irregular shapes if compared to the spray dried coconut milk powders (Figure 1). 2. Handling And Reconstitution Properties Of The Agglomerated Powders The handling and reconstitution properties of the agglomerates obtained with variation of the drying time are presented in Table 3, respectively. All cases, the Carr index (CI) and Hausner Ratio (HR) of the agglomerates were significantly lower than spray-dried powder due to affect of size enlargement. As particle size increased, surface area of per unit mass of powder decrease. There is less surface area between powder particles available for cohesive forces and frictional force to resist to flow (Fitzpatrick el al., 2006). However, the longer drying times had no significant effect on the CI and HR of the agglomerates. From the reconstitution properties data (Table 3), the wettability of the powders improved from the wetting time of 2213 s for spray dried powder to satisfactory level ranged from 7 to 8 for agglomerated obtained from variation of drying time. The recommended wettability value of dried milk product is less than 15 s (Sorensen et al., 1978). The size enlargement by agglomeration not only increases the rate of water penetration into space between agglomerates, but also the capillary – driven flow of water penetration into the fine pores within agglomerates and consequently shortens the wetting time(Schubert, 1993). The dispersibility of agglomerates powder had significantly lower than spray dried. This possibility due to agglomerates powders had low friability. Water penetrates into the intra-particulate pores of the strong bonding material between the primary particles that requires a longer time to dissolve and weaken.(Vu et al., 2003) It may possibility that agglomerates powders have good wettability but poor dispersibility. Table 3. Flow characteristic (Carr index, CI, and Hausner ratio, HR) and reconstitution properties of agglomerated coconut milk powders produced from spray dried powder (control) with different drying time HR CI (%) Wettability (s) Dispersibility Drying time (min) (%) ControlA 1.32±0.21a 24.11±1.11a 2213.66±251.75a 94.89±3.75a 0 1.10±0.01d 9.75±0.35d 7.00±1.41b 59.72±0.71d cd cd b 5 1.13±0.14 11.50±0.71 8.00±1.41 64.39±1.89bc d c b 10 1.11±0.00 10.00±0.00 7.00±1.41 67.10±1.97b bc b b 15 1.17±0.14 14.50±0.71 7.50±2.12 62.05±0.10cd b b b 20 1.15±0.01 13.33±0.58 8.00±2.82 63.53±1.43bc Assays were performed in triplicate. Mean ± SD values in the same column with different superscripts are significantly different (p≤ 0.05) A Control is a spray dried coconut milk powder without agglomerated (Product C) CONCLUSIONS It is possible to produce instant coconut milk powders by agglomeration from spray dried coconut milk powders. The commercial product of spray dried coconut milk powders shows not instant. Size enlargement by fluidized bed agglomeration rendered the agglomerated coconut milk powders with an improved end used properties of the coconut milk powders. The drying time at 10 min was the best condition due to the lowest friability while the other properties were not significantly different.

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REFERENCES AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. Gaithersburg: AOAC International . Atomizer, A. S. N. (1978). Analytical Methods for Milk Products (4 ed.). Copenhagen, Denmark. Buffo, R. A., Probst, K., Zehentbauer, G., Luo, Z., & Reneccius, G. A. (2002). Effect of Agglomeration on the Properties of Spray-Dried Encapsulation Flavour. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 17(4), 292299. Carr, R. L. (1965). Evaluating flow properties of solids. Chemical Engineering 72, 163-168. Early, R. (1992). The technology of dairy products Glascow, UK: Blackie and Son Ltd. Fitzpatrick, J. J., Iqbal, T., Delaney, C., Twomey, T., & Keogh, M. K. (2006). Effect of powder properties and storage condition on the flowability of milk powder with different fat contents. Journal of Food Engineering, 64, 435-444. Hausner, H. H. (1967). Friction condition in a mass of metal powder. Int. J. Powder Metall. , 3, 7-13. Jinapong, N., Suphantharika, M., & Jamnong, P. (2008). Production of instant soymilk powders by ultrafiltration, spray drying and fluidized bed agglomeration. Journal of Food Engineering, 84, 194205. Schubert, H. (1993). Instantization of of powdered food product. International Chemical Engineering, 33, 28-45. Seow, C. C., & Gwee, C. N. (1997). Coconut milk: chemistry and technology. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 32, 189-201. Sorensen, I. H., Krag, J., Pisecky, J., & Westergaard, V. (1978). Analytical Methods for Dry Milk Products. Copenhagen: A/S NIRO ATOMIZER. Turchiuli, C., Eloualia, Z., El Mansouri, N., & Dumoulin, E. (2005). Fluidized bed Agglomerates shape and end-use properties. Powder Technology, 157, 168-175.

agglomeration:

Vu, T. O., Galet, L., Fages, J., & Oulahna, D. (2003). Improving the dispersibility the dispersion kinetics of cocoa powder by size enlargement. Powder Technology, 130, 400 -406.

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FOOD SAFETY AND FOOD SECURITY IN THE YOUNG LAMB SLAUGHTERED: CASE STUDY IN BREBES REGENCY ABATTOIR A. Prasetyo and D. Nugraheni Assesment Institute Agricultural Technology Central Java, Bukit Tegalepek, Sidomulyo, Ungaran PO BOX 101 Ungaran, Telp. (024) 6924965, Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT Research was done to assess the safety and food security in sheep and goat meat slaughtered in young age at Brebes Regency abattoir in 2009. The research method is observation and surveys directly to a, the excavation of primary and secondary data from relevant agencies, survey data were analyzed descriptively. Meat samples taken at slaughter to determine the number of bacteria in fresh meat of sheep then calculated by the method Total Plate Count (TPC) with a medium nutrient agar. Log total count bacterial collection of samples on sheep meat slaughtered in abbatoir 4.20 – 4.6 log CFU /25 cm2. Average carcass weight of sheep slaughtered in abbatoir of Ketanggungan Sub Sub District, Brebes Regency is 6.76 kg to slaughter weight is 9.80 kg, with such slaughter weight lambs age range 5-8 months. Trend slaughter young sheep and goats for consumption on goat ―sate‖ stall in the community will indirectly affect the population of sheep and goats decreased, because the slaughter age of sheep and goats have not been productive or not sexual maturity and body. The result of trend analysis of the sheep population in the Brebes Regency for 14 years is still positive as much as 2.15%. It can be concluded that the risk of bacterial contamination and other contaminant materials are very high in abbatoir which are not hiegienis slaughtering practices. Origin of food safety of meat, especially lamb there is a tendency to decrease when people are still eating the young lamb, although population growth is still positive. Keywords: Food safety, Food security, Sheep meats, Slaughter; Hiegienis

INTRODUCTION Food security has been defined as: ―The state in which all person obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally acceptable, safe food regularly through local nonemergency sources‖ (Harriet et al. 2010). This defined includes 4 key components: economic access to food (enough money to buy appropriate food); physical access to food (range and quality of food is transport means); food that is safe, appropriate, and necessary for healthful life (including social and cultural appropiateness); and having a perceived sustainable supplay of food (Dowler, 1998). Food hygiene has been defined: ―free contaminants, maximum residue levels for pesticides, use of food additives, materials and articles in contact with foodstuffs, food irradiation, and radioactivity‖. Older people‘s access to healthful food is vital, given that a healthful diet is key component in the prevention of chronic diseases. In addition poor nutrition resulting from low-quality food, unhygienic food or unreliable food intake may lead to ill health. Brebes regency have been special abattoir for sheep, but the slaughter procedures, facilities, infrastructure and water for washing were not hygienic. Sheep are slaughtered every day is still relatively young age to meet the consumer demand society that many young goat sells as ―sate‖.The process is not hygienic slaughter and preparation of fresh meat in the traditional markets that are less hygienic very risky against bacterial contamination. Habits of young sheep slaughtered in a sustainable manner will also reduce the sheep populationin the long term. The purpose of this study was therefore to know the

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amount of bacteria contaminant in meat sheep and to investigate the reason of unhigyiene meat consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS Survey to determine the safety and food security in Brebes regency have been conducted in October 2009. Primary data were collected with 25 samples of meat carcasses of sheep were randomly each group in the abattoir of Ketanggungan Sub District . The secondary data obtained by literature study on the agency of Statistics and related technical services. Sheep population growth was analyzed using regression methods by Riethmuller (1999), i.e. ln (y) = a + bt, where t is the years from 1995 through to 2009. The meat microbial contents are calculated by Total Plate Count (TPC) method with a nutrient agar medium. Samples of 10 g homogenized meat dissolved in 90 ml 0.1% peptone solution that has been sterilized. Prepare 4 tubes, each filled with 9 ml sterile peptone solution for dilution up to 10-5. At the dilution tube to-4 inoculated into the petri dish (15 ml) for sterile and surface flattened with a glass stick. Petri dish and then incubated at 35-37 ° C for 12-24 hours. Colonies of bacteria in the cup was calculated (FAO, 2007). Analysis of data of bacterial counts were transformed to log values and arranged as sets of 25 values for counts of one group of organisms collected by one person from standard deviation (SD) of the set were calculated on the assumption of a log normal distribution of the bacterial counts (Brown. 1982). For those calculations, a value of −0.5 log CFU/cm2 or 100 cm2 was assumed for counts of zero. A Shapiro-Wilk test for normal distribution was applied to each set of log values for which the mean log and SD were calculated. Mean log values were separated using a Tukey test. Log mean values (log A) were calculated from the formula log A = + logn10.SD2/2 (Kilsby. 1981). The log of the total number of bacteria recovered (n) was calculated for each group of 25 counts by transforming the sum of the counts to a log value.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results sheep carcass meat sample collection to determine the number of bacteria in meat sheep in the abattoir showed bacteria that contaminate the surface of lamb carcasses is high enough, is shown in (Table 1). The process of slaughter and hygienic environment that is not a major factor in contamination by bacteria. Pathogens that contaminate meat can be spread throughout the meat at various stages of meat handling and through various avenues. Microbes in animal carcasses, especially bacteria, which comes from the animal itself (skin, hair, gastrointestinal tract, etc.), farm environment (food, water, soil, animal waste) and abattoir environment (equipment, water and labor). The number of bacteria on carcasses of healthy animals around 101-103 colony/inch2 meat. Special Abattoir goats and sheep in the Sub District of Ketanggungan, Brebes cutting the number of sheep with 40 individuals each day. Most of the age of sheep slaughtered relatively young with old pieces of 5-8 months. The aim is to cut young lamb ―sate‖ lamb meat business and a small portion sold at traditional markets directly adjacent to the abattoir.

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TABLE 1. Statistics for sets of 25 total aerobic counts recovered from samples obtained by each of five persons from each carcass in groups of 25 sheep carcasses Sheep Carcass 1 5 7 8 9

Log total counts (log CFU/25 cm2) 4.46A 4.43A 4.20A 4.60A 4.29A

Log mean (log CFU/cm2) 2.34 2.00 1.98 2.45 2.07

Mean of log counts. For each group of five sets of counts, mean values with the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05).

Financial analysis of lamb sold in the fresh meat and ―sate‖, showed that sold in processed form sate has a bigger advantage with the B / C ratio of 1:21 (Table 2), so the majority of young sheep cutting business to be presented in a refined young goat ―sate‖. TABLE 2. Financial analysis of lamb cuts sold fresh meat and "sate" Description The number of sheep (age 5-8 months) Skind price, Rp. Head price, Rp. Foot price, Rp Vicera price (intestine & rumen) Rib bone price, Rp Slaugther weight, Kg Carcass weight, Kg Carcass meat weight, Kg Sale ―sate‖ 1 kg meat, 60 pin (3 kodi) Total revenue : - Fresh meat sale - ―Sate‖ sale Cost : Slaughtering cost in abattoir/head Purchase price of sheep /head

Unit 1 1 1 4 1 1 9,804 6,76 3,97 11,91

Price(Rp)

Total

22.000 24.000 10.000 25.000 25.000

106.000

60.000 30.000

238.200 357.300 344.200 463.300 9.500 200.000 209.500

Benefit : - Fresh meat sale - ―Sate‖ sale B/C ratio of meat B/C ratio of ―sate‖

134.700 253.800 0,64 1,21

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Table 3. Sheep Population Growth Trends Over the Last 14 Years in Brebes

b : pertumbuhan ternak (%) 246

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Conditions that affect the validity of data that is: cattle population counting techniques with prediction method; cutting out abattoir sheep that is at home resident at the time of the holiday "Idul-Adha", so it is not listed; infrastructure facilities abattoir sheep and goats are less so inclined people cut the sheep and goats at home. Livestock census is required by the government so that the known population of livestock in real terms and obtained the validity of statistical data. Sheep population growth in Brebes still considered safe in terms of food security, data analysis shows positive growth trend of 2.15% over the past 14 years, are shown in Table 3. Trend in young sheep slaughter continually feared a decline in population in the long run, because the lamb pieces age 5-8 months is not productive, it means the sheep production cycle is interrupted in Brebes Regency and surrounding Sub Districts who are still doing cutting young sheep. Necessary regulatory and government policies that regulate and socialized animals slaughtered in a holistic manner. Necessary support domestic industrial technology with culture-specific approach and apply good public awareness of the practical management of sheep farming to processing and marketing of environmentally sound and health.

CONCLUSION Special Abattoir sheep in Brebes in the slaughter process has not been noticed since the hygienic aspects of livestock, equipment, abattoir environment and workers so that bacterial contamination is relatively high at log total count 4.2 - 4.6 log CFU/25 cm2. Judging from the trend of population growth in sheep for 14 years showed a positive value of 2.15%, in terms of food security is safe but the trend of slaughter young lamb to keep going because the business was profitable. This condition will reduce the sheep population in the long term so that the necessary regulations from the government. The importance of awareness of business actors in implementing good management practices and technology of sheep farming to processing and marketing of industrial-scale health-minded household.

REFERENCES Harriet Radermacher, Susan Feldman and Stephen Bird. 2010. Food security in older Australins from different cultural backgrounds. Journal of Nutritional Education and Behavior, 42:5,328 – 336. Brebes Dalam Angka. 1995 – 2009. Biro Pusat Statistis Jawa Tengah bekerja sama dengan Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Brebes. Brown, M. H., and A. C. Baird-Parker. 1982. The microbiological examination of meat, p. 423–520. In M. H. Brown (ed.), Meat microbiology. Applied Science Publishers, London. Dowler E. 1998. Food as a utility: ensuring food security for all. Consumer Policy Review. 8:162. FAO. 2008. Meat Processing Technology. FAO Regional Officer for Asia and the Pacific (RAP). Bangkok. Kilsby, D. C., and M. E. Pugh. 1981. The relevance of the distribution of microorganisms within batches of food to the control of microbiological hazards from foods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 51:345–354. Paul Riethmuller. 1999. The Indonesia Feed and Livestock Sector. A Statistic Overview. Departement of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane,Australia.

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THE ASSESSMENT OF FATTENING SHEEP FED CONCENTRATE INGREDIENTS WITH ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND Amrih Prasetyo, Kendriyanto and Sarjana Assesment Institute Agricultural Technology Central Java, Bukit Tegalepek, Sidomulyo, Ungaran PO BOX 101 Ungaran, telp. (024) 6924965, Email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT The assessment of fattening sheep fed concentrate ingredients with environmentally sound were examined. Assessments conducted in the village Canggal, Candiroto Sub District, Temanggung Regency in 2009. Twenty four young rams body weight (BW) 21.96 kg (sd ± 3.77) were used simultaneously and offered feed at maintenance with three month of fattening period of individual cages. The treatments were dry soyabean hulls, dry casava waste, dry corn gluten feed, and forage hay. The digestibility of concentrate increased by fermenting probiotics. The average daily weight gain of fattening sheep is 116.55 g. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were measured. The sheep manure was processed into liquid and solid organic fertilizer as a added value income of farmers. Concentrated fermentation with probiotics can improve digestibility and affected on odorless of sheep manure. Sheep had a significant effect on the digestibilities of CP (P < 0.05) and NDF (P < 0.001) only. It is concluded that the digestibility values of concentrate ingredients derived in maintenance fed sheep are applicable to maintenance-fed. Feed fermentation may increase the digestibility and N utilization efficiency and ultimately reduce ammonia emissions. Keywords: Concentrates;Digestibility in vivo;Sheep; Environmentally sound

INTRODUCTION The assessment of fattening sheep fed concentrate ingredients is new information for farmer. The fermented concentrate and hay will increase feed intake and digestibility so expect rapid weight gain will be during the period of fattening.Effect of fermented feed with probiotics on feed increased feed efficiency, against the faeces was loss of odor so it does not disturb the environment. Cage design that governs shelters separate solid and liquid faeces, then the solid feaces processed into solid fertilizer and sheep urine processed into liquid fertilizer. It is estimated that 50 to 75% nitrogen released livestock, lost before the cage is cleaned (Eghball and Power, 1994), because the urea is converted to ammonia nitrogen quickly accompany expenditure (Mobley and Hausinger, 1989). Given 97% of the nitrogen in urine is urea (Mackie et al. 1998), then the transfer of nitrogen excretion from urine to faeces accounted able to reduce ammonia lost to the environment. Many feed evaluation systems use the digestibility data derived from the use of sheep offered feed at approximately maintenance energy level. Previous reports have shown that the digestive efficiency is affected by the level of feed consumption (El Khidir and Vestergaard Thomsen, 1983). In many of these reports, forages and mixed diets were used, and there is little information available on the effect of intake on the digestibilities of individual concentrate ingredients. Zinn et al. (1995) reported a decline of 12 g kg -1 in organic matter digestibility (OMD) of a diet with 75% dry, rolled maize grain when intake by sheeps was increased from 0.48 to 0.71 kg of dry matter (DM) per day. 248

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MATERIALS AND METHODS Assessmentsconducted in the village Canggal, Candiroto District, Temanggung Regency in 2009. Sheeps and diets: Twenty four ―Domba Ekor Tipis‖ cross wether sheep were used. The sheep were 10 – 12 months old and weighed 21.96 kg (sd 3.77), at the start of the experiment. All sheep were individually accommodated in metabolism crates throughout the course of the experiment.Sheep were adapted to a diet consisting of 0.6 kg concentrate and 0.4 kg grass hay for 3 weeks prior to the commencement of the experiment. Sheep were fed diets with high proportions of concentrates for approximately 3 months prior to the commencement of this experiment. The treatments were dry soyabean hulls, dry casava waste, dry corn gluten feed, and forage hay. The digestibility of concentrate increased by fermenting probiotics.The average daily weight gain of fattening sheep collection two week. Concentrate ingredients were offered in two meals daily at an approximated maintenance allowance of metabolisable energy (ME) at a hay to concentrate ratio of 40 : 60. All sheep had free access to water. Ten days adaptation were allowed prior to faeces collection for sheep, respectively. In vivo digestibility: Faeces samples were collected over 10 days from sheep (one collection daily). The digestibility of a 9 : 1 mixture of a hay : concentrate meal offered at approximately maintenance energy allowance was measured. For concentrate meal, the mean digestibilities of five samples measured with sheep under similar circumstances as in this experiment were used (Mulligan, 1997). The digestibility of hay was calculated by difference. Using this estimate of hay digestibility, the digestibilities of the concentrate ingredients were calculated by difference. All feed allowances for sheep during the 10 day faecal collection period were weighed at the same time in advance, and were sampled during weighing. Orts were collected when present and DM concentration determined. Total faecal output was dried for sheep each day. Chemical analysis DM was measured by drying samples at 40 °C for 2 days. In vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) was assessed by the method of Tilley and Terry (1963). Ash was measured using a muffle furnace, according to European Communities (1984). Crude protein (CP) content was determined using a Leco FP-428, according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1990). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) analysis was performed according to the method of Van Soest et al. (1991). Acid detergent fibre (ADF) analyses were determined according to the method of Van Soest (1973). Gross energy (GE) was measured in a Parr 1281 isoperibol bomb calorimeter (Parr Instrument Company, Moline, IL, USA). Oil B (OB) was measured according to Method B of European Communities (1984). Statistical analysis

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Data were analysed by ANOVA using the general linear models (GLM) procedure of SAS (Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, 1989). The model used had sheep and ingredient as the main effects. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The chemical compositions of the feedstuffs used are given in Table 1, there were soyabean hulls, dry casava waste, corn gluten feed, rice brand and forage hay. Table 1. Chemical compositions (g kg-1 DM) and in vitro digestibility (g kg-1) of hay and concentrate ingredients, with the average in vivo digestibility values of hay for sheep in parentheses. Chemical compositions Dry matter Crude protein Organic matter Gross energy (MJ kg-1 DM) Neutral detergent fibre Acid detergent fibre DM digestibility in vitro

Soyabean hulls 866.1 125.2 947.8 17.55 719.9 554.1 848.0

Corn gluten feed 866.4 230.7 931.2 19.12 450.3 120.8 859.0

Casava waste 877.3 105.5 933.2 18.53 642.6 412.5 789.0

Rice Brand

Forage hay

870.8 225.4 938.2 19.18 490.8 225.4 867.0

883.4 100.8 925.5 17.81 622.6 367.7 663.0

The range in CP was 125.2 – 230.7 g kg-1 and the range in NDF and ADF contents of feeds were 450.3 – 719.9 and 120.8 – 554.1 g kg-1, respectively. Table 2. DM intake (g per day) of concentrate ingredients, with sd in parentheses Concentrate Soyabean hulls Corn gluten feed Casava waste Rice Brand

Concentrate intake 560 (70.0) 590 (0.2) 600 (0.4) 580 (2.0)

Hay intake 100 (10.0) 110 (1.0) 110 (0.2) 110 (0.4)

The DM intakes of the concentrates and hay are given in Table 2. The amount of orts was very low for the sheep offered feed at maintenance. Results presented here are not in agreement with these findings for DM, OM and ADF, but are in agreement with those obtained for CP and NDF. Sheep digested CP better for some of the feeds. It has also been shown that there was a significant sheep when the digestibility of DM was measured in hay (Table 3). Table 3. Dry matter digestibility (DMD) (g kg-1) of concentrate ingredients in sheep fed at maintenance. Ingredient Soya bean hulls Corn gluten feed Casava waste Rice Brand Maintenance feeding Sheep Ingredient Sheep x ingredient interaction

Sheep 781.5 710.5 707.7 794.7 Significance NS *** NS

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This promotes lower digestibilities for sheep fed on lower quality diets. The results of this study with concentrate ingredients confirm this to a certain extent because there was evidence that sheep were poorer fibre (NDF) digesters. Table 4. Organic matter digestibility (OMD) (g kg-1) of concentrate ingredients in sheep fed at maintenance Ingredient Sheep Soya bean hulls 794.4 Corn gluten feed 746.0 Casava waste 721.7 Rice Brand 804.0 Maintenance feeding Significance sed Sheep NS 9.45 Ingredient *** 16.37 Sheep x ingredient interaction NS 23.15 Table 5. Crude protein digestibility (CPD) (g kg -1) of concentrate ingredients in sheep fed at maintenance Ingredient Sheep Soya bean hulls 471.4 Corn gluten feed 714.0 Casava waste 571.7 Rice Brand 681.8 Maintenance feeding Significance sed Sheep * 16.70 Ingredient *** 28.93 Sheep x ingredient interaction * 40.91 Table 6. Gross energy digestibility (GED) (MJ kg-1) of concentrate ingredients in cattle or sheep fed at maintenance Ingredient Sheep Soya bean hulls 765.0 Corn gluten feed 737.1 Casava waste 683.5 Rice Brand 728.4 Maintenance feeding Significance sed Sheep NS 8.20 Ingredient *** 13.89 Sheep x ingredient interaction NS 19.65 Faeces contain metabolic products as well as the undigested food when measuring digestibility in vivo (Van Soest, 1994). These metabolic products are not present when similar measurements are made in vitro. The large overestimation is important as laboratory results are widely used to evaluate ingredients. The variation in the size of the overestimate is also important as it could affect the relative values assigned to ingredients.

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Table 7. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility (NDFD) (g kg-1) of concentrate ingredients in sheep fed at maintenance. Ingredient Sheep Soya bean hulls 849.9 Corn gluten feed 697.2 Casava waste 772.1 Rice Brand 652.4 Maintenance feeding Significance sed Sheep *** 10.87 Ingredient *** 18.83 Sheep x ingredient interaction ** 26.62 In general, an increase in the level of feeding in the basal diet results in a decrease in digestibility due to a decrease in rumen retention time and an increase in outflow rates of nutrients from the rumen to the small intestine. Found a decrease of four units in DMD when the feeding level of a mixed diet was increased from maintenance in sheep. There is a deficit of information available on the effect of intake level on the DM digestibility of individual concentrate ingredients, but in general, it seems to be in the same range as for forages and mixed diets. Table 8. Acid detergent fibre digestibility (ADFD) (g kg -1) of concentrate ingredients in sheep fed at maintenance. Ingredient Sheep Soya bean hulls 826.2 Corn gluten feed 614.2 Casava waste 686.0 Rice Brand 582.4 Maintenance feeding Significance sed Sheep NS 23.45 Ingredient *** 39.53 Sheep x ingredient interaction NS 55.91 The type of ingredient significantly affected the digestibilities of DM, OM, DOM, CP, GE, NDF and ADF (P < 0.001). Benefit fattening sheep: Sheep 3 month period of maitenance with average first weighed 21.96 kg and last weighed 32.45 kg, weight added 10.49 kg ADG were 116.65 g. Price of weight sheep were Rp. 30.000/kg, feed intake price Rp. 1.200/kg x 1 kg x 24 ekor x 90 days were Rp. 108.000/ heads each day. The sale value of sheep fattening were Rp. 314.700/heads, and Profit of sheep fattening were Rp. 206.700/heads. Benefit from manure processing of fattening period were Rp. 175.000. Nitrogen or protein that the body is wasted from cattle in the form of feces and urine are influenced by several factors such as weight gain, protein intake, quality protein, rumen degradable protein (RDP), rumen undegradable protein (RUP), binding protein intake (BIP) and the ratio of protein to energy (gross energy, GE in Mega Joules; MJ) (GPK / MJ GE) in feed (Refsdal et al., 1985). 252

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CONCLUSION The digestibilities of DM, OM, DOM, GE and ADF in concentrate ingredients derived by the use of sheep are applicable for all concentrates examined in this study. However, due to significant differences being observed when CP and NDF digestibilities were examined, digestibility values for these coefficients in sheep. ADG of fattening sheep were 116.65 g and profit value of fattening sheep were Rp. 206.700/heads. Benefit from manure processing of fattening period were Rp. 175.000. The benefit of fattening sheep base concentrat feed is standar protein content in feed for eficiency product of good and control nitrogen loss to environment.

REFERENCES Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed., AOAC, Washington, DC, USA. European Communities (EC), (marketing of feedstuffs) regulations, 1984. Statutory instruments. S.I. No. 200 of 1984. Eghball, B., and J.F. Power. 1994. Beef cattle feedlot manure management. J. Soil Water Cons. 49: 113 – 122. Mackie, R.I., P.G. Stroot, and V.H. Varel. 1998. Biochemical identification and biological origin of key odor component in livestock waste. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1331 – 1342. Mobley, H.L.T., and R.P. Hausinger. 1989. Microbial ureases: Significance, regulation, and molecular characterization. Microbiol. Rev. 53:85 – 108. Mulligan, F.J., 1997. The in vivo digestibility of ruminant feed ingredients.University College Dublin, Dublin, 188 pp. El Khidir, O.A., Vestergaard Thomsen, K. 1983. Effect of intake on digestibility of plant cell walls and cell contents of complete diets for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 9, 197 – 204. Refsdal, A.O., L. Baevre and R. Bruflot. 1985. Urea concentration in bulk milk as an indicator of the protein supplay at herd level. Acta Vet. Scand. 26: 153 – 163. Tilley, J.M.A., Terry, R.A., 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassl. Soc. 18, 104 – 111. Van Soest, P.J., 1973. Collaborative study of acid detergent fibre and lignin. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 56, 781. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583 – 3597. Zinn, R.A., Adam, C.F., Tamayo, M.S., 1995. Interaction of feed intake level on comparative ruminal and total tract digestion of dry-rolled and steam-flaked corn. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 1239 – 1245.

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POTENTIAL DANGER OF TRADITIONAL SALADS OF WEST JAVA Darmadi Goenarso Catering Industry Management Study Program – The Faculty of Social Science Education The University of Education Indonesia [UPI-Bandung],Jalan. Dr. Setiabudi, Bandung Email: [email protected], Cell Phone: 0818209834

ABSTRACT Karedok and Rujak Bebek are traditional salads of West Java. People eat the fresh vegetable together with the main meal (rice). Apparently, these cuisines are classified as generally recognized as safe, though the safety of those raw salads may be crucial. This study reveals the hazard potentials of them due to problems on clean water supply. Apart from that, insecticides application is a common practice in the farm. Its residues may be found on them. Consequently, it threatens consumer‘s health. Safety precautions should be established to protect consumers from intoxication. Such as, selection of the materials source, good agricultural practice, quality of vegetables and fruits, good handling from farm to fork, good hygiene of the food handlers, food stalls and vendors. Fresh salads should be washed and sanitized properly. Keywords: Health risks, Traditional cuisine, West java.

INTRODUCTION Men need food for their lives. Having safe foods daily for wealthy people are not becomes a problem. Average people in big cities have meal at simple food stalls. Most people choose more to its taste rather than the safety. In big cities, food stall along street edges with heavy traffic are very common. They offer cheap daily meal. It is processed only by cooking [boiling, frying, and roasted on fire wood], some with spicy ingredient. Apparently, cooking and other food processing is not really meant to produce safe food, but simply for being able to consume and giving better tastes. Some people are not really concern on safe food. However, they are not familiar with HACCP (Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points] in food handling) (1). Commonly, people are fond of fresh food. It is believed contain more vitamins. The simplest way to consume fresh or raw food [vegetables] is only through washing in clean water. It retains the vitamins and sounds healthier rather than cooked food. The problem appears, and even more severe in dry season, as clean water supply is very limited. People of West Java, called as Sundanese are fond of raw salads for their meals. It is characterized with its freshness. Raw vegetables for rural people are usually harvested directly from their own yards. Sundanese - local people of West Java – take salads after stick it in ―sambal terasi‖ [shrimp chili paste] during their meal. Some prefer blanched, others like raw salad. Fresh salad washed or immersed, hopefully in cooked water. They provide water from deep wells. It is used for cooking, drinking and clothe washing. People live in rural areas close to rivers, may safe well waters only for cooking [food and drink]. When in drought, river water used for all their needs, include washing and drinking (2). The aim of this study is to reveal the hazard potential of fresh salads by means of observations at several places in Bandung City. It is known that clean water is not always

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provided at some place. Besides, contamination on raw materials is most likely to occur due to farming practice through chemical insecticides and fertilizers. The traditional cuisine of West Java among others named as ‗‘KAREDOK‘‘ or ‗‘LOTEK‘‘ is very popular. This is a mixed fresh vegetable in spicy peanut sauce. Usually the people take it together with the big meal or warm rice during their lunch. Another popular kind of cuisine named as ‗‘RUJAK‖, consists of unripe fruit slices with pungent sauce. Commonly, they take it separate from the main meal. They may eat after dipped it in thick syrup of coconut sugar mixed with small chili. They might also eat the sliced fruits with only salt and mashed chili or dipped in mixed chili soy sauce. The specific one is called RUJAK TUMBUK, mashed fruits in peanut sauce. Often have pungent taste, depends on how many small chili [cabe rawit] are mixed in the sauce.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Data Collections The investigation is still on going. Data gained through observations at food stalls in the city. Some of them are moving vendors, using wheel carts or carrying materials on shoulder. Clean water availability, cleanliness of utensils and area, handlers‘ hygienic habit are the main concern of the investigations.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Location and water supply Commonly they are at a place or close to high public activity, such as public transport terminals, traditional markets, in front of university campuses or dormitories and schools, hospitals, under the Flyover Bridge, etc. Some are moving around and stay momentarily at any place that is not suitable for eating. No legal reports on the number and place of this type of cuisines‘ stalls. It might due to its type food, regarded as GRAS. A total number of 47 vendors of ‗Karedok‘ and ‗Rujak Tumbuk‘ found at several places in the city of Bandung. Some are offering both type at a place, but some are serving ‗Rujak Tumbuk‘ only. Some Karedok servers have food stalls in front of their homes (20 sites); the rests use wheel carts though it is still at certain place. Among 18 of Rujak‘s vendors, four of them used wheel carts and the rest carry the rujak‘s materials on shoulder. However, all of them are moving around, though each has certain area for offering it. Water for washing raw materials and utensils supplied from deep wells at their homes. Moving vendors that carry its materials on shoulder never bring along with them water container. How is it served Karedok or Lotek Atah [atah, sundanese = raw, uncooked], is the specialties in West Java, made of fresh vegetables. It is a mixed of fresh cut vegetables, and basil for extra taste. Fried peanut and other spices crushed on a mortar after rinse it with warm cooked water, to make the sauce. Vegetables are then mixed with the sauce. Finally, fried flour chips put on top. Several kinds of vegetables are found in the karedok, such as

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cabbage, cucumber, bean sprouts, cabbage, legumes, round-green eggplant [Terong bundar]. Rujak. It is known several kinds of rujak. There are immersed, dipped, shredded and mashed rujak. Common dipping rujak, as fresh fruit pieces are dipped in sticky sweet hot sauce, before being eaten. ―Rujak cuka‖, small cut fruits immersed in mixed vinegar sauce. It tastes hot and sour. Rujak serut, shredded mix fruits in a little liquid sauce. Most of them consist of several kinds of unripe fruits. The kinds of fruits depend on the availability during the season. In addition to fruits it may contain tubers as well. The hot sweet sauce for dipping, immersing or mixing the fruit slices is the main part of rujak. The people may also take these kind of raw salads with mixed salt and shredded chili only. Rujak Tumbuk [Tumbuk, Sundanese = beat, crush, mash], or mashed fruit salad is a specific kind of rujak. Fresh small cut fruits and fried peanut are mashed together in a wooden mortar and pestle. They wash or rinse mortar and pestle only once a day with any kind of water that expected to be clean. Vendor carries their materials (raw vegetables, fruits and utensils) on their shoulders or using a wheel cart. Kind of fruits may consist of mango, star fruits, pineapple, kedondong (plum-like fruit), sweet potato, etc. Fried peanut sauce and fruit slices are mashed together in a wooden mortar. The sauce itself consists of fried peanuts, chili, salt, and other spices. It is then served on plastic plates or plastic cup or may be put on banana leaves. Mortar and pestle never been washed before and after the process of serving. They serve with neither using hand gloves nor hands washed. It seems that these traditional cuisines categorized as ―GRAS‖ [Generally Recognized as Safe]. No reported case whatsoever on any serious illness after consuming Rujak and/ or Karedok [uncooked mixed salads]. The most likely occur is light diarrhea to those who are not familiar with hot chili. Some food carts for this kind of cuisine are covered partly to protect from dust. Commonly, the people are not aware of any kind of hazards in it, either microbiological or chemical or both. People like this popular cuisine which has a sweet-sour taste and full of C vitamin. Hazard Potentials Concerning the safety of these cuisines might be related to biological, physical and chemical hazards (7). It is obvious that physical hazard might arise due to wooden mortar and pestle. Air, water and soil are the sources of biological and chemical hazards. The initial quality of raw materials is mostly relying on the agricultural practice. Since insecticide and fertilizer applications on fruits and vegetables are very common. It is not surprising when its residues found on vegetables. Chemical analysis was not done during the study. However, issues of it have already been reported and still become problems. Recent news mentioned that exported vegetables and potato from Sumatra Island were rejected as insecticide residues found on them (3). It is reported as well (June 2010), that in Cirebon-West Java, around 70 hectares of rice field sprayed with insecticide to get rid of certain insect (4). The application of bio-insecticides or insect repellant is not popular. Though, bio-insecticides are known to be more biodegradable rather than chemical substances. Water for spraying the vegetables, might be supplied from near by rice fields, gutters and creeks or irrigation water, which most likely are polluted water. Besides, surface water may also contain heavy metals from industrial area and combustion vehicles. It seems that these issues are beyond the traders‘ knowledge. Commonly, they purchase raw materials at traditional markets that are not guaranteed safe.

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As the vendors may stay, even for awhile, at the unsuitable location for offering their salads, it may cause to food contamination from the surroundings. Clean water for cooking and washing Clean water in Jakarta is polluted up to 100% by coli-form bacteria; 5 to 57 % of potable water is contaminated by coli form and E. coli (5). As the water used for washing fresh vegetables, some bacteria may be found on raw materials (8). The source of water for clean water production at some areas is still become a problem. Around 23.47 percent of 1.5 million people in West Regency of Bandung area have not been able to use clean water for their daily needs. For the rest of them it is supplied from deep wells, spring waters and local drinking water company (6). Commonly, drinking water is supplied by the Local Drinking Water Company. However, it is not likely to be potable water. Besides, there are drinking water suppliers or depots, some with legal trade marks, some are not. Water depots provide refill drinking water in gallons. In Depok City – South of Jakarta – was found bacteria in drinking water at some refill depots (7). Some people in Bekasi City, West Java, are still using river water for daily washings and other needs. Unfortunately, it contains E.coli bacteria and pollutants from industrial waste, such as, sulfates, nitrates, ammonia, iron and manganese(2). However, those are surely not suitable for fresh fruits and salads washing. It was reported that up to 50% of clean water sample contains chemical pollutants (5). Among those salad handlers that are found in the city (total 47), only 7 are provided with clean water from the clean water company. The rest of them might be able to obtain clean water from deep well or buy it from clean water depot. Solutions For Safety Protection Safety procedures should be established to protect consumers from food intoxications. Socialization by the authority on hygiene habit of vendors and food handlers are required. They must keep themselves and their stall or work place clean. If possible purchase of fruits and fresh vegetables is done at reputable store. They may be able to find fresh materials which are insecticide and fertilizer free. - Vegetables and fruits should be washed thoroughly in potable water. Food handlers should be tought to handle food safely (8). It is highly recommended for the government authorities for encouragement the vendor to handle food hygienically. - Detergents for sanitizing fruits and vegetables nowadays are already available in super markets. Detergent is also needed for washing utensils (knife, cutting board, etc) prior and after used. - Food stalls should be supplied with water tank and enough clean or cooked water in it. It is preferred with water purifier equipment which is facilitated with Germ kill Kit. Food stalls should also be located at clean area. - Dust cover around food stalls is necessary especially at street edge stalls. - Routine inspection by the government authority should be done to the water quality at drinking water depot. CONCLUSIONS Fresh salads are the specialties and the favorite of West Java people. Karedok is easier to find, rather then rujak tumbuk. Traditionally, these are classified as GRAS.

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Salads handlers do not seem to be hygienically in serving the products. Since clean water supply is still becomes problem and the chemical insecticides applications in farms are very common, consequently they are potential to food borne illness as well. Precaution steps should be established for salads business as well as other cuisines. Encouragement for hygiene practice by means of routine inspection at food stalls is number one priority. Vendors and handlers in food stalls have the responsibility to protect consumers from any intoxication. REFERENCES Arvanitoyannis, I. S., and A.Kassaveti, (2009). HACCP and ISO 22000 – A Comparison of the TwoSystems. (In: Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis (ed), ―HACCP and ISO 22000‖). Wiley-Blackwell, UK. Pp. 3 – 45. Anonimous, (2009). Warga masih gunakan air sungai. WH Pikiran Rakyat, Jawa Barat. 2 September. Khaerudin and I. Rinaldi, (2010). Residu Pestisida Masih Jadi Masalah. KOMPAS. 5. Juli, Jakarta. Ano-----, (2010). 70 Hektar Sawah Disemprot Insektisida. KOMPAS. 20 Juni, Jakarta. Ano------- , (2010). Pengelolaan Air Minum Tumpang Tindih. 100 % sample air DKI Jakarta Tercemar. KOMPAS. September, Jakarta. Ano-------,(2010). Air Bersih Masih Sulit Didapat Warga. WH Pikiran Rakyat, JawaBarat, 12 Oktober. Ano---- (2009). Tiga belas depot air minum tidak layak minum. WH Pikiran Rakyat, Jawa Barat, 5 November. Hentges, D. L. (2003). Safe Handling of Fresh-cut Produce and Salads (In: Schmidt, R.H., and G.E. Rodrick. (Eds) ―Food Safety Handbook‖). John Wiley & Sons Publ. USA, pp. 425 – 442.

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THE MAKING OF EDIBLE FILM FROM FILTRATED LIQUID WASTE OF RICE POWDER FROM NOODLE INDUSTRY AND ITS APPLICATION FOR VARIOUS FOOD POWDER PACKAGING Diyan Febri Prabowo1, Haryadi2, Arita Dewi Nugrahini1 1

Agroindustrial Technology Departement, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University 2 Food Technology and Processing of Agricultural Products Departement, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University Address of correspondence : Laboratory of Bio-Industry, 4th Floor, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Flora No. 1, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Tel. : +62 819 15525111 /+62 85743717444. Fax.: +62 274 589797 E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Edible film is one of biodegradable food packaging that safe to eat and environmental friendly. The aim of this research is to know the effect of thickness and sealing temperature on physic-mechanical properties and consumer's acceptance of edible films for various food powder packaging. This research was divided into three stages. First: Forming edible films with addition of 0,5% glycerol and 2% palmitic acid. Edible film made from filtrated liquid waste powder. The forming of edible film was carried out with several thickness and edible films were analyzed for physic-mechanical characteristics. Second: application of edible films for instant food powder packaging. Edible film were formed into pouch with sealing temperature of 130oC and several heating time, then analyzed their seal strength and solubility in boiled water. Third: The consumer's acceptance test by multivariate analysis.Result of this research indicated that the higher the thickness, resulting in increased tensile strength, WVTR, and solubility. Edible films with the thickness of 0.067 mm and sealing temperature of 130oC with heating 3 seconds, 5 seconds cooling has the highest tensile strength MPA 2.463 while total period of solubility in boiled water 2.99 minutes (less than 3 minutes) can be applied as an instant food powder packaging. From the factoring process of the 9 quality attributes. Factor 1 is innovation and factor 2 is physic. Factors 1 and 2 have correlation with acceptance and satisfaction. Keywords : Liquid waste of rice powder, Food powder packaging, Edible film

INTRODUCTION Rice is one of the world's most important cereals for human consumption. Along with technological development there is a variety of innovative rice processing, such as vermicelli products. The screening process in the manufacture of vermicelli will produce liquid waste that escaped from the filter contained starch. Edible film is one of the

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alternative packaging materials that are developed from natural ingredients such as starch, protein, pectin, chitin, and chitosan as a substitute for synthetic packaging that can be eaten and are biodegradable (Krochta et al., 1997). Physical properties of edible film include the mechanical properties and barrier properties. The physical properties can be described as follows: tensile strength, elongation, water vapor transmission rate, and solubility in water. According to Krochta (1997), tensile strength is the maximum traction that can be achieved by the film before the films broken or torn. Elongation value describes the ability of a film tenuous. The extension can also be interpreted as a measure of the ability of film to stretch or elongate (Park et al, 1993). The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of thickness and temperature sealing against the physical-mechanical properties and consumer acceptance of edible known as a practical packaging of instant powder.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials for this research is filtrated liquid of waste containing starch comes from Sragen district, Central Java. Other materials are chemicals, such as: glycerol and palmitic acid. While the chemicals used for the simulation of liquid waste is sodium bisulfate. A. Preparation of Basic Material Basic material used is the result of filtration of liquid waste in the manufacture of vermicelli from rice flour. The initial phase of production begins with washing the rice vermicelli. Then the rice drained, milled, and filtered. The fluid follows the escape of some rice flour from this screening will be used in the manufacture of edible film and the starch that cannot escaped from the filter will become waste. Rice flour preparation made by filtering the liquid waste filtration rice flour with a filter. Simulation of liquid waste production of rice flour is also done by water added as much as 9 times the weight of rice flour, squeeze with filter cloth. The filtrate deposited until its supernatant is clear, supernatant discarded and the sediment in the wash water by adding as many as 9 times the weight of material and stirred. Then add sodium bisulfate as much as 5% of the volume of the solution. Precipitated solution until clear and then the supernatant discarded. Starch precipitate obtained was dried in an oven temperature of 50ºC until dry and then sifted with a sieve mesh 60 (Schenck, et al, 1992). B. Edible Film Production Making edible film using a formulation starch 3%, glycerol 0.5% and 2% palmitic acid (based on the best formula of previous research). Starch is added to the aquades of 80 ml while stirring for 5 minutes. The next step heating the starch suspension at a temperature of 70-80ºC for 15 minutes, stirring constantly, then add glycerol 0.5% and 2% palmitic acid and heating resumed again at a temperature of 70-80ºC for 15 minutes while stirring. Furthermore, forming is done on plastic-coated glass plate mica with size of 17x25 cm, with the volume of suspension varied in a single mold that is: 100, 110, 120 and 130 ml. The next step the film was dried at 40ºC in the oven for approximately 24 hours. Edible film removed from the mold. Then edible film physico-mechanical test includes testing of tensile strength, elongation, film thickness, film solubility in water and water vapor transmission rate in the film will be conducted. 260

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C. Applications Edible Film Edible films have been made and applied as a packaging of instant powder products. Instant powder will be packaged with a film formula that produces the smallest water vapor transmission rate. Then instant powder that has been wrapped in edible film is placed in a petri dish and stored for 3 days. Observations were made from the 1st to the 3rd day and compared with conventional instant powder packaging. After the acceptance test by the respondent on the acceptance and satisfaction of the respondents, includes 9 edible film quality attributes include ease of application, environmental friendly, edible, suitability for presentation, texture, color, flavor, aroma, and appearance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Content Analysis of Rice Flour Liquid Waste Filtration Table 1. Content of Liquid Waste Filtration Rice Flour Result Analysis(%) Kind Contents 1st trial 2nd trial Water 96,058 96,031 Ash 0,567 0,587 Protein (fk:6,25) 0,958 0,956 Amilosa 2,598 2,611

Average 96,0445 0,577 0,957 2,6045

B. Characteristics of Edible Film FiltrationResults of Rice Flour Liquid Waste 1. Tensile Strength and Elongation Tensile strength showed the maximum force required to break the edible film. Based on the results of statistical analysis showed that significantly affects the film thickness on the tensile strength (counted F = 5.361, p =0.026). Elongation shows a maximum film length change when obtaining tensile force until the film end than the original length. Based on statistical analysis, the thickness significantly affect the elongation (counted F = 4.621, p = 0.037).The graph below shows that increasing the film thickness will increase the tensile strength. The graph shows that the thickness of the film, the lower the elongation, which would contrast with the tensile strength. High-tensile strength film had the flexibility on the downside and vice versa. In addition, elongation is influenced by the presence of plasticizer. Tensile strengthbased starch is generally decreased and elongation increased with increasing concentration of glycerol, which indicates that the films become weaker and more flexible in the increase of glycerol. This is due to the addition of glycerol will reduce the force between molecules along the chain polysaccharides, which will produce the film with higher elongation (Chen and Lai, 2008). In general, the results of tensile strength and elongation testing in this study is relatively applicable. Compared with other biodegradable films such as films of 2% potato starch and 20% glycerol with a thickness of 0.06 mm produces tensile strength and elongation MPa respectively 20.3 and 12.1% (Rodriguez et al., 2006), film 2% tapioca starch / decolorized 261

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Xian-Tsao gum and 15% glycerol yield tensile strength and elongation of each 25-45 MPa and 2-4% (Chen and Lai, 2008), banana film/0-1% 4-8% starch and pectin 30% glycerol yield tensile strength and elongation of each 7-15 MPa and 2.5 to 8.5% (Shothornvit and Pitak, 2007).

Tensile Strength (MPa)

Tensile-Strength of Edible Film on Various Thickness 1.5 1.1075 0.8745 0.7238 0.5856

1 0.5

Series1 Linear (Series1)

0 0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Thickness of Film (mm) Figure 1. Effect of Thickness on the Tensile- Strength of Edible Film

Elongation of Edible Film on Various Thickness 15 13.2688 11.885 10.6469

Elongation (%)

10

8.5382 Series1 5

Linear (Series1)

0 0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Thickness of Film (mm)

Figure 2. Effect of Edible Film Thickness of Elongation 2. Water Vapor Transmission Rate Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) shows water vapor permeability of films or films ability to inhibit the transmission of water. Based on statistical analysis result showed significantly affect the film thickness of the WVTR (counted F = 4.210, p = 0.046).

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The test results of water vapor transmission rate in this study are generally quite high, this is caused by the materials used include hydrocolloid group that indeed is hygroscopic. In accordance with McHugh and Krotcha (1994) which states that the hydrocolloid films generally have a fairly good mechanical structure however, is less kind to the inhibition of water vapor. WVTR of Edible Film on Various Thickness WVTR (g/m2.h)

20 16.6872

15

13.185 10.7128 8.4467

10 5

Series1 Linear (Series1)

0 0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Thickness of Film (mm) Figure 3. Effect of Thickness of Water Vapor Transmission Rate (g/m 2.h) In addition, water absorption is very dependent on the RH (relative humidity) storage space, as stated by Sun et al. (2007) that the absorption of water at RH of 75% is almost twice that of water absorption at 52% RH. In this study water vapor transmission rate tests conducted at 75% RH and room temperature. High thickness will play a role in the inhibition of water vapor transmission rate. In accordance with the statement of Roy et al. (2000) that the film thickness will affect the water vapor transmission rate and have an inverse relationship with the thickness. 3. Applications Starch Edible Film Filtration Results of Rice Flour Liquid Waste The process of sealing is done by the old sealing each repetition is 1, 3, and 5 seconds with a long cool down 5 seconds. Based on statistical analysis showed that the thickness had no significant effect (counted F = 0.444, p = 0.724), while the sealing temperature is significant (counted F = 11.019, p = 0.000) and interaction between the thickness and temperature sealing (counted F = 0.484, p = 0.814) would not have a significant effect on seal strength. Results seal strength measurements ranged from 2.7892 to 0.1293 MPa, which is optimal for long sealing edible film in this study is 3 seconds which is about the melting point of starch wastewater filtration results of rice flour. In this study the highest seal strength by film with a thickness of 0.053 mm with sealing time of 3 seconds but the thickness of 0.053 mm with sealing time of 5 seconds, seal strength decreases. In general, the seal strength of edible starch films in this study was low. In accordance with the opinion of Kim and Ustunol, 2001) that generally the optimum edible film seal strength is lower than the seal strength of films based polysynthetic. Seal strength test results in this study are not much different than other biodegradable, for

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example, film 15% candelila has a seal strength from 0.21 to 1.01 MPa, the film 50% casein, lactic acid + 50% sorbitol has a seal strength of 0.38 - 1.8 Mpa (Chick and Hernandez, 2002).

Table 2. Seal Strength (MPa) in Various Thickness and Sealing Time Film Thickness (mm) 0,045

0,053

0,067

0,069

Sealing time (Seconds) 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5

Seal Strength (MPa) 1,4383 2,0548 0,8782 1,4031 2,2892 0,7193 1,1679 2,4632 0,9293 1,1727 2,1395 1,2623

Table 3. Solubility In Water Heating (Minutes) in Various Thickness and Temperature Sealing Edible Packaging Films Solubility in Hot Water Film Sealing time Time of Damaged Thickness Time of Totally Damaged (s) Packaging (mm) Packaging (minutes) 0,045

0,053

0,067

0,069

1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5

0,61 0,6 0,67 0,69 0,7 0,78 0,89 0,92 1,01 1,38 1,39 1,52

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2,44 2,48 2,54 2,74 2,76 2,76 2,92 2,99 3,13 3,36 3,43 3,69

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Solubility in hot water for instant food product desired solubility edible film with no more than 3 minutes, whereas under the terms of the speed of cooking instant product no more than 4 minutes (SNI 01-35511-1994). Statistical analysis shows that the film thickness significantly affected the period of packaging is damaged (counted F = 50.591, p = 0.000), while the sealing time (counted F = 1.723, p = 0.200) and its interaction (counted F = 0.046 , p = 1.00) did not affect significantly. The analysis result shows that the thickness significantly (counted F = 61.332, p = 0.000), while the sealing time (counted F = 3.116, p = 0.063) and interaction (counted F = 0.580, p = 0.742) did not significantly affect long total soluble packaging. The mean of period packaging edible film begins to experience damage ranging from 0.61 to 1.52 minutes. Fastest time indicated by the packaging edible film with a thickness of 0.045 mm and sealing temperature 115ºC and the longest time shown by the film with a thickness of 0.069 mm and 145ºC while the average mutual long total soluble packaging ranges from 2.44 to 3.69 minutes. The fastest time is 0.045 mm thick packing and sealing time of 1 second, while the longest at 0.069 mm thick packing and sealing time of 5 seconds. Based on the results of solubility measurements of hot water, all packaged instant powder in accordance with the requirements of IEC 01 - 35511-1994 is no more than 4 minutes. Based on measurement results, in general, the solubility of packaging edible film in boilled water is relatively faster. After the acceptance test by the respondent on the acceptance and satisfaction of the respondents, includes 9 edible film quality attributes include ease of presentation, environmentally friendly, edible, the form for presentation, texture, color, flavor, aroma and appearance of the 100 respondents. Physical Factor

Y1 (Acceptance)

Y2 (Satisfaction)

Innovation Factor

Figure 4. Model Based on Factor Analysis Path Diagram Structural equation for 1st substructure (Influence Factors of Aceptance) are: Y1 = PY1X1 + PY1X2 + C1 Y = 0,129X1 + 0,096X2 +1,792 Structural equation for 2nd substructure (Influence of Satisfaction Factor) are: Y2 = PY2X1 + PY2X2 + C2 Y = 0,237X1 + 0,077X2 +1,931 Structural equation for substructure acceptance and satisfaction are: Y2 = PY2Y1 + C Y = 0,643Y2 + 0,779 CONCLUSIONS

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The conclusion of this research is the characteristics of edible film from filtreted liquid rice powder influenced by film thickness. The higher the thickness, resulting in increased tensile strength, WVTR, and solubility. Film thickness had no significant effect, sealing temperature has a significant effect on the seal strength. While the thickness effecting on the period of soluble in boilled water. Edible films on the thickness of 0.067 mm and a temperature of 130ºC with a heating sealing 3 seconds, 5 seconds cooling has the highest strength seal MPA 2.463 (highest), while period in boilled water soluble total 2.99 minutes (less than 3 minutes) can be applied as a wrapper of instant food powder packaging, because these three critical factors wich ist seal strength, solubility and WVTR. From the factoring process of the selected nine attributes of quality, the quality attributes can be grouped into two factors. Factor 1 is the physical factor and Factor 2 is innovation factor. Factors 1 and 2 have a correlation of 0.689 to 0.748 against the acceptance and satisfaction. The correlation between acceptance and satisfaction are 0.813. REFERENCES Chen, Chien-Hsien and Lai, Lih-Shiuh. 2008. Mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum films in the presence of plasticizer. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 22, Issue 8, December 2008, Pages 1584-1595. Chick and Hernandez. 2002. Physical, Morphological, and Barrier Properties of Edible Casein Film with Wax Application. Journal of Food ScienceVolume 67, Issue 3, Article first published online: 20 JUL 2006 Kim, S. J. and Z. Ustunol. 2001. Thermal Properties, Heat Sealbility and Seal Attributes of Whey Protein Isolate / Lipid Emulsion Edible Film. J. Food Science. 66(7):985-990. Krochta, J. M. and C. Mulder-Johnston. 1997. Edible and Biodegradable Polymer Film: Challenges and Opportunities. J. Food Tech. 51(2):61-74. Mc Hugh, T. H. and J. M. Krochta. 1994. Permeability Properties of Edible Film. In: J. M. Krochta, E. A. Baldwin dan M. O. Nisperos-Carriedo (eds). 1994. Edible Coating and Film to Improve Food Quality. (pp) 139-188. Technomis Pub Co. Inc. Lancaster-Basel. USA. Park, H. J., C. L. Weller, P. J. Vergano, and R. F. Testin. 1993. Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Cellulose- Based Edible Films. J. Food Sci. 58 (6):1361-1370. Rodriguez, M. J. Ose‘s, K. Sian and J. I. Mate. 2006. Combined Effect of Plasticizers and Surfactants on The Physical Properties of Starch Based edible Film. J. Food Research International. 39:840-846. Roy et al. 2000. Water vapor transport parameters of a cast wheat gluten film .Industrial Crops and Products, Volume 11, Issue 1, January 2000, Pages 43-50. Schenck, et al. 1992. Antimicrobial effect of κ-carrageenan-based edible film containing ovotransferrin in fresh chicken breast stored at 5 °C. Volume 83, Issue 3, November 2009, Pages 479-483. Shothornvit and Pitak. 2007. Mechanical Properties, Water Vapor Permeability and Water Affinity of Feather Keratin Films Plasticized with Sorbitol. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 2006, Volume 14, Number 3, Pages 215-222. Sun et al. 2007. Use of Chitosan Film Coatings in the Storage of Carrots (Daucus carota).Arzneim.Forsch./Drug Res., 46(II), pp. 1086-1089.

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MEATBALL PROCESSING SERVICES OF TRADITIONAL MARKETS IN YOGYAKARTA Edi Suryanto Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada ABSTRACT Meatball is produced mainly by small industries and they processed their meat in meatball processing services at traditional markets or other places. However, the processors were lack of knowledge and skill in meatball production, in hygiene and sanitation, in food safety and regulation as well. Observation of meatball processing services in the traditional markets and other places in Yogyakarta was conducted to know how they make meatball whether it is in accordance with the food regulation or they considered as well the aspect of food safety. The results of observation revealed that there were three types of locations of meatball machine services, firstly located within the traditional markets, secondly in the meat shops and lastly in the location outside the traditional market. The meatball processing services opened usually from 4.00 am up to 8.00 am. The meatball machine unit containing meat grinder and half shut bowl mixer was handled by one to three operators. They ran the machine continuously from the beginning till the end without stopping since many people waiting for the services. Meatball sellers generally did not have their own facilities to process meatball (only approximately 1%). They mostly relied on the services of meatball machine. The number of meatball sellers who used the services varied from 10 – 30 people. The operators of meatball machine provided black plastic pails for each person to put the materials of meatball ingredients such as ground meat, flour, garlic, pepper, salt, and vetsin. The machine and the pails were used from one batch to the following batch without proper washing and handling. The plastics, papers and other wasted materials scattered and piled up in the area of meatball processing plants. Upon the completion of processing, people mostly put the dough of meatball (adonan) using black plastic bags provided and brought back the adonan to form the meatball at home. It could be stated based on the observation that the meatball processors in traditional markets were carried out their services less considering the hygienic aspect and sanitation, hence it could deteriorate the food safety of the products resulted. Keywords : Meaball, Small Industries, Market

INTRODUCTION Meatball or Bakso in Indonesian language is the most popular meat product. It is consumed by all people, quite cheap, easy to find anywhere, very tasty, nutritious and suitable for all ages. Meatball is produced mainly by small industries in Yogyakarta, as well as in other places. Since the business of meatball is promising, very demanding and bring a lot profit, many people try to do business with bakso. However, they lack of knowledge and skill in meatball production, in hygiene and sanitation, in food safety and regulation. Besides that cases of adulteration, using dangerous food additives often happen in the processing of meatball. According to Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1996 on Food Article 5 (1) the facilities and or infrastructure which is used directly or indirectly in the food production activities or process, storage, transportation and or circulation must fulfill the sanitation requirements ; (2) the implementation of the food production activities or process, storage, transportation and or circulation and the use of the means and infrastructures, as referred to in paragraph (1) shall be conducted in accordance with the sanitation requirements. Article 6 Any person responsible in the executive of food production activities or process, storage, transportation and or circulation shall : a. meet the requirements on sanitation, security and or safety of humans ; b. execute a periodic sanitation monitoring program, and ; c. execute the supervision on the fulfillment of the sanitation requirements .

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Article 7: Individual persons who are directly handling and or are directly within the environment of the food production activities or process, storage, transportation and or circulation must fulfill the sanitation requirements. Fourth Part, Food Package, Article 16: (1) Any person producing food to be circulated is prohibited from using any material as food packing which is declared prohibited and or which may release contaminants which are harmful or endangering human health; (2) The packing of circulated food shall be carried out according to a procedure which could prevent damage and or contamination; (3) The government shall determine the materials which are prohibited to be used as the packing of food, and the procedures of packing certain food which will be sold. Article 17: The materials which will be used as food packing, but of which the impact on human health is not yet known, must first be examined as regards its safety, and its use for food which to be circulated shall be carried out after an approval has been obtained from the Government. Article 18 : (1) Any person is prohibited from opening the final packing of food to repacked and traded; (2) The provisions as referred to in paragraph (1) does not apply to food of which the procurement is in large quantities and is customarily repacked in small quantities for further sale. It is important for food processing to apply quality control system starting with the application of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) since it will lead to the microbiological safety and food quality (Thaheer, 2005). There are eight aspects of GMP which are inter-related and directly influenced to the products processed and yielded namely 1) building, 2) utility, 3) equipments, 4) maintenance, 5) management, 6) storage, 7) sanitation, 8) quality. Sanitation places very important role in the food safety especially to avoid food contamination. There should be three practical works that must be carried out i.e. cleaning, personal hygiene, and wastes disposal. Since bakso has become popular and promising business for many people and it is favorite food as well for the society, therefore, how they manufacture the meatball, how the meatball processing services being provided is necessary to evaluate. The survey focused especially on the hygienic aspect and their sanitation to ensure the safety products they produced. METHODOLOGY The survey to know the meatball processing services at traditional markets in Yogyakarta was conducted since 2008. Observation of meatball processing services in the traditional markets, meat shops, and other places outside the markets in Yogyakarta was conducted to know how they make meatball whether it is in accordance with the aspect of food safety or they considered the food regulation as well. The observation took place at 1) three traditional markets (Rejodani traditional market/RdTM, Condongcatur traditional market/CcTM, Beringharjo traditional market/ Brj TM), 2) two meat shops (meat shop in Condongcatur/ MSCc and meat shop in A Dahlan street/ MSAD street), and 3) location outside the markets (Terban location/TbL and Lempuyangan location/LpL). Secondary data were taken from the fields, direct interview with meatball processing service providers and meatball sellers or producers as well. The observation focused especially on the hygienic aspect and the sanitation of meatball processing service provided. Besides that, how they manufacture the meatball was examined as well. Thirty meatball sellers were also questioned for their business regarding their meatball manufacturing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The result showed that there were two categories of meatball processing services; the first service provider was mainly to provide machines for grinding and mixing meatball

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ingredients to make adonan of meatball and the second was to sell meat and other ingredients for making meatball, and to provide meatball processing service for grinding and mixing meatball ingredients. According to the location of the services, there were three types of places of meatball processing services i.e. 1) the first services were located at the traditional markets, 2) the second was located at the butchers / meat shops, and 3) the third was located outside the traditional market (Table 1). Table 1. Location, facilities and condition of meatball processing service No

Location

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

RdTM 1 RdTM 2 CcTM 1 CcTM 2 Brj TM 1 Brj TM 2 Brj TM 3 MSAD street MSCc TbL 1 TbL 2 LpL 1 LpL 2

Number of machine and operator 1 machine unit/ 1 person 1 machine unit/ 1 person 2 machine units/ 2 person 1 machine unit/ 1 person 2 machine units/ 2 person 1 machine unit/ 2 person 1 machine unit/ 1 person 1 machine unit/ 1 person 1 machine unit/ 2 person 1 machine unit/ 2 people 1 machine unit/ 2 people 1 machine unit/3 people 1 machine unit/2 people

Other equipments used Plastic black pails Plastic black pails Plastic black pails Plastic black pails Plastic black pails Plastic black pails Plastic pails Plastic black pails Plastic pails Plastic black pails Plastic pails Plastic black pails Plastic black pails

Adonan meatball container Black plastic bags White plastic bags Black plastic bags Black plastic bags Black plastic bags Black plastic bags Black plastic bags White plastic bags White plastic bags Black plastic bags Black plastic bags Black plastic bags Black plastic bags

Sanitation Improper and poor Proper and good Improper and poor Improper and poor Improper and poor Improper and poor Improper and poor Improper and good Proper and good Improper and poor Improper and poor Improper and poor Improper and poor

All meatball machines used in the processing services were similar type. Each meatball machine consisted of grinding machine and mixing machine that attached to each other. The mixing machine was half open bowl mixer type. Most machines were operated using diesel engines. All machines used in the processing services were made of iron. According to Anonimus (2010), the equipments used for processing food and being contact directly with ingredients were being made of stainless steel to ease the cleaning and avoid contamination. Besides that, stainless steel is not corrosive and affects the products being processed. The observation conducted revealed that the number of operator handled meatball machines was one person up to three people, however, one machine unit was predominantly operated by one person. The meat ball machines were operated during working hours i.e. from 04.00 till 08.00 continuously without stopping. This was due to the long queue of meatball sellers who wanted to process their meat into meatball adonan immediately. Table 2 contained photos of meatball machines used i.e. photo A1, photo A2, and photo A3. It could be seen clearly from the figures that all mixing machines were half open bowl mixer type. These half open bowl mixers were intended to give the operators to use their both hands to enter the bowl to facilitate the mixing process of meatball ingredients. Table 2 also contained photos of other equipments used to serve the customer such as pails, plastic bags, knives and bases/telenan, and desks. Photos of B1, B2 and B3 showed the utensils used in the processing services. There were two kinds of plastic pails provided. Black plastic pails were generally used in the meatball processing services. Black plastic bags for carrying the adonan of meatball were usually provided by the operators.

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Table 2. Photos of meatball machines and other equipments used No A. Meatball machines B. Other equipments 1

2

3

Observation on the equipments provided by the processors indicated that there was not any written procedure on the maintenance and the use of equipments such grinding and mixing machine. Besides that, the use of un-appropriate utensils to process meat was common, such as black plastic pails, black plastic bags, and dirty knives and its bases. According to Sri-Rahardjo (2005) equipments and other utensils to process meat had to be maintained seriously since those could play role for spreading diseases to other food. There were approximately 20 – 30 people who needed the services at each location of meatball processing service. Everyone wanted to get the services as soon as possible. Otherwise, they would get late to further-processed such as forming and or packaging the meatball. Consequently, the operator was working constantly from the beginning till the end of operation leaving all the garbage (papers, plastics, egg shells and other wastes) in the area of processing plants made the surrounding areas were unclean and untidy (Table 3). Cleanliness as applied to food plant embraces physical, chemical and microbiological factors. Physical cleanliness implies the absence of visible soils on the surfaces of the equipments is demanded (Forsythe and Hayes, 1998). However, the surrounding areas of meatball processing plant were generally dirty and untidy.

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Table 3. Photos of Premises and Personal Hygiene of meatball processing services No A. Premises B. Personal hygiene 1

2

How about the meatball machine itself, was it being clean periodically, thoroughly and completely every time being used and moving from once batch to another batch? Yes it was, the meatball machine was cleaned from time to time and from one batch to another batch. However, it was far from completeness and perfectness of proper washing and sanitation. Besides that, everyone could enter the plant area and brought dirty materials into. The operators that handled the meatball processing machines did not wear proper clothes and footwear. Forsythe and Hayes (1998) stated that all employees working in or where allowed passing through any area handling food ingredients, preparing or processing foods, or storing final products, should comply with the hygienic practices laid down. These practices may vary somewhat from area to area but they should reflect the need for personal cleanliness and suitable clothing and footwear. This is in accordance with Anonimus (2010) that to avoid contamination the workers should use clean working uniform and clean cap. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusions It could be stated based on the observation that the meatball processors in traditional markets as well as other places outside the markets were carried out their services less considering the hygienic aspect and sanitation, hence it could deteriorate the food safety of the products resulted. The equipments used daily should be changed with the better one using stainless steel materials whether the meatball machines or the utensils used for placing the ingredients and the meatball adonan. Recommendation 271

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Socialization of the food safety and food regulation is essential to be implemented, and followed by law enforcement, and program of controlling and monitoring to ensure the progress in the field. Secondly it is necessary to do research in meatball quality produced by meatball seller that could be categorized as small businesses. REFERENCES Anonymus, 2010. Pedoman Teknis Pengolahan Daging. Direktorat Pengolahan Hasil Pertanian. Ditjen Pengolahan dan Pemasaran Hasil Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian, Jakarta. Forsythe, S.J. and P.R. Hayes., 1998. Food Hygiene, Microbiology and HACCP. Third Edition, An Aspen Publication, Gaitherburg, Maryland. Sri-Rahardjo, 2005. Pengendalian Aspek Higiene dalam Pengolahan Produk Peternakan. Prosiding Seminar Nasional, Keamanan Pangan Produk Peternakan. !4 November 2005, Fakultas Peternakan UGM, ISBN 979-1215-00-6. Thaheer, H., 2005. Sistem Manajemen HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points). Cetakan Pertama, PT Bumi Aksara, Jl Sawo Raya 18, Jakarta 13220. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No 7 tahun 1996 tentang Pangan. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No 8 tahun 1999 tentang Perlindungan Konsumen.

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THE ESTIMATION OF FISH PRODUCTION USING PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY INSELOREJO RESERVOIR, MALANG Hendri Kurniawan Departement of Aquatic Resources Management Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya Jl. Veteran Malang, East Java Province, Indonesia 65145 Email : [email protected] ABSTRACT The magnitude of the aquatic primary productivity of Selorejo reservoir has been observed within May to August 2006. Sampling stations were devided into four stations based on the land use. Each station was observed in depth 50 cm and 150 cm. Primary productivity of Selorejo reservoir is ranged between 0,141 – 2,25 gC/m3/day. The magnitude of primary productivity if converted to produce the herbivorous organism using formula from Beveridge (1987), will produce between 51,465 to 821,25 kgFish/ha/year. Keywords: estimation, fish production, primary productivity

INTRODUCTION Fish population are remarkable sensitive to production at lower trophic levels and there are a good deal of evidence which points to a strong link between phytoplankton production and fish (Larkin and Northcote, 1969). Most reservoirs will require significant amount of phytoplankton to have productive and sustainable fisheries (Mustapha, 2009). This holds both within and between lakes. Empirical correlations of phytoplankton biomass and fish biomass have been successfully sought in a number of waters (Matuszek, 1978; Hanson and Leggett, 1982; Prepas, 1983 in Harris, 1986). Estimation of fish production using primary productivity required as the one of model for fisheries resources management. Knosche and Barthemes (1998) have used this model of phytoplankton primary production to predict fish yields in lakes and reservoirs and reported this model resulted in more successful predictions than many other methods. Cushing (1982) also observed a strong relationship between primary production and fish production and concluded that a long term fluctuation in fish stocks was due to this relationship. The purpose of this research was expected to provide information about the estimation of fish production in Selorejo reservoir as the one of basis tool to fisheries resources management. MATERIAL AND METHODS Primary productivity in Selorejo reservoir has been analysed using oxygen method (dark-light bottle). Samples were taken and analysed in May-August 2006 by Alifiah (2007). Samples were conducted in four stations. Station I (tourism area), Station II (river junction between Konto river and Pinjal river), Station III (inlet from Kwayangan river), Station IV (near from fish cage). Each station was observed in depth 50 cm and 150 cm. Samples were taken four times and they were taken once a week for all of the samples. Value of primary productivity were converted into estimates of fish weight using the table and formula from Beveridge (1987).

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Primary Productivity Primary productivity of Selorejo reservoir is ranged between 0,141 – 2,25 gC/m3/day. Where, the highest in Station I (tourism area) and the lowest in Station I (river junction area between river Konto and river Kwayangan). Based on the ranged of pimary productivity, Selorejo reservoir included in the eutrof category (Alifiah, 2007). Estimation Fish Production Estimation of fish production using the formula and table convertion from Beveridge (1987). The magnitude of the primary productivity if converted to produce the herbivorous organisms using formula from Beveridge (1987), will produce between 51,465 until 821,25 kgFish/ha/year. Value of primary productivity converted to % convertion (gr C-Fish/m2/day). Remove the C content of 10% in body weight of fish (wet weight). Primary productivity data : Station I II III IV

Depth (cm) 50 150 50 150 50 150 50 150

1 1,042 1,745 0,713 0,141 0,764 0,858 0,333 0,333

Observation (Primary Productivity, g C/m 3/day) 2 3 1,078 2,25 0,563 0,933 0,942 1,013 1,367 0,764 1,284 0,408 1,586 1,411 1,589 0,727 1,308 0,638

4 1,595 0,567 1,669 1,003 0,25 1,65 1,463 0,557

CONCLUSION Estimation of fish production using primary productivity required as the one of model for fisheries resources management. Primary productivity of Selorejo reservoir is ranged between 0,141 – 2,25 gC/m3/day. The magnitude of the primary productivity if converted to produce the herbivorous organism using formula from Beveridge (1987), will produce the result between 51,465 until 821,25 kgFish/ha/year. REFERENCES Alifiah, S. 2007. Studi Tentang Produktivitas Primer Dengan Metode Oksigen (Botol Gelap-Terang) di Waduk Selorejo Ngantang, Malang. Laporan Skripsi Manajemen Sumberdaya Periran. Fakultas Perikanan Universitas Brawijaya Malang. Cushing, D. H. (1982). Climate and Fisheries, Academic Press, London. Harris, Graham P. 1986. Phytoplankton Ecology Structure, Function, and Fluctuation. Chapman and Hall. London. Knosche, R. & D. Barthelmes. 1998. A New Approach to Estimate Lake Fisheries Yield from Limnological Basic Parameters and First Results. Limnologica 28: 133-144. Larkin, P.A and Northcote, T.G. 1969. Fish as Indices of Eutrophication, in Eutrophication (es. G. A. Rohlich), National Academy of Science, Wshington, pp. 256-73. Mustapha, Mashood K. 2009. Phytoplankton Assemblage of a Small, Shallow, Tropical African Reservoir. Revista de Biología Tropical Rev. biol. trop v.57 n.4 San José dic. 2009.

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DEGREE OF SUBSTITUTION VALUE AS SUBSTITUTED STARCH MODIFICATION STANDARDIN THE ADVANCED FOOD PRODUCTS Heny Herawati1) and Sri Wahyuni2) 1) Indonesia Center for Agricultural Post harvest Research and Development Jl. Tentara Pelajar No 12, Cimanggu-Bogor email: [email protected] 2) Central Java - Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Bukit Tegalepek, PO BOX 101, Ungaran 50501

ABSTRACT Modified starch that could be produced with several ways such as chemical modification through substitute hydroxyl group with another group followed by the objective of advanced product that implemented. Substituted starch modification such as esterified starch, eterified starch, cationic starch and the others belonged to it chemical reagent raw material and final products. Degree of substitution (DS) in the starch technology determines as sum of group every unhydroglucose which substituted with another group. There are four hydroxyl groups that could be substitute includes one primary hydroxyl group and three secondary hydroxyl group every unhydroglucose. The degree of substitution value adjust related with reaction efficiency of it process. The DS value commonly increased with raising chemical reagent addition and starch substrate concentration. The combination of 30% tapioca substrate concentration and 1% succinic acid produced esterified tapioca with DS value 0,0765 and 40% tapioca substrate concentration with 5% succinic acid addition produced DS value 0,0929. In food safety implementation, increasing chemical addition could be adjusted belonged to chemically residue that could be carryout in advanced food products. The standardization of chemical reagent to produced specific DS value needed to covered advanced food safety. Key words: Degree of substitution, Starch, Modification, Standard

INTRODUCTION Modified starches were developed to expand the usefulness of starch for myriad of industrial applications. Starch shows various changes in characteristics after modifying such as solubility, gelatinization temperature, viscosity, stability of the paste, moisture, emulsifiability, water retention and film property (Rajan et al, 2006). Starch modification could be through several ways. One alternative starch modification advanced through substituted it OH group. Hydroxyl group (OH) in starch component, both amylase and amilopectin structure could be substitute with another group to be change its characteristics. One anhydroglucose unit (AGU) content four hydroxyl (OH) which could be substutue with another group, such as C-2, C-3 and C-4 (as secondary OH) and C-6 as primary OH. Secondary OH group, especially C-2 OH more reactive 60-65% than another (Van de Burg et al, 2000). Modified starch could be implemented as filler in the candy product and influenced hardy characteristics in it (Afrianti, 2002). Commonly, modified starch has large potential as sourced of raw material in paper, pharmacy and textile industries. One of Modified starch potential is esterified starch. Esterified starch potential was implemented as food additive such as acetic and succinic starch. Acetic starch could be advantaged as food

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ingredient in the frozen food also baby food. While sucinic starch advantaged as canned food and flavor encapsulation matrix. One of the parameter of the substituted starch is degree of substitution (DS). The DS indicates the average number of sites per anhydroglucose unit on which there are substituent groups. Commercially, modified starch has DS value 0.1 that means average 1 group substituted every 10 unit anhydroglucose (Wurzburg, 1989). If all three hydroxyls are esterified, the DS is 3. Jyothi et al (2005) modified succinic starch resulted DS value 0,037. Based on Xiu xing et al (2006), modified maizena with malleate combination with microwave 450 watt during 5 minutes produced DS 0,098. In this paper, try to determine and classified The DS (Degree of Substitution) value used to standardized to food advanced implementation. Modified Starch Modified starches were developed to expand the usefulness of starch for myriad of industrial applications. Starch modification could be through in several ways such as chemical, physical also biochemical process production. Starch modification process also produce specific and characteristic modified starch as shown below, where as the substituted starch includes oxidized starch, eterified starch, esterified starch and cross linking starch. Table 1. The Implementation of Modified Starch in Food Industry (Hustiany, 2006) Characteristic

Implementation

Pre Gelatinized Starch

Soluble in cooled water Filling agent

Instant Soup, Instant puding Sauce, bakery product, freezed product

Hydrolysis Starch

Lowest viscocity,highet retrogradation, strongest gel

Gum, candies, fluid food product

Dextrin

Binder, encapsulation

Confeksionary, baking, sensory agent, oil and fragrance

Oxidyzed Starch

Stabilizer, binder, gelling agent, clearing agent

Food formulation, gum, confeksionary

Eterified Starch

Stabilizer

Soup, puding, freezing food,

Esterified Starch

Stabilizer, filling agent, clearing agent Candies, emulsifier, canned food

Cross Linking Starch

Filling agent,stablizer, texturizer

Pie filler, bakery,freezing food, bakery, puding,instant food, sup, salad dressing, sauce

One alternative of chemically process modification through starch substituted modification process. Starch modification advanced through substituted it OH group. Hydroxyl group (OH) in starch component, both amylase and amilopectin structure could be substitute with another group to be change its characteristics. One anhydroglucose unit (AGU) content four hydroxyl (OH) which could be substutue with another group, such as C-2, C-3 and C-4 (as secondary OH) and C-6 as primary OH. Secondary OH group, especially C-2 OH more reactive 60-65% than another (Van de Burg et al, 2000).

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Alternative Process Production Producing substituted starch in one alternative product was esterified starch colud be through in several ways as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Resume of several ways to produce esterified starch with specific DS value Jyothi et al Esterified tapioca with combination succinic anhydrate and microwave (2005) process in 2450 MHz, 500 watt power produced DS value 0.037 Xiu Xing et al (2006)

Esterified corn starch with combination Malleate and microwave 450 watt power during 5 minutes produce DS value 0,098. While konvensional method 1000 watt during 360 minutes produced DS value 0.070.

Hustiany (2006) Esterified tapioca with konvensional method and used to acid produce DS value of stearate tapioca 0.04; propionate tapioca 0.0431; and succinate tapioca 0.0841. Bhosale and Octenil succinate maizena with konvensional method produced DS value Singhal (2006) 0.024. Rivero et al Octenil succinate tapioca with microwave process in 360 watt power (2009) during 7 minutes produced DS value 0.045. Rajan et al (2009) Esterified maizena and tapioca with combination coconut oil, lipase enzyme from microbe also microwave process with 2450 MHz frequency and 80 watt power produced DS value 1.1 until 1.5. Horchani et al Oleate maizena with lipase enzyme addition, microwave process and (2010) shaking combination produced DS value 1.8 and without shaking 1.6.

Based on this resulted, process method, raw material, chemical reagent, and tool parameter influenced to the esterified starch. Belonged to the result, for food advanced implementation usually has lower DS (Degree of Substitution).

Degree of Substitution DS (Degree of substitution) defined as sum average anhydroglucose group which substitute with another group (Wurzburg, 1989). Hydroxyl group (OH) in starch component, both amylase and amilopectin structure could be substitute with another group to be change its characteristics. One anhydroglucose unit (AGU) content four hydroxyl (OH) which could be substutue with another group, such as C-2, C-3 and C-4 (as secondary OH) and C-6 as primary OH. Secondary OH group, especially C-2 OH more reactive 60-65% than another (Van de Burg et al, 2000). Chemical reagent influenced to DS value resulted. Based on Herawati et al researched resulted, that succinic acid as chemical reagent and Na2CO3 as catalyst influenced to the DS value of esterified tapioca. The DS value increased related with succinic acid addition in tapioca. The DS value increased with raising Na 2CO3 addition until 20%. The DS value turn down in Na2CO3 addition above 20%. Based on the result,

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increasing Na2Co3 addition could be barrier reaction process so that influenced to the decreasing the DS value.

DS (Degree of Substitution)

0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 2

5

10

20

40

60

80

Na2CO3 Concentration (%)

Figure 1. The relationship of Na2CO3 concentration to the DS (Degree of Substitution) value (40% substrate concentration, microwave, 5% succinic acid addition) (Herawati et al, 2010).

DS (Degree of Substitusion)

The broken acetilated and succinated starch granule increased followed by acid concentration addition in acilation and succinilation process. This fact indicated that starch molecule there are break down with acid addition to be substitute OH group in starch structure. The substitution OH group with acyl or succinil group could be done both in amorf and crystal structure in starch molecule. Oh group which substitute with another group more easily be done in amorf structure compare with crystal structure (Hustiany, 2006). 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 1

3

5

10

15

20

Succinic Acid Concentration (%)

Figure 2. The relationship of succinic acid addition to the DS (Degree of Substitution) value (40% substrate concentration, microwave, 20% Na 2CO3 addition) (Herawati et al, 2010) The DS value of succinic modified tapioca with combination of 20% Na2CO3 resulted 0,166955, compare with Na2CO3 2% resulted DS 0,112916. Jarowenko (1989) said that DS of acetylated starch or succinilated starch with water media resulted decreased of DS under 0,5. The higher acid addition influenced to the DS value. In the other hand,

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acid reagent would be made chemical residue in specific proportion. To prevent the disease that could be released caused of it, standardization still needed relate it.

Standardization One parameter of substituted starch is DS (Degree of Substitution). This research which influenced by acid addition there are no available. One of penetration relate it needed belong to advanced implementation of it product in advanced product implementation and development. The DS value was increased according to acid and another chemical reagent addition. So that standardization related increasing DS (Degree of substitution) needed to guard food advanced implementation which is used to substituted starch modification. Thailand was appropriated specific starch standardization especially chemical based product related with food safety as shown in Table 3. Table 3. Specification of chemically modified starch for food applications according to Thai regulations (Breuninger et al, 2009). Type of Modified Starch Oxidized starch

INSNumber 1404

ENumber E 1404

Chemical Reagents

Distarch Phosphate

1412

E1412

Starch octenylsuccinate

1450

E1450

Chlorine (as sodium hypochloride0<5.5% Sodium trimetaphosphate Phosphorous oxychloride < 0.1% Octenylsuccinic anhydrate <3%

Hydropropylated starch

1440

E1440

Propylene oxide<10%(or25%)

Acetylated starch

1420

E1420

Monostarch phosphate

1410

E1410

Hydroxypropilated distarch phosphate

1442

E 1442

Acetic anhydride Vinyl acetate<7.5% Adipate anhydrate and acetic anhydride<0.12% Orthophospheric acid or sodium or potassium orthophosphate or sodium tripolyphosphate Sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorous oxychloride and propylene oxide<10%

Acetylated distarch adipate

1422

E1422

Acetic anhydride anhydride<0.12%

Acetilated distarch phosphate

1414

E1414

Phosphorous oxychloride followed by acetic anhydride<10%(or8% or vinyl acetate,7.5%)

and

adipic

Standard/ Specification Carboxyl group <1.1% Phosphate (reported as phosphorous) < 0.04% Octenylsuccinate groups<0.03% Propylene chlorohydrin<1 mg/kg Hydroxypropyl groups,7% Acetyl groups<2.5%

Phosphate(reported as phosphorous)<0.4% Propylene chlorohydrin<1 mg/kg(or<5mg/kg) Hydroypropyl groups <4.0% Acetyl groups<2.5% and adipate groups <0.135% Acetyl groups<2.5% and phosphate (reported as phosphorous)<0.04%

Conclusions Modified starch that could be produced with several ways such as chemical modification through substitute hydroxyl group with another group followed by the objective of advanced product that implemented. Substituted starch modification such as esterified starch, eterified starch, cationic starch and the others belonged to it chemical

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reagent raw material and final products. Degree of substitution (DS) in the starch technology determines as sum of group every unhydroglucose which substituted with another group. The higher acid addition influenced to the DS value. In the other hand, acid reagent would be made chemical residue in specific proportion. To prevent the disease that could be released caused of it, standardization still needed relate it. One of penetration relate it needed according to advanced implementation of it product in advanced product implementation and development. The DS value was increased according to acid and another chemical reagent addition. So that standardization related increasing DS (Degree of substitution) needed to guard food advanced implementation which is used to substituted starch modification. REFERENCES Afrianti, L. H. 2002. Pati termodifikasi dibutuhkan oleh industri makanan. www.pikiranrakyat.com. Breuninger, W. F., K. Piyachomkwan dan K. Sriroth. 2009. Tapioca/ cassava starch: production and use. Didalam: Miller, J. B dan R. Whistler. Starch:Chemistry and Technology Third Edition. Elsevier Inc, USA. ISBN: 978-0-12-746275-2. Bhosale, R. and R. Singal. 2006. Process optimization for the synthesis of octenyl succyl derivative of waxy corn and amaranth starch. Carbohydrate Polymers 66 92006) 521-527. Herawati, H., I. N. Widiasa dan Kendriyanto. 2010. The influence of several variables to the degree of substitution value of modified tapioca. International Seminar – Emerging Issues and Technology Developments In Foods and Ingredients‖, September 29 th-30th 2010, Jakarta International Expo, Arena PRJ Kemayoran Jakarta. Hustiany, R. 2006. Modifikasi asilasi dan suksinilasi pati tapioka sebagai bahan enkapsulasi komponen flavor. Disertasi Pasca Sarjana. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Horchani, H., M. Chaabouni, Y. Gargourni dan A. Sayari. 2010. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed synthesis of long-chain starch esters using microwave heating: optimization by response surface methodology. Carbohydrate Polymers 79:466-474. Jarowenko, W. 1989. Acetylated starch and miscellaneous organics esters. Di dalam Wurzburg, O. (Ed). Modified Starchs: Properties and Uses. CRC Press, Inc., Florida. Jyothi, A. N., K. N. Rajasekharan, S. N. Moorthy dan J. Sreekumar. 2005. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characaracterization of succinate derivatives of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch. Starch/Starke 57 (2005) 556-563, www.starch-journal.de. Liu, Z., Peng, L. and Kennedy, J. F., (2005). The Technology of Molecular Manipulation and Modification Assisted by Microwaves as Applied to Starch Granules. Carbohydrate Polymers, 61, 374-378. Rajan, A., V. S. Prasad and T. E. Abraham. Enzymatic esterification using recovered coconut oil. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 39 (2006):265-272. Rivero, I. E., V. Balsamo dan A. J. Muller. 2009. Microwave-assited modification of starch for compabilizing LLDPE/Starch blends. Carbohydrate polymers 75:343-350. Van de Burgt, Y. E. M., J. Bergsma, I. P. Bleeker, P. J. H. C. Mijland, J. P. Kamerling, dan J. F. G. Vliegenthart. 2000. Structural studies on methylated starch granules. Reviews. Starch/Starke.52:4043.

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Varavinit, S. Chaokkasem, N, dan S. Shobsngob. 2001. Studies of flavor encapsulation by agents produced from modified sago and tapioca starches. Starch/Starke 53:281-287. Wurzburg, O. B. 1989. Modified starchs: properties and uses. CRC Press Inc, Florida. Xiu Xing, G., S. Fen Zhang, B. Zhi Jud an J. Zong Yang. 2006. Microwave-assited Synthesis of starch maleate by dry method. Starch/Starke 58 (2006) 464-4667.

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THE ASSESSMENT OF STICK YELLOW PUMPKIN PRODUCT PROCESSING AT BOYOLALI DISTRICT Heny Herawati1), Budi Utomo2) and Sri Wahyuni2) Indonesia Center for Agricultural Post Harvest Research and Technology Jl. Tentara Pelajar No 12, Cimanggu-Bogor 16114 Email: [email protected] 2) Central Java-Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Bukittegalepek, PO BOX 101, Ungaran 50501

1)

ABSTRACT Yellow pumpkin or known as waluh (Central Java), long pumpkin (West Java) or pumpkin (England), as vegetable has oval until longer shape and reddish yellow colour. Yellow pumpkin enriched A vitamin with highest β carotene content 180.00 or 1000 until 1300 IU/ 100 gram, also the other nutrition content such as carbohydrate, protein, fat, dietary fiber and mineral. Yellow pumpkin a lot of cultivate in Boyolali district farmer community. The objective of the assessment was to increase the added value of yellow pumpkin through stick yellow pumpkin product processing. This assessment conducted at 2009, in Boyolali district. The assessment resulted stick yellow pumpkin product has 5.39% moisture content, 24.73% ash content, 8.2% protein content, 7.84% dietary fiber content and 43.21% carbohydrate content. Based on shelf life analysis, stick yellow pumpkin product has increased its moisture content at 9 weeks became 7.5 %. Its influenced by packaging and storage condition. Economically analysis resulted that stick yellow pumpkin product processing has R/C ratio 1.67 and B/C ratio 0.67. The development of stick yellow pumpkin product processing assessment still needed modified packaging and spread marketing analysis. Key words: Assessment, Processing, stick, Yellow pumpkin

INTRODUCTION Yellow pumpkin or known as waluh (Central Java), long pumpkin (West Java) or pumpkin (England), is a vegetable with oval until longer shape and reddish yellow colour. Yellow pumpkin rich A vitamin with highest β carotene content 180.00 or 1000 until 1300 IU/ 100 gram, and the other nutrition content such as carbohydrate, protein, fat, dietary fiber and mineral. Pumpkin is a member of Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin has latin name of Cucurbita Moschata. Pumpkin rich nutritional value such as high antioxidant (ß-karoten, A vitamin and C vitamin). Several researchers issued that pumpkin has significant role to prevent degenerative disease such as diabetes mellitus, artheroschlerosis, coronary hearth disease, high blood, also to prevent cancer (Astawan, 2004). Yellow pumpkin has hard outer skin and meat fruit as deposit food. Yellow pumpkin has average weight 5-10 kg/fruit, but pumpkin could be weight of 30 kg/fruit (Murcovic et al, 2002). Yellow pumpkin as agricultural product rich beta carotene or Pro vitamin A that has benefit to the human health. Yellow pumpkin also contain nutritional component such as protein, carbohydrate, minerals (calcium, phosphor, zinc, also another vitamin B and vitamin C. A lot of yellow pumpkin cultivate in Boyolali district farmer community. In harvest session, usually the price of yellow pumpkin turn down. One alternative to anticipate this condition through processing yellow pumpkin to become stick yellow pumpkin. The objective of the assessment was to increase the added value of yellow pumpkin through stick yellow pumpkin product processing.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS This assessment conducted at 2009, in Boyolali district. The materials used in this assessment included yellow pumpkin, egg, margarine, salt, onion, pepper, masako, and packaging. The equipment included knife, molder, mixer, blender, enamelware, wok and the other. The steps of the assessment: stick yellow pumpkin production, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fat content, protein content and carbohydrate content followed by the method of Apriyantono et al 1989), analysis, self life analysis and input output analysis. The data collected and analysis through descriptive method. The steps production of stick yellow pumpkin as shown in the flowchart below. Yellow Pumpkin Cutting Yellow egg Margarine Ingredient Mixing

Steaming Blending Mixing

Wheat Flour

Slicing Molding Frying Stick Yellow Pumpkin

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Yellow Pumpkin Yellow pumpkin has main composition water and carbohydrate. Nutritional of yellow pumpkin in 100 gram product is shown in Table 1. Raw yellow pumpkin contain water 91.20% and A vitamin 180.00 SI/100g. Yellow pumpkin contain 29.00 cal. Based on this nutritional value, yellow pumpkin has great prospective to advanced processing becoming another alternative food product.

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Table 1. Nutritional value composition of yellow pumpkin in 100 gram product No Composition Content 1 Calorie 29,00 cal 2 Protein 1,10 g 3 Fat 0,30 g 4 Carbohydrate 6,60 g 5 Calsium 45,00 6 Phosphor 64,00 7 Zhinc 1,40 mg 8 A Vitamin 180,00 SI 9 B1 Vitamin 0,08 mg 10 C Vitamin 52,00 g 11 Moisture 91,20 g 12 BDD 77,00% Stick Yellow Pumpkin Stick yellow pumpkin was one of high nutritional value food alternative product. Yellow pumpkin contain beta carotene 180.00 SI or about 1000 until 1300 IU/100 gram product (Anonymous, 1972). The steps production of stick yellow pumpkin includes steaming of yellow pumpkin, blending, mixing of yellow egg and margarine, ingredient addition, wheat flour addition, mixing all of them, slicing, molding and frying. To evaluate stick yellow pumpkin, proximate analysis has been done and the results are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Proximate analysis of stick yellow pumpkin Composition Content (%) Moisture 5,393 Ash 2,174 Fat 24,731 Protein 8,815 Fiber 7,839 Carbohydrate 43,207 Fat and protein content of stick yellow pumpkin relative high with value 24.731 and 8.815 %. That could be explained, addition of yellow egg and margarine addition to the stick yellow pumpkin ingredients increased fat and protein content. Carbohydrate content of stick yellow pumpkin relative high, caused of yellow pumpkin as main sourced of it enriched moisture and carbohydrate content. While protein content of yellow pumpkin about 1.10% and fat content of yellow pumpkin 0.30 % (Anonymous, 1972). Shelf life analysis of stick yellow pumpkin based on moisture content as it critical parameter analysis. One of quality parameter analysis of stick yellow pumpkin, could be through shelf life analysis. The self life analysis result has relationship with expired date of it product (Herawati, 2008). Figure 1. Moisture content of stick yellow pumpkin during self life analysis The result show that stick yellow pumpkin still available to be consumed up to 12 weeks based on moisture content and off flavor parameter. Even though moisture content was fluctuative caused of the packaging were opened during storage. It were indentified that in 9 weeks storage, moisture content was the highest. In 12 weeks also indentified off flavor that related with rancidity of stick yellow pumpkin. Floros (1993) said that shelf life was time that food product needed in storage condition until specific degradation of it product has be done. Every factor that could be

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influenced to the self life analysis of food or food ready to eat depend on critical parameter of the product. According to Floros (1993), there were six main factors that could be influenced of deterioration or damage food product included oxygen mass, water vapor, light, microorganism, compression and chemical toxic or off flavor. Based on these critical parameters, moisture content was used to analyzed stick yellow pumpkin self life and the result is shown in Figure 1. 8.00

Moisture Content (%)

7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Storage Time (weeks)

Input Output Analysis Economic analysis was important related with visibility of stick yellow pumpkin product. Input output analysis was one of simple economically analysis to advanced scale technology and process in the large scale. Based on input and output analysis, could be shown the B/C and R/C ratio which is indicated the profit analysis of stick yellow pumpkin. Economic analysis result of stick yellow pumpkin product is shown in Table 3. Table3. Input output analysis of stick yellow pumpkin product in a month Identification Composition Price Yellow pumpkin 2 kg 2000 Wheat flour 4 kg 32.000 Egg 8 biji 6000 Pepper Sckpnya 200 Masako 8 bh 2400 Margarine 500 gr 7000 Salt Sckpnya 100 Onion 200 gr 200 Cooking oil 2 kg 18.000 Packaging 20 lb 6000 Labor 4 HOK 40.000 Total 113.900 Income 20 bks 190.000 Benefit 76100 R/C ratio 1,67 B/C ratio 0,67 In product marketing, stick yellow pumpkin product faced several barrier such as limit distribution such as in Boyolali gift store. This condition influenced in production volume that average 20 packaging/ month. Broaden marketing needed especially in traditional market. Even though in traditional market must be compete with celery stick which has cheaper than stick yellow pumpkin product.

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CONCLUSIONS Yellow pumpkin contain A vitamin with highest β carotene content 180.00 or 1000 until 1300 IU/ 100 gram. It has prospective to advanced processed to be food product. A lot of yellow pumpkin cultivate in Boyolali district farmer community. In harvest session, usually the price of yellow pumpkin turn down. One alternative to anticipate this condition through processing yellow pumpkin to advanced product such as stick yellow pumpkin. Fat and protein content of stick yellow pumpkin relative high withn value 24.73 and 8.82 %. The stick yellow pumpkin self life analysis result that stick yellow pumpkin still available to be consumed during 12 weeks based on moisture content and off flavor parameter. In product marketing, stick yellow pumpkin product faced several barrier such as limit distribution just in Boyolali gift store. This condition influenced to production volume that average 20 packaging/month. Broaden marketing needed especially in traditional market. REFERENCES Apriyantono, A., D. Fardiaz, N. Puspitasari, Sedarnawati dan S. Budiyanto. (1989). Analisis pangan. PAUIPB, Bogor. Astawan, M., ‖Labu Kuning Penawar Racun dan Cacing Pita Yang Kaya Antioksidan‖ http://www.gizi.net/cgi-bin/berita/fullnews.cgi?newsid1081742482,71695, 9 April 2004. Anonymous, 1972. Komposisi zat gizi labu kuning per 100 gram bahan. Direktorat Gizi Departemen Kesehatan RI, Jakarta. Depkes, 1978. Cara pengolahanyang baik. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta. Floros, J. D., V. Gnanasekharan. 1993. Shelf Life Prediction of packaged foods. Chemichal, biological, physhichal and nutritional aspects, (G. Chlaralambous, ed.). Elsevier Publ. London. Herawati, H. 2008. Penentuan umur simpan produk pangan. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, Vol 27 No 4. Pusat Perpustakaan dan Penyebaran Informasi Teknologi Pertanian. Jorgensen dan Hoffman. 2009. On farm pasteurization of milk for calves. 2009. Universitiesof Wisconsin Dairy Update. Murkovic, M., Mülledr, U., dan Neunteufi, H., 2002, ―Carotenoid Content in Different Varieties of Pumpkins‖, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol 15, Issue 6, pp. 633-638. Susilorini, T. E. dan M. E. Savitri. 2006. Seri industri kecil ― Produk Olahan Susu‖. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta.

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THE EFFECT OF FERMENTATION ON CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID IN GOAT MILK Indratiningsih*, Soemitro Djojowidagdo, Zaenal Bachruddin, and Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto Faculty of Animal Science, Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta 55281 Corresponding Author.: +_628179403854 E-mail address: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Fermented dairy foods were considered to be safe and nutritious. A number of health benefits have been proposed including anti microbial, anti carcinogenic and reduction in serum cholesterol. Animal foods are rich in Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) and dairy products are the major sources of CLA. Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of isomers of linoleic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the increasing of CLA in goat milk through fermentation process using Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Lb) to produce bulgaricus milk. Goat milk was fermented with different level of Lactobacillus bulgaricus starter (3.0, 5.0 and 10%) and incubated at 42°C for 6 hours. The result indicated that fermentation process increased CLA. There was significant different of CLA concentration between fresh milk and fermented milk (P<0.05). The concentration of CLA was 3.14 to 3.71 mg/g fat. As conclusion, fermentation of goat milk with L. bulgaricus increased CLA concentration. Key words: Goat milk, Fermentation, Conjugated linoleic acid,

INTRODUCTION In Indonesia, goat milk was not optimally used, because research on goat milk, especially concerning to the functional value of milk as food was less conductedthan that in cow‘s milk. However, it was known that goat milk has a high potency for health food. Developing functional foods was needed to inhibit degenerative diseases, especially cancer and atherosclerosis. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been known to benefit for health. Certain strains of LAB are known to have the ability to build the formation of CLA. The utilization of LAB to produce fermented milk was more efficient in compared livestock feeding treatments. Fermentation may reduce the typical odor of goat milk, that less preferred by consumers. Goat's milk is believed to reduce the complaints of some diseases, however, until now this statement has not been revealed. Goat milk contains higher of fat and protein than cow milk. Milk fat globule is smaller than that in cow's milk and spread homogeneous in milk, makes it easier digested and absorbed in the digestive tract. Goat milk has 35% of medium-chain fatty acids (C6-C14), while cow's milk has 17%. The content of three fatty acids, namely caproic acid (C6), caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) in goat milk was 15% and in cow‘s milk was 5 %. Those three of these fatty acids have been used to treat malabsorption syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders and coronary heart disease. This is because the ability of a good metabolism to provide energy and at the same time to inhibit and dissolve cholesterol deposition (Haenlein, 1992).

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The chemical composition of goat milk generally contain 3.5 to 8.0% fat, 9.1%solid nonfat,3.7% protein, 5% lactose, 0.85% ash and13.9%total solid. Saturated fatty acids of about 67%, unsaturated fatty acid about 33% (Devendra and Mc Lerroy, 1982). Goat milk fat contains essential fatty acid such as oleic acid and linoleic acid. Essential fatty acids for human diet are linoleic and linolenic acid. By consuming adequate linoleic acid, the body is able to synthesize linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. According to FAO/WHO (1997), the recommendation of linoleic acid consumption to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency syndrome was minimum 3 percentof total energy consumed. Milk from goat fed forages contained 0.24% of linoleic acid while goats fed forage and concentrate was 0.18% (Prihadi et al, 2003). This showed that forage tends to increase the levels of linoleic acid in milk. Milk fat components are known to have important role in human health, because the presence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (Parodi, 1999). Recently, CLA are known to have good effect on human health, functioning as an anti-carcinogen, inhibits atherosclerosis, stimulating the immune system and can reduce body fat. Dairy products like yogurt, cheese and beef is the source of CLA. Cow's milk contains 5.5 mg/g fat and beef contains 4.3 mg/g fat. The content of CLA in food is still below the dose that can provide health effects. Lipids including fatty acids, especially linoleic acid is a source of precursors CLA and there is a positive correlation between levels of lipids with CLA. CLA is a collective term used to describe the mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds. Among the isomers, the c9t11-CLA is the predominant one in natural lipids and it constitutes 90% of the total isomers. Studies show that it is formed as an intermediate during the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by ruminant bacteria and c9t11-CLA is also called rumenic acid (Gangidi and Proctor, 2004). CLA may be also formed from the endogenous conversion of tranvaccenic acid (t-11 C18:1) by ∆ 9–desaturase in mammary gland (Kim & Liu, 2000).Conjugated linoleic acid was first isolated from beef by Pariza in 1999(White Sl et al., 2001) which at that time was researching anti-carcinogenic substances. Lactic acid bacteria play a role in many fermented foods, including milk, meat, vegetables and fruits. In general, the fermentation may improve the flavor. Lactic acid bacteria in fermented foods form a distinctive flavor, improve the nutritional value and can act as bio preservation(Rahayu, 2002). Some lactic acid bacteria are known to form the CLA, because it produces linoleic acid isomerase enzyme ( Lin et al, 2002). Yogurt and Bulgaricus milk are the result of processing of milk, which in it requires a process of heating (pasteurization) and curing (fermentation). During the process of pasteurization is carried out at 800C for 30 minutes, is suspected of oxidation reactions that can increase the concentration of CLA through the formation of linoleic acid radicals (Ha et.al, 1989 cited in Lin et.al 1999). Furthermore, because of the agitation in the pasteurization causes increased interaction between the protein with fat globula. Due to these interactions, proteins that play a role as hydrogen donor to convert linoleic acid radical into CLA. Increased CLA also occur during the fermentation process. In this process involves the role of enzymes and lactic acid bacteria occurs by a protease enzyme that hydrolysis process attacked milk proteins so that the result was simple peptides with lower molecular weight that can be a better hydrogen donor. Similarly, the acidity can be as the hydrogen donor in the process of curing for the formation of CLA.

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Conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat concentration can be increased through the treatment of livestock feed, or through the process of milk, but clearly more efficient through a process of fermentation in milk.The objective of this study was to investigate the increasing of CLA in goat milk through fermentation process with bacteria L. bulgaricus to produce Bulgaricus milk. MATERIALS AND METHODS Milk samples were taken from the goat farm in Sleman, Yogyakarta. Culture of cell was Lactobacilus bulgaricus FNCC 041. The strain was subculture twice in MRS broth, under condition 37°C for 24 hours. Mother starter preparation: One percent (v/v) concentration of the subculture was inoculated into sterilized goat milk, incubated towards the end of the logarithmic phase Milk quality test was conducted on the physical properties, chemical composition, CLA. Physical and chemical properties included odor, taste and color, pH, acidity levels. Chemical composition includes protein, carbohydrates, fat (AOAC, 1990) and CLA (Lin et al., 1999). The determination of CLA was carried out by GC method. The sample was extracted with chloroform and methanol (2:1). Chloroform layer was separated from methanol. Chloroform layer was removed, and evaporated until 10 ml remained volume, methylation with boron trifluorid. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography using a columnCP-Sil 88 fused silica WCOT.The analysis result was observed by comparing sample retention times with standard retention time. Bulgaricus goat milk was prepared from pasteurized milk. The starter was L. bulgaricus. Bulk starter preparation. Sterile goatmilk that has been cooled at room temperature, inoculated with 10 ml ofmother starter,incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Bulk starteris ready to be used to make fermented milk. Fermented milk was made from 3.5 and 10% bulk starter. Incubation was performed at 42°C until pH reached 4.5 to 5 or not to occur until wheying off.Fermented milk products were analyzed for physical properties, chemical composition, and CLA concentration (Lin et.al, 1999). Statistical analysis. Each treatment was performed in three replications. The data from three replications were subjected to one way ANOVA and Duncan‘s Multiple Range Test using SPSS for Windows 12.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The quality of milk, includes the physical properties and chemical composition of goat milk can be seen in table 1 and 2. Table 1. Physical properties of goat milk Observation

Results

Smell Taste Color

Typical milk Slightly sweet White

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pH Acidity

6,5 0,18

Table 2.Chemical composition of goat milk Component Contents Water (%) 86,89 Fat (%) 4,50 Protein (%) 3,98 Lactose (%) 3,82 CLA

mg/ g fat

3,14

Goat milk had a typical smell of milk, but specific because of the levels caproic acid (C 6:0), caprylic acid (C 8:0) and capric acid (C 10:0) was relatively high. These fatty acids caused specific in goat milk. Fat content of 4.50% and proteins 3.98% were higher than the results of previous research by Hanlein (2005) i.e. 4.14% fatand 3.56% protein. The color of milk is white, because the goat's milk contains a lot of vitamin A. Slightly sweet taste due tothe sweetness of the lactose content in which the sixth sweetness of sucrose.Chemical composition on Bulgaricus milk can be seen in Table 3. Table 3. Chemical composition of Bulgaricus milk Bulgaricus milk Bulgaricus Bulgaricus milk Component 3% milk 5% 10% Dry matter (%) 13,28 13,48 13,55 Fat (%) 4,5 4,43 4,52 Protein (%) 4,65 4,62 4,59 Lactose (%) 3,40 3.38 3.35 CLA mg/g fat

3,14

3,71

3,44

Chemical composition of fermented milk showed no difference between bulgaricus milk 3%, 5% and 10%. Lipid are the source of CLA precursor, which was indicated by the positive correlation between CLA and lipid content. Titratable acidity( TA) and moisture content were directly related to CLA content. TA favoured the donation of hydrogen to dienyl radicals. Water is necessary for the lipolytic and proteolytic reactions that favor CLA formation. Lipolysis produce free fatty acid, the precursor of CLA formed through the microbiological hydrogenation pathway (Kepler et al., 1970; Chin et al., 1994). Proteolysis break down proteins into low molecular-weight compounds that function as hydrogen donor (Shanta et al., 1992).

CONCLUSIONS Fermentation goat milk with L. bulgaricus FNCC 041 increased CLA 290

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REFERENCES AOAC, 1990. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist,Washington DC. Chin, S.F., J.M. Storkson, W. Liu, K.J. Alberight and M.W. Pariza. 1994. Conjugated linoleic acid ( 9,11and 10,12-octadecadienoic acid) is produced in conventional but non germ-free rats fed linoleic acid. J. Nutr. 124;694-701.. Devendra, C., and GB Mc. Leroy. 1982. Goat and Sheep Production in the Tropics. Longman Group Ltd..,London. FAO / WHO, 1997. Dietery Fats and Oil in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition paper no.3.Rome. FAO. Gangidi R.R and A.Proctor. 2004. Photochemical Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid from Soybean Oil. Lipids 39(2004): 577-582. Haenlein, G.F.W., 1992, Why.Goat Milk.. www.goatworld.com./articles/whygoatmilk,shtml, .Haenlein, G.F.W.,2005,. Goat Milk.Retrieved /extension/information/goatmgt/gm-10htm.

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Jahreis, GJ, Fritsche. P. Mockel, F. Schone, U. Moller, 1999. The Potential Anticarcinogenic conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk Different species: Cow, Goat, Ewe, Mare, Women. Nutrition Research 19 (10): 1541-1549 Kepler, C.R.,W.P. Tucker and S,B. Tove. 1970. Biohydrogenation of Unsaturated Fatty acids.IV. Substrate Specificity and Inhibition of Linoleate ∆12- cis ∆11-trans isomerase from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. J.Biol. Chem. 245: 3612-3620. Kim Y.J. and Liu R.H. 2000. Selective Increase in Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk fat by Crystallization. Journal of Food Science 5 (2000): 792 – 795. Lin, H., TD Boylston, LO, Leudeche, and TD Schultz. 1999. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Cheddar type of cheeses as Affected by Processing. J. Food Sci., 64 (5): 874-878. Parodi, PW 1999. Conjugated Luioleic Acid: The Early Years. In: Advanced in conjugated Linoleic Acid Research. Volume I.MP Yurawecz, MM Mossoba, JKG Kramer, MW Pariza and GJ Newton. Prihadi, S., Indratiningsih, H. Hartadi. 2003. Effect of Concentrate in Rations on Feed Production and Quality of Milk, Goat Milk Fatty Acid Profile and processed products. QUE Project Studies Program Faculty of Animal Husbandry Production GMU. Rahayu, ES 2002. Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Roles in Food Industries inIndonesia.Proceedings of the 4 thAsia Pacific Congress Biotechnologi & 30 th Annual Convention PSM Shanta,NC, LNRam, EA Decker and Z. Ustunol. 1992. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Concentration in Processed Cheese..J.Am.Oil Chem. Soc. 69: 425-428. White, SL, JL Bertrand, MR Wade, SP Washburn, JT Green Jr., And TC Jenkins. 2001. Comparison of Fatty Acid Content of Milk from Jersey andHolsteinCows Pasture or consuming a total mixed ration.J. Dairy Sci. 84 (10): 2295-2301.

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IDENTIFICATION FUKOSANTIN FROM BROWN ALGAE (SARGASSUM FILIPENDULA) USING CHROMATOGRAPHYCOLUMN WITH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY TESTING Kartini Zaelanie Doctoral Program of Agriculture Science, Universitas Brawijaya ABSTRACT Fukosantin is part of the carotenoid has the formula C42H58O6. Fukosantin orange, is including to xantofil group of carotenoids. These pigments are found in several species of brown algae. Fukosantin is able to absorb the energy of blue-green color and pass it to chlorophyll for photosynthesis, the activity shown by the characteristic absorption at a wavelength of 400-540 nm. Fukosantin have unique chemical structures of possessing a bond Alena and 5.6 monoekposida within the molecule. In terms of its chemical, fukosantin composed of seven conjugated double bonds. The presence of conjugated double bond system causes the pigment easily damaged by oxidative degradation, such as chemicals, enzymes, temperature, oxygen, and light (Gross, 1991). Analysis of functional groups was measured using FTIR spectrophotometer. Spectrophotometry, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is an infrared Spectrophotometer equipped with Fourier transform for the detection and analysis of the spectrum (Anam, et al., 2007). Infrared spectrophotometer is used to test the functional group of a compound. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Basic Chemistry Faculty of Science University of Malang, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry Faculty of Science UB Malang, and the Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Airlangga University Surabaya, in the month of June to August 2010. The method used in this research is explorative method. Explorative method aims to obtain knowledge about a phenomenon, so that after going through a stage of observation, problem and hypothesis can be formulated. In an explorative study of knowledge about the symptoms you want to study is still very limited and is the first step for further research (Singarimbun and Effendi, 1989). Based on the identification results obtained using thin layer chromatography Rf 0.28. Identification using UV-Vis spectroscopy obtained wavelength ( ) for acetone is 447 nm and for ethanol is 451 nm. The identification results obtained fukosantin using FTIR spectrophotometer several functional groups are hydroxyl groups, alenik bond, carbonyl group (ester), conjugated double bonds (C = C) and CH. It is suggested there should be further studies on pigment identification fukosantin by using FTIR and is expected to be more careful in the handling of samples prior to the identification process so as not to arise any impurities which would affect the results of FTIR analysis. Key words: Fukosantin, Identification, Brown Algae, FTIR analysis, Functional groups

INTRODUCTION Seaweed or we are usually calls as seaweed that macro algae plant lives in the sea which doesn‘t have root, stem, and real leaf and commonly lives in the bottom of sea (Juneidi, 2004). Classified of macro algae by the kind of the pigment as red algae (Rhodophyta), Brown algae (Phaeophy) and green alga (Chlorophyta) (Dawezynski, et al., 2007). Brown alga has high abundance and high distribution (Handayani, et al., 2004). One kind of Sargasum is Sargasum fillipendula. Usually in the brown algae species has found many fukosantin pigment that involved in xantofil group from karotenoid (Ballard, et al., dalam Nurcahyati dan Timotius. 2008). Pigment is special molecule that can show color and absorb sun light and reflect at particular wavelength (Prangdimurti, 2007). Karetonoid is a group which yellow color., orange, red orange and are soluble in oil (fat). Fucoxanthinia a part from karotenoid which has the formula C 42H58O6 (Nurdiana and Limantara 2008). Fukosantin contained in the form of brown algae is trans-fukosantin and contained main karotenoid (Nurcahyanti dan Timotius, 2008). Fukosantin has unique chemical structure because has bond alenat and 5.6 monoepoksida in molecular ( Maeda, et

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al., 2007). Identification of a content and pigment composition can be done with kromatografi and spektrofotometri. Light absorption of the pigment by using kromotografi then compared with the existing literature (Gross, 1991). Spectrophotometry FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is infra red equipped with Founer transformation for detection and analysis spectrum result ( Anam, et al., 200). Infra red Spectrophotometer used to test the functional group of a compound (Sastrohamidjojo, 1991). The purpose of this research is expected to provide information to interested parties about fukosantin content which contained in brown algae (Sargasum fillipendula0 by see from spectra pattern result and wavelength on spectrophotometer UV-vis, and by account Rf value in KLT and view it from the group function. Usefulness of this research is expected to provide information to interested parties about the content fukosantin contained in brown algae (Sargassum filipendula) that can be exploited further. RESEARCH METHODS Methods in this study were explorative methods. Explorative methods aims to obtain knowledge about a phenomenon, so that after passing trough the stages of observation, problem and hypothesis can be formulated. Explorative methods attempt to find general information about topic/ problem that has not been fully understood by a researcher. RESULTS Fukosantin Pigment Identification Data with in Layer Chromotography Pigment Rf Value The Isolated Yan, et., (1999) Fikosantin

0,28

0,25-0,28

Fukosantin Pigment Identification Data With UV- vis Spectrophotometer Pigment Solvent Maximum absorption (nm) The Isolated Jeffry, et al., (1997) Fukosantin Acetone 447 446.3 Ethanol 451 450

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Data on Identification Pigments Fukosantin With Gamma photometric FTIR

Number

Functional groups

Vmax(cm-1) (A)

1 2 3 4

OH CH Allene C=O C=O, acetate C=O, ester C=C, conjugated C=O, konjugasi CH2

3483 3030-2856 1930

5 6 7 8 9

C-O, asetat C=C, substituted

Vmax (cm-1) (B) 3462 2923, 2853 1930

1732 1742 1650 1654 1607, 1576, 1530, 1527, 1459 1471, 1456 1335, 1261, 1245 trans 1201, 1175-1157, 1071, 1053, 1032, 958

Information : (A) = Vmax (cm-1) (A) fukosantin extract (Fucus serratus) by Haugen et al., (1992) : (B) = Vmax (cm-1) Fukosantin extract ( Sargassum filipendula )based on FTIR tests conducted in conducted in laboratories of pharmaceutical chemistry Universitas Airlangga Surabaya CONCLUSION Based on the results of research conducted, it can be concluded that the isolation fukosantin obtained from brown algae Sargassum Filipendula really is fukosantin,this can be seen from the results Rf 0,28 are still included in the range Rf fukosantin in literature (0.25-0,28). then the maximum absorption value fukosantin obtained do not differ much with the library, and the results obtained by the wavelength does not vary much with libraries and sufficient to represent the wavelengths produced a functional group contained in fukosantin

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THE ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF NON-VOLATILE COMPONENT OF CURCUMA LONGA Mia Bunai1, Martanto Martosupono2, and Budhi A. Prasetyo2 1 Magister 2

Biology‘s Student, Postgraduate Program, Satya Wacana Christian University Magister Biology‘sLecturer, Postgraduate Program, Satya Wacana Christian University Jl. Diponegoro 52-60. Salatiga 50712 e-mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been used as a traditional drug for the medication of liver disease, husk, and influenza in Indonesia. Besides that, turmeric is also used in pickling of food due to its antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Chemical constituent of turmeric consists of volatile and non-volatile components. Volatile component are ar-turmerone, zingiberene, turmerone, and curlone, while non-volatile component is curcuminoid. Curcuminoid represents the rich yellow color besides component of fenol. Curcuminoid consists of curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, and bisdemetoxicurcumin. The function of curcuminoid is related to peaceful drug and healthy food attributed to its antioxidant content. Examination of the antioxidant in curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, and bisdemetoxicurcumin can be done by in vitro determination of phosphomolybdenum and linoleic acid. The anti-oxidant‘s capacities of curcumin > demetoxicurcumin > bisdemetoxicurcumin. The results indicated that curcuminoid performed stronger antioxidant activity than 100 ppm butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). Curcumin had stronger antioxidant and antibacterial activity than demetoxicurcumin and bisdemetoxicurcumin. Key words:Antioxidant, antibacteria, curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, bisdemetoxicurcumin

INTRODUCTION Curcuminoid is one of the worthwhile crops to human life. Curcuminoid derived from Arabic word "kurkum" which means ―turning yellow‖, found on various type of crop of Zingiberaceae family, it is non-volatile, stable to temperature, but unstable to light (Nugroho, 1998). Turmeric has been used for many purpose, for example as ripe flavors, cosmetic materials, medicinal plant, antioxidant, antibacterial, food and textile colorants materials (Pudjihartati et al., 1998). Three kinds of curcuminoid were: curcumin (yellow squeezing), demetoksikurkumin (yellow squeezing) and bisdemetoksikurkumin (yelloworange) (PAU Research Team of Food and Nutrition, 1993). Many research on turmeric have been conducted, e.g. turmeric extract as yarn colorant weave in East Nusa Tenggara (Therik, 1983); the role of turmeric as pharmacological material and turmeric activity as anti-bacteria (Ammon and Martin, 1991). Curcuminoid Curcuminoid represent the color of which chromatic yellow-orange that found in various crop especially on Zingiberaceae. Curcuminoid consisted of three components, those are curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, and bisdemetoxicurcumin.

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OH

OH

OH3C

OCH3 O

A

O H

OH

OH

B OCH3 O

O H

OH

OH

C O

O H

Figure 1. Chemical Structure of Curcumin (A), Demetoxicurcumin (B), and Bisdemetoxicurcumin (C) Table 1. The Characteristic of Curcumin, Demetoxicurcumin, and Bisdemetoxicurcumin No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6

Characteristic Molecular weight ( g mol-1) Absolute zero (oC) Condensation: - N – heksana / eter - Alcohol/ aseton Rf= relatif Chloroform etanol (25 : 1) λ maximum (nm) ε (1 mol-1cm-1)

Curcumin 368,4 184,186

Demetoxicurcumin 338,0 172,5 – 174,5

Bisdemotoxicurcumin 308,1 224

Undissolved Dissolved

Undissolved Dissolved

Undissolved Dissolved

1 430 54.950

0,66 423 54.950

0,41 418 37.150

(Govindarajan, 1980) Phenolic compound of curcumin consisted of two symmetrical ring. The difference of those three components was its alkyl compound (R1 and R2). Research on the curcuminoid potent has been conducted intensively from 1970 to 1980 which focused for medical purposes (PAU Researcher Team of Food and Gizi, 1993). Laboratory and clinical research indicated that the phenolic compound could act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammation. It were also proved that curcuminoid from turmeric is equal to synthetic phenolic like Butylated Hidroxy Toluene (BHT) and Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA) ( Majeed et al. 1999). Research on the pharmacological function from curcuminoid aimed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-mutagen, anti-inflammation, liver protector, anti-bacteria, anti-virus and anti-parasite. Ekstraction and Isolation of Curcuminoid Pudjihartati, et.al (1998) used 5 g turmeric powder and extracted by using hexena (1:5, w/v) 2-3 times using magnetic stirrer for 1 hour. Free residue of hexena then was extracted again by using methanol (1:5, w/v) for 1 hour used magnetic stirrer in a closed Erlenmeyer. The extract obtained then was filtered through Whatman paper 42 by using vacuum insulator and dried up by using Heraeus vacuum oven at 30 - 40oC up to obtained a constant weight of sample. Extraction conducted by Nugroho (1998) were by using soxlet. Twenty gram of dry material was wrapped with paper filter and taken into soxlet. Ethanol was added into gourd which have been stringed up by soxlet. Gourd was heated above sand stove. The extraction process was terminated when the solution color which reenters to gourd becomes yellow. The soxlet extraction consists of 2 phases, the first phase by ether petroleum to eliminate the turmeric oil in order not to bother the next process. The second extraction is conducted by ethanol to extract turmeric color. Isolation and purification is carried out by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) developed with chloroform:methanol 98:2

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(Team Researcher PAU of Food and Gizi, 1993). Srinivasan (1953) had isolated curcumin by silica gel column chromatography. The first phase aimes to dissociate compounds especially fat with gradual extraction by ether petroleum. The dried residue obtained then cleaned by benzena in soxlet, extracted by benzene. Extract is applied in columns eluted by benzena which has been added with some water. Anti-oxidant Laboratory and clinical researchs indicate that the content of phenolic compounds in turmeric have the nature of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation. From this invention it has known that curcuminoid is equal to anti-oxidant fenolic synthetic like BHT (Butylated Hidroxy Toluen) and BHA (Butylated Hydroxy Anisole) and make induced the use of natural fenolic for the medical purpose (Majeed et al., 1999). Antioxidant preserves the freshness of food that we eat. The special pharmacological function of curcuminoid which have been proved were act as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, liver protector, anti-bacteria, anti-virus, and anti-parasite. This function is caused by the unique molecule structure of curcuminoid. Anti-oxidant is a substance needed by our body for neutralized free radicals and prevents the damage generated by free radicals to normal cell, protein, and fat. Free radicals is a very reactive and damage the body organ which generated various diseases. Antioxidants stabilize the free radicals by giving electron‘s lack of the free radicals, and stopped chain reaction induced by free radicals. DISCUSSION Pulla Reddy and Lokesh (1992) have proved that curcuminoid can neutralize free radicals superoxida anions and hydroxyl radicals which represent as indicator of lipid peroxides. Lipid peroxides cause inflammation, heart sickness, and cancer. Unnikrishnan and Rao (1992) stated that curcuminoid can protect hemoglobin against nitrate oxidation to met hemoglobin at concentration of 400 μM. Curcuminoid repaires the cell damage caused by oxidation and reduction. Curcuminoid reacts with four free radicals type of linoleate peroksil, products unradical structure of tricycles with the peroxyl bound. According to Das and Das (2002), curcuminoid also has a potency as extinguisher of singlet oxygen,which caused the cell damage. Based to the research of Jayaprakasha et al. (2006), curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, and bisdemetoxicurcumin have the different antioxidant activity. Curcumin is more effective than demetoxicurcumin, and demetoxicurcumin is more effective than bisdemetoxicurcumin. The antioxidant capacities expressed with the equation of ascorbic acid (μmol / g sample). At concentration of 50 ppm, the capacities of curcumin antioxidant equal to 3099 ± 66 micromol/g, demetoxicurcumin equal to 2833 ± 25, and bisdemetoxicurcumin equal to 2677 ± 30 μmol / g. The antioxidant activity of curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, and bisdemetoxicurcumin prevent the peroxidation acidity process of linoleat. During 120 hours, the antioxidant activity of curcumin equal to 81,98%, demetoxicurcumin 81,77%, and bisdemetoxicurcumin 73%. As curcumin for medical purposes, it was advised to consumed 1-3 mg/body weight daily (WHO Series, 2004), where its bioavailability mainly in the intestine. CONCLUSION The non-volatile component of turmeric, curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, and bisdemetoxicurcumin have the activity of anti-oxydant. The function of curcuminoid is related to peaceful drug and healthy food attributed to its antioxidant content. Examination

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of the antioxidant in curcumin, demetoxicurcumin, and bisdemetoxicurcumin can be done by in vitro determination of phosphomolybdenum and linoleic acid. The anti-oxidant‘s capacities of curcumin > demetoxicurcumin > bisdemetoxicurcumin. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Mia Bunai expressed her gratitude to the Papua Province Government for the support to this research.

REFERENCES Ammon, H.P.T. & Martin, A.W. 1991. Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Medica 57: 1-7. Das, K.C. & Das, C.K. 2002. Curcumin (diferuloymethane, a singlet oxygen 1O2) quencher. Biochemical and Biphysical Research Communications, 295: 62-66. Govindarajan, V.S. 1980. Turmeric – Chemistry, Technology and Quality. CRC. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 12 : 199 – 301. Jayaprakasha, G.K., Rao, L.J.M., & Sakariah, K.K. 2006. Antioxidant activities of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Food Chemistry 98: 720-724. Majeed, M., Vladimir, B. & Lakshmi, P. 2000. Bioprotectant Composition, Method of Use and Extraction Process of Curcuminoids. Sabinsa Corporation. New Jersey. Nugroho, N.A. 1998. Prospek Manfaat dan Pengembangan Kunyit. Trubus. Agriwidya. Ungaran. Pudjihartati, L., Sri, R. & Umar, S. 1998. Stabilitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Kunyit Selama Penyimpanan Umbi dan Pemanasan. Proceeding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Pangan. UGM. Yogyakarta. p 269 – 276. Pulla Reddy, A.C.H., & Lokesh, B.R. 1992. Studies on spice principles as antioxidants in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 111: 117-124. Therik, J.A. 1983. Tenun Ikat dari Timur. Pustaka Sinar Harapan. Jakarta. Tim Peneliti PAU Pangan & Gizi. 1993. Kajian Karakteristik Pigmen Rimpang Kunyit; Stabilitas Selama Pengolahan Pangan. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. Unnikrishnan, M.K. & Rao, M.N. 1992. Curcumin inhibits nitrite induced metmyoglobin formation. FEBS Letters. 301: 195-197. WHO Series: 52 Safety evaluation of certain food additive & contaminants. 2004. International Programme on chemical safety. Geneva: WHO. pp 55-60.

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THE POTENTIAL OF BLACK VEGETABLE (RUNGIA KLOOSII) AS A MEDICINAL PLANT Mia Bunai1 and Martanto Martosupono2 1 2

Magister Biology‘s Student, Postgraduate Program, Satya Wacana Christian University Magister Biology‘sLecturer, Postgraduate Program, Satya Wacana Christian University

Jl. Diponegoro 52-60. Salatiga 50712, e-mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT Black Vegetable (Rungia kloosii) is a medicinal plant which belongs to Acanthaceae family. This plant originally from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and spread to West Papua especially in Middle Mountain area. Black Vegetable is used as medicinal plant for curing the diseases of heart, lung, ulcer, kidney, and could be used for stimulating the production of mother‘s milk and increasing appetites. This research aimed to identify pigment composition of black vegetable. Pigment was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Spectrophotometer UV-VIS, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Result indicated that Black Vegetable contained the carotenoid pigment, chlorophyll a, b, and pheophytine. Its pigment has anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and also high anti-cancer activities. Keywords: Rungia kloosii, Black Vegetable, carotenoid pigment, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, pheophytine.

INTRODUCTION Papua is rich of flora which mostly are still not yet known their benefit to human being. Among of those is Black Vegetable (Rungia kloosii), belongs to Acanthaceae family, also called Mushroom plant by the native people of Papua New Guinea, because the leaf tasted like mushroom. This plant is originally from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and spread to West Papua especially in Middle Mountain area. Black Vegetable is used as medicinal plant for curing the diseases of heart, lung, ulcer, kidney, and could be used for stimulating the production of mother‘s milk and increasing appetites.

Picture 1. Black Vegetable (Rungia kloosii) Rungia Kloosii is an annual crop, height 30 - 80 cm, has internode and branched, single leaf, dark green in color, oval, thick and a little bit wrinkling, has rust color in the middle of leaf surface, the flower purple in color, easily grows at any soil, at 1.200 - 2.700 m asl. The potential of Black Vegetable for curing diseases has a strong correlation with the amount of the chlorophyll. This research aimed to identify pigment composition of black vegetable.

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MATERIAL AND METHODS Material Sample used for the research was Black Vegetable leaf. Solvent were acetone, methanol, ether ethyl, and hexane. Method Chlorophyll Extraction.-- Leaf was washed. Twenty gram of leaf sample was grinded with mortar, then added with CaCO3 and sodium-L-ascorbate as an antioxidant. The grinded leaf was transferred into Erlenmeyer, added with methanol : acetone (7:3) (w/v), and strirred with a magnetic stirrer (Harborne, 1987).. Filtration.-- Extract was filtered. The extraction was repeated until pigments were completely etracted. The extraction was then was added with anhydrous Na 2SO4 to aeliminate the H2O. Partision.-- Extract of pigment was separated in funnel separator by adding a half extract volume of ether.. Finally, the extract was filtered Evaporation.—extracted pigment was dried using nitrogen gas (N2) Figure 1. The Scheme of Black Vegetable Leaf’s Extraction Sample

Extraction

Filtration

Partition

Evaporation

Crude Extract

Column Chromatograph y

Thin Layer Chromatography

Pure Pigment

Thin Layer Chromatography

Spectrophotometer

300

Spektrophotometer

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Thin Layer Chromatography.-- Pigment were dissolved in Hexane:Ether:Acetone (6:3:2) then spotted on TLC plate. The plate was developed with Hexane:Ether:Acetone (6:3:2). Then Rf of each component was calculated and also inspected the separation pattern of its color (Strain et al., 1969). Column Chromatography.-- Pigment was dissolved in Hexane:Ether:Acetone (6:3:2); then applied into gel silica 60 (Merck) column chromatography. The sampel was eluted with Hexane :Ether:Acetone (6:3:2). Fractions obtained then were dried in the nitrogen gas at – 20 oC or lower in a dark. UV-Vis Spectroscopy.-- The pigments obtained from purification were dissolved in acetone. UV-Vis spectra were recorded by spectrophotometer bind double wavelength at 350-800 nm. Spectra pattern of each fraction mas compared to those of spectra published in literatures (Jeffrey, 1997). High Performance Liquid Chromatography.—Pigments were eluted with Methanol:Ether:Acetone (20:60:20) (v/v/v) at flow rate of 1 ml/minute and temperature 250C. Data Analyze.-- Data obtained from this research were analyzed by using the Matlab 6.5 and Origin 6.1 Program. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results of pigments analysed by TLC and CC were presented in table 1. Table 1. Black Vegetable leaf pigment analysis by TLC and CC Band Colour (Rf) Sample Yellow Green-Blue Green-Yellow OrangeYellow Black Vegetable leaf 0,51 0,55 0,83 1,04 extract Chlorophyll a and b were analyzed by TLC on silica gel 60 F254 (Merck) plate. The plate was developed with Hexane:Ether:Acetone (6:3:2). The pattern of chlorophyll a and b from black vegetable leaf on TLC plate has the same pattern of band color of color of chlorophyll of a and b obtained from column chromatography. the third band with bluegreen in color was chlorophyll a and fourth bands of yellowish-green is chlorophyll. According to Gross (1991) pigment of carotenoid, chlorophyll and chlorophyl b give colors of chromatic yellow-orange-red, chromatic blue-green and chromatic greenyellow, respectively. These results suggested that bands with orange color, blue chromatic and chartrense chromatic might be carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b, respectively. While grey chromatic band represented feofitin. Light blue Chromatic band was ―precursor' of chlorophyll a or b. Results of pigments separation by Column Chromatography and TLC revealed that Black Vegetable leaf contains carotenoid, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b.

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1,0

Absorbance

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0 400

500

600

700

800

Wavelenght (nm)

Figure 3. UV-Vis spectrum of Black Vegetable leaf extract

Figure 2. TLC of Black Vegetable leaf extract There were 2 maximum absorption of crude extract in Soret area, at 409-411 nm and 428-430 nm. While at area Qx there were 2 maximum absorptions at 575-580 and 614615 nm. Meanwhile at area Qy there were maximum absorption at 661-663 nm.

400 Intensity

(mAU) a its n tn I

300

200

100

0 0

20

40

60

80

Retention Time (minute)

Figure 4. HPLC Chromatogram of black vegetable extract at 430 nm. Identifying the Black Vegetable pigment is more sensitive by using the HPLC at wavelength 430 nm. Identification of crude extract pigment of Black Vegetable leaf was done by comparing maximum absorption of research result with the maximum absorption of other pigment type in literature.

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Table 2. Identification of pigments from Black Vegetable leaf by HPLC No. 1.

Time Retention 38,39

Pigment Chlorophyll a

Wave Length 430

2.

18,01

Chlorophyll b

430

3. 4.

41.70 62.02

Pheophytin b ß-carotene

434 451

References 432, 584, 615, 662 (Schwartz, 1983) 438, 458 (Jeffrey et al, 1997) 436, 654 (Schwartz, 1983) 452, 474 (Schwartz, 1983)

CONCLUSION Based on the results of TLC, Column Chromatography, HPLC, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Black Vegetable leaf contains the pigment of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid (ß- carotene). It can be concluded that the Black Vegetable leaf‘s pigment is potentially promising to be used as a medicinal plant. Its pigment has the anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and also high anti-cancer activity. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Mia Bunai expressed her gratitude to the Papua Province Government for the support to this research. REFERENCES Anonim. 2010. Acanthaceae http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acanthaceae (download at 23 October 2010). Anonim. 2009. Rungia klossii Mushroom Plant. http://floreznursery.blogspot.com/2009/02/rungia-klossiimushroom-plant.html (download at 18 October 2010). Anonim. 2009 . Tumbuhan di Papua. http://puuggy.wordpress.com/2009/02/18/tumbuhan-di-papua/ ( download at 20 October 2010) Gross, J. 1991. Pigment in Vegetables, Chlorophylls and Carotenoids. Van Noistrand Reindhold. New York. Harborne, J.B. 1987. Metode Fitokimia. ITB. Bandung. Jeffrey, S.W. 1997. Chlorophyll and Carotenoid Extinction Coefficients. In Jeffrey, S.W, Mauntaia, R.F.C and Wright, S.W. (eds). Phytoplankton Pigments in Oceanography, Guidelines to Modern Methods. UNESCO Publishing. Paris. p 458 – 459. Strain, Harold, Svec, Walter. 1969. Some Procedures for The Chromatography of The Fat-Soluble Chloroplast Pigments. In J. Calvin Gidding and Akeller (eds). Advances in Chromatography. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York. p.121-155. Schwartz, S. J., and Von Elbe, J. H. 1983. Kinetics of chlorophyll degradation to pyropheophytins in green vegetables. J Food Sci. 48 : 1303-1308. Svec, Walter A. 1993. Chemistry of Chlorophyll. In Hugo Scheer (ed). Chlorophyll. CRC Press. Boca Raton. p. 92 – 99.

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EFFECT OF ANGKAK CONCENTRATION TO INHIBIT MOLD ON MINCED TUNA JERKED PRODUCTS Murniyati, Ninoek Indriati dan Ijah Muljanah Research Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology. Emal: [email protected] ABSTRACT Angkak is a rice fermented using Monascus purpureus bacteria which produced red rice products. Angkak also can inhibit the growth of mold and bacteria because it contains color pigments produced by M. purpureus fermentation i.e. monaskorubrin and monaskoflavin which is anti-microbial substances. The use of angkak on processing of minced tuna jerked products as an effort to reduce the use of food coloring additives and inhibits mold growth have been conducted. Raw materials used were minced tuna added with spices and angkak with concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% of fish weight. Minced tuna jerked then dried under the sun for 12 hours. Observation was done on organoleptic characteristics (appearance, color, aroma, taste and texture) using hedonic scale and microbiological test (mold, Total Plate Count/TPC). Results showed that the content of mold in each treatment were 2.5x10 2, 2.4x102, 7.0 x10; and 1.0x10 CFU/g. While the TPC content were 2.4 x103, 2.2 x103, 1.8 x103, 1.0x102CFU/g. The panelis preferred minced tuna jerked products added with 1.5% angkak with sensory score was 8.20 of a 9.0 score. Keywords: food safety, angkak, minced tuna, jerked products, mold

INTRODUCTION Food safety is one of the supporting factors and indicators of food security. In ensuring the safe and proper food, food safety of fishery is very important. Safe food supply not only protects public health, but also improves the quality, food safety and consumable. Problems of quality and food safety in fishery products occurred in various types, stages and regions with various of hazardous toxic materials, sources in different characteristics. The use of illegal additives has spread in various parts of the country, occurring in some processed food or fresh products that consumed many people could be public health hazard.In general, food color used in food products contain of food color synthetic (artificial) and natural. Synthetic food color is generally made from chemicals such as tartrazine for yellow color, red allure red, and so forth.In some cases, the use of non food coloring (non food grade) often used as food coloring, for example, the use of rhodamine B, often used to fish paste coloring, crackers and syrup. The use of synthetic color that are not proportional causes health problems, so the best choice is a natural, because it comes from natural ingredients that do not cause negative effects on the body. Natural food color containing pigment from vegetable, animal, bacteria and algae. Angkak is a red rice fermented by Monascus purpureus that produce a yellow pigment, red, and orange. Red pigment produced by fungi used as natural food color since many centuries ago, especially by people in Asian countries, like China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Philippines. The red color of angkak has a potential as a synthetic substitute for red color, currently very wide use in various food products. The results showed that the pigment of angkak have an antimicrobial activity, so it is suitable for use as a coloring agent in foods that easy contaminated with microbes. Thus, angkak has a double role, as well as food color and preservatives. Angkak shown inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and bacterium, such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Research on minced tuna jerked processing using angkak has been carried out in order to reduce mold and inhibit bacterial growth.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS Raw materials used in this study were minced of tuna, while the other materials are angkak and spices i.e. brown sugar, salt, coriander, white sugar, tamarind, and galangal. Formula for making minced tuna jerked is as follows: -

100 g tuna minced 12 g white sugar 20 g brown sugar 4 g salt 5 g coriander 1.5 g tamarind 5 g galangal 2 g ginger 1 g garlic 1.5 g red onion

Jerked meat products has done by adding minced of tuna mixed with mashed spices. Made the dough in a thin sheet 2-3 mm and dried for 12 hours. Observation using organoleptic characteristics (appearance, color, odor, taste and texture), microbiological test (mold, Total Plate Count). Procedures of processing minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 1. RESULTS ANDDISCUSSION Organoleptic Organoleptic observation of minced tuna jerked includes of appearance, color, odor, taste and texture. Organoleptic observation showed that the addition of 1.5% angkak is the highest score, followed by treatment with a concentration of 1.0% , 0.5% and control (0%). This indicates that the panelists preferred odor of minced tuna jerked with the addition of 1.5% angkak with brick red color, spicy odor, delicious, and the texture is not too hard. Hedonic score of control treatment was lowest with pale color and less attractive. Hedonic score of organoleptic of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 2. Appearance Appearance of minced tuna jerked products with the addition of angkak showed that the highest score is the addition of 1.5% angkak and the lowest is a control. The appearance looks bright, attractive and reasonably flat surface. Hedonic score of appearance of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 3. Color The color of minced tuna jerked products indicates that the highest is the addition of 1.5% angkak treatment and the lowest is control treatment. Product looks dark beige color for the control treatment up to a red brick to a bright for 1.5% angkak treatment. Hedonic score of color of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 4.

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MINCED TUNA

SPICE ADDED

ANGKAK ADDITION : 0%; 0,5%; 1,0%; 1,5%

MAKING DRYING: 12SHEET HOURS LEMBARAN

MINCED TUNA JERKED PRODUCTS LUMAT IKAN TUNA PACKING

ANALYSIS:: -

SENSORY MICROBIOLOGY

Figure 1. Flow chart of minced

tuna jerked products processing.

Figure 2. Hedonic score of organoleptic of minced tuna jerked products from various treatments

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Figure 3. Hedonic score of appearance of minced tuna jerked products from various treatments

Figure 4. Hedonic score of color of minced tuna jerked products from various treatments

Odor Odor of minced tuna jerked products indicates that the highest is the addition of 1.5% angkak and the lowest is 1.5% of control treatment. Product odors quite fragrant, flavor and odor of fish was less. Hedonic score of odor observation of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 5. 9.0 8.0 7.0

6.0 5.0 4.0 0

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

Figure 5. Hedonic score of color of minced tuna jerked products 307

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from various treatments

Taste Taste observation of minced tuna jerked products showed that the highest score is the addition of 1.5% angkak treatment and the lowest is control. Product smells quite fragrant, flavor and odor of fish was less smell. Aroma and flavor has very important role for determining the degree of acceptance and quality of food. From various human senses only a taste and smell that is able to distinguish various chemical substances (Sultary & Kaseger, 1974; Soedarmo, 1976). Hedonic score of odor of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Hedonic score of odor of minced tuna jerked products from various treatments

Texture Texture observation of minced tuna jerked products showed that the highest is the addition of 1.5% angkak treatment and the lowest is control. Texture is tough enough, compact, slightly moist especially for 1.5% angkak treatment. According to Anonymous (2009), the use of angkak can improve the texture and flavor, especially in processing of sausage. Hedonic score of texture of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Texture evaluation of minced tuna jerked products Mold 308

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Microbiological test of mold showed that the number of mold is the lowest on 1.5% angkak treatment i.e. 1.0 x102 CFU/g and the highest is control (0% angkak) about 2.4 x103 CFU/g. Microbiological test of mold of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8. Number of mold of minced tuna jerked products Total Plate Count (TPC) Microbiological of TPC test of minced tuna jerked products showed that the number of bacteria of 1.5% angkak treatment is the lowest, i.e. 10 CFU/g and the highest is control (0% angkak) at 2.5 x 102 CFU/g. According to Astawan (2004), spices useful for flavor added, taste, and to extend shelflife , and some types of spices are also known as anti-microbial. According to Anonymous (2009), angkak pigment has activity as an antimicrobial, so it is suitable for use as a coloring agent in foods easy contaminated with microbes. Thus, angkak has double function, as well as food color and preservatives. Angkak has been shown to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and spore destroyed bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Number of microbiological test of minced tuna jerked products shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9. Number of TPC of microbiological test ofminced tuna jerked products CONCLUSION Result of research on using angkak to inhibit mold growth indicates that the 1.5% concentration of angkak quite inhibiting mold growth than the other treatments. The sensory evaluation, minced tuna jerked products shown with the addition of 1.5% angkak 309

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is the best, the color is bright brick red, while other treatment is more dull and uninteresting. Thus, the addition of angkak not only as a food color but also as a preservative. REFERENCES Anonymous. 2008. Komitmen pada Mutu dan Keamanan Produk Perikanan. (http://www. trobos. com/show_article.php?rid=23&aid=1291). Diakses tanggal 12 Oktober 2010. Anonymous. 2009a. Dilema Pewarna Makanan. http://www.halalguide.info/ 2009/05/25 /dilema-pewarnamakanan. Diakses tanggal 3 Oktober 2010. Anonymous. 2009b. Sidat asap, dendeng sidat, dan sidat beku. http://books.google com/books? dharga+dendeng+sidat &source=bl&ots =SU3mh 9BsS0& sig =4Bk1. Diakses 24 Februari 2010. Anonymous. 2010. Ketika Keamanan pangan kita diragukan. lihatartikel.php?id=38. Diakses tanggal 3 Oktober 2010.

http://www.csrreview-online.com/

Aprianto A, D Fardiaz, N L Puspitasari, Sedarnawati, S Budiyanto. 1989. Analisa Pangan (Petunjuk Laboratorium Depdikbud. PAU. IPB, Bogor. Astawan, M. 2004. Dapatkan Protein dari Dendeng. Kompas CyberMedia 23 April 2004.http://www.gizi.net/cgi-bin/berita/ fullnews. cgi?newsid1083217242,86128. Diakses 5 Januari 2010. Bachtiar, L. Dyah Koesoemawardani, Fibra Nurainy. 2009. Pengaruh Penambahan Rumput laut Coklat (Sargassum sp) terhadap sifat kimia dan organoleptik restrukturisasi dendeng giling ikan rucah. Universitas Lampung. Koesoemawardani, D. 2006. Restrukturisasi Dendeng Ikan Rucah Menggunakan Alginat. Prosiding Seminar Hasil-Hasil Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Tanggal 6-7 September 2006. Lembaga Penelitian Universitas Lampung. Savitry, A.R. Widjanarko, S.B. dan Saparianti, E. 2003. Restrukturisasi Dendeng Giling Tetelan Daging Sapi Dengan Alginat Hasil Ekstraksi Rumput Laut Coklat (Sargassum SP). Seminar Nasional dan PATPI. Yogyakarta, 22-23 Juli 2003. Soeparno. 1994. Ilmu dan Teknologi Daging. UGM Press, Yogyakarta. Soputan, J.E.M. 2004. Dendeng sapi sebagai alternatif pengawetan daging. Pengantar ke Falsafah Sains. Sekolah Pascasarjana / S3. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Standar Nasional Indonesia 01-3707. 1995. Mutu Dendeng Sapi. Badan Standar Nasional. BSN. Susilawati. Dyah , K., FIBRA, N. 2007. Optimasi Pengolahan Produk Restrukturisasi Dendeng Ikan Rucah Dengan Bahan Pengikat Rumput Laut Sargassum sp. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung. Zaifbio.

2009.Pengolahan dan pengawetan bahan makanan zaifbio.wordpress.com/ Diakses tanggal 2 Nopember 2010 .

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EFFECT OF HEATING ON BREADFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS) WITH OVEN TO POLYPHENOL AND POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY AND ITS EFFECT ON FLAVOR OF PRODUCT MADE BYPREHEATED BREADFRUIT FLOUR Nanit Annisaa Nuur Ragadewe, Sutardi, and Eni Harmayani Departement of Food and Agricultural Product Technology Faculty of Agricultural Technology Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

ABSTRACT The aim of the research was to study the effect of pre-heating using of breadfruit on polyphenol content and polyphenol oxidase activity, and also to reduce the bitterness and brown color of food products made by pre-heated breadfruit flour. The breadfruit was pre-heated using oven at 150°C for 40 min and the yield of breadfruit flour was analyzed its moisture content, polyphenol content, and polyphenol oxidase activity. Products made by breadfruit flour i.e. sweet banana cakes (nagasari) and cookies were then evaluated organoleptically to determine the differences of their flavor and color. The results showed that pre-heating of whole breadfruit using oven at 150°C for 40 min was significantly reduce the moisture content, polyphenol content, and polyphenol oxidase activity of breadfruit flesh and breadfruit flour. Bitterness and brown color of sweet banana cakes and cookies made by pre-heated breadfruit flour were significantly decrease compared to unheated breadfruit flour (control). Keywords: Breadfruit, Pre-heating,Polyphenol, Polyphenol oxidase activity, Bitterness, Enzymatic browning reaction.

INTRODUCTION Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is one of agricultural biomass as a source of carbohydrate and it is belong to climacteric fruit, therefore breadfruit is easily spoilage or perisable and its storage life is relatively short. Processing of breadfruit flour is one of alternative efforts to extent the storage life of breadfruit and also to make breadfruit flour is more flexible to produce any kind of snack foods. Breadfruit flour production consist of several stages i.e. peeling, slicing and drying either by artificial drying or sundrying (Sutardi, 1995). Such process may cause very sensitive to contact with oxygen, therefore the potency of occurring enzymatic reaction is strong enough. It is become constrains in utilization of breadfruit flour, and it is due to the forming of brown color pigment and bitter taste that can reduce the preferability of food products made from breadfruit flour. Breadfruit flesh has sticky plant-sap containing polyphenol compound and also polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme (Bakar and Nurbaya, 1979). The accumulation of polyphenol compound in a certain agricultural products is varies in location, for example available in leafs, fruits or seeds. Kind of plants, species, variety, season and location on cultivation are also to affect on the level of polyphenol content of biomass (Hulme, 1970). Flavonon is one compound of polyphenol that available in breadfruit (Amarasinghe, 2008), and several flavonon compounds are able to generate bitter taste in food products (Hulme, 1970). Pre-heating treatment on high temperature in short time biside to reduce the amount of polyphenol compound, is also to increase the quality of breadfruit flour, especially on reduction or elimination of bitter taste and formation of brown pigment. Several pretreatments on breadfruit flesh have been done such as soaking of breadfruit flesh in sodium bisulphite solution (Sutardi, 1995), soaking of breadfruit flesh in acid solution (Asfiyah,

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1997), boiling of breadfruit flesh (Uswatun, 2009) and heating using oven and microwave (Utomo, 2009). One of all pre-treatments, however pre-heating by using oven is one of the method that can be easily applicated and it doesn‘t have any risk to increase the moisture content of breadfruit flesh that will accelerate the drying process. In this experiment, therefore pre-heating of breadfruit flesh was simply conducted regarding to eliminate formation of brown pigment on breadfruit flour and it was subsequently expected to eliminate the bitter taste on processed foods made from preheated breadfruit flour. Sweet banana cakes (nagasari) and cookies were made from preheated breadfruit flour in order to find evidence that bitter taste was not vailable either in sweet banana cakes (wet product type) or cookies (dry product type) that probably have different intensity on bitter taste and brown color. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Optimal maturity breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) of Cilacap variety was purchased from farmer in Gamping Sub-District, Bantul, Yogyakarta, and conventional breadfruit flour as control was obtained from producer in Kulonprogo District, Yogyakarta. Preparation of pre-heated breadfruit flour Pre-heated breadfruit flours were prepared following the method of Utomo (2009). Whole breadfruits were washed, drained and then pre-heated in the oven at 150oC for 40 min. Pre-heated breadfruits were peeled and sliced with + 1 mm thickness using slicer. Breadfruit chips were then dried in the cabinet dryer at 55 oC for 12 hours or until the breadfruit chips become dry that indicated by brittleness. Dried breadfruit chips were milled and sieved using 60 mesh siever to produce fine breadfruit flour. Analysis of polyphenol compound and assay of polyphenol oxidase activity Polyphenol compound was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method (Ranganna, 1977) and polyphenol oxidase activity was assayed by using Gardjito and Wardhana method (2003) for 3 samples of pre-heated breadfruit flesh consisting of breadfruit flesh close with skin (+ 1.5 cm thick from skin), breadfruit flesh close with core (+ 1.5 cm thick from core) and the rest flesh as middle part of flesh and also for pre-heated breadfruit flour. The moisture content of all samples were also analyzed by thermogravimetry method (Anonim, 1995). All of the collected data were then analyzed statistically using Analysis of Variance and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with degree of significancy 95%. Preparation of sweet banana cakes and cookies Sweet banana cakes and cookies were made from pre-heated breadfruit flour, conventional breadfruit flour and rice flour as usual raw material for sweet banana cakes and wheat flour as usual raw material for cookies production (as controls). Preparation of sweet banana cakes following the procedure of Sutardi (1995), while preparation of cookies following the procedure of Smith (1972). Sweet banana cakes as type of wet product and cookies as type of dry product were organoleptically tested using scoring method (scale 1 to 7) (Larmond, 1977) by 20 panelist in order to evaluate the difference of sensory attributes on sweet banana cakes and cookies. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Moisture content

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Moisture content of all part pre-heated breadfruit flesh tend to decrease in the amount of 2.68, 2.89 and 4.14% for flesh close with skin(outer flesh), middle flesh and flesh close with core (inner flesh), respectively (Table 1). It was due to strong evavoration of moisture during pre-heating treatment in oven at 150oC for 40 min. The biggest decreasing of moisture occurred at inner flesh. Moisture content of fresh breadfruit flesh close with skin 69.53% was slightly higher than middle flesh 68.34% and inner flesh 65.94%. Similar evidence was also occur on pre-heated breadfruit flesh. This results were similar with the results of research conducted by Graham and Negron (1981) who mentioned that moisture content of breadfruit flesh tend to decrease toward part of core. While moisture content of pre-heated breadfruit flour 8.46% (Table2) was lower than trade requirement of moisture content for most flours i.e. maximum 14.5%. Table 1. Moisture content (% wb) of fresh and pre-heated breadfruit flesh Breadfruit flesh Type of pre-treatments Fresh Pre-heating cp*) Breadfruit flesh, outer flesh 69.53 + 0.09 67.67 + 0.27cq bp Breadfruit flesh, middle flesh 68.34 + 0.13 66.36 + 0.41bq ap Breadfruit flesh, inner flesh 65.04 + 0.71 62.35 + 0.18aq *)

The different first letter following the number in the same colum show significant different (p< 0.05), while the second letter following the number in the same row show significant different (p< 0.05). Table 2.Moisture content (% wb) of breadfruit and other flours as control Type of flours Moisture content (% db) Breadfruit flour (conventional method) 11.63 + 0.22b*) Pre-heated breadfruit flour 8.46 + 0.09a Rice flour (as control) 11.99 + 0.09b Wheat flour (as control) 11.87 + 0.05b

*)

The different letter following the number in the same colum show significant different (p < 0.05).

Polyphenol compound Decreasing of polyphenol compound after pre-heating of whole breadfruit was significantly caused by decomposition of polyphenol compound at high temperature (Siwela, 2007). It is probably due to the reaction between polyphenol compound and other compounds such as protein and polysaccharide that cause the solubility of polyphenol compound decrease and subsequently it was undetected as polyphenol compound (Cheynier, 2008). The decreasing of polyphenol compound was different for each sample (Table 3). Polyphenol in outer flesh decreased 52.78%, middle flesh 48.61% and inner flesh 42.62%, respectively. Towards to outer flesh, however the degree of polyphenol reduction was increase. It can be understood that heat transfer during heating of whole breadfruit starts from outer flesh towards to inner flesh gradually that followed by decreasing of polyphenol content in similar way. Table 3. Polyphenol content (tannic acid eq., % db) of fresh and pre-heated breadfruit flesh. Breadfruit flesh Type of pre-treatments Fresh Pre-heating Breadfruit flesh, outer flesh 1.08 + 0.11 ap*) 0.51 + 0.14 ap Breadfruit flesh, middle flesh 1.44 + 0.16 bp 0.74 + 0.15 bq cp Breadfruit flesh, inner flesh 2.37 + 0.39 1.36 + 0.18 cq *)

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different (p< 0.05), while the second letter following the number in the same row show significant different (p< 0.05). Outer flesh of fresh breadfruit contains 1.08% polyphenol that was slightly lower than middle flesh (1.44%) and polyphenol content of inner flesh 2.37% was the highest. The similar phenomena was also performed by pre-heated breadfruit flesh i.e. 0.51% for outer flesh, 0.74% for middle flesh and 1.36% for inner flesh. Towards to inner flesh, therefore polyphenol content of the fresh and pre-heated breadfruit flesh were increase. The reason is that polyphenol content in breadfruit flesh was concentrated in inner flesh and it may be due to genetic factors as described by Hulme (1970). The higher polyphenol content on fresh breadfruit flesh having higher potency on generating bitter taste and occurring of enzymatic reaction that will create brown color pigment on produced breadfruit flour. Table 4 shows that polyphenol content of pre-heated breadfruit flour was lower than conventional breadfruit flour. It may be due to the effect of heating at high temperature for whole breadfruits which cause decomposition of polyphenol compound (Siwela, 2007), While polyphenol content of rice and wheat flour as controls were lower than either fresh or pre-heated breadfruit flours. These facts confirmed that forming bitter taste and brown color pigment on rice and wheat flour are rarely occur when both flours are processed to food products. Table 4. Polyphenol (tannic acid eq., % db) of breadruit and other flour as control Type of flours Polyphenol (% db) Breadfruit flour (conventional method) 2.30 + 0.21a*) Pre-heated breadfruit flour 1.06 + 0.03b Rice flour as control 0.04 + 0.01d Wheat flour as control 0.25 + 0.06c *)

The different letter following the number in the same colum show significant different (p < 0.05).

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity Activity of polyphenol oxidase enzyme decreas was due to inactivation of PPO as effect of heating on high temperature (150oC) for 40 min. The heating of whole breadfruits were to inactivate PPO enzyme and to prevent the contact between enzyme, subtrate (polyphenol) and oxygen from the air, so that enzymatic browning and bitter taste forming can be protected (Utomo, 2009). PPO activities of samples (breadfruit flesh) were not significantly different as shown in Tabel 5. Table 5. Polyphenol oxidase activity (unit) of fresh and pre-heated breadfruit flesh Breadfruit flesh Type of pre-treatments Fresh Pre-heating Breadfruit flesh, outer flesh 43.72 + 0.34ap*) 0.83 + 0.28aq Breadfruit flesh, middle flesh 128.17 + 0.48bp 2.94 + 0.39bq Breadfruit flesh, inner flesh 279.72 + 0.39cp 6.06 + 0.41cq *)

The different first letter following the number in the same colum show significant different (p< 0.05), while the second letter following the number in the same row show significant different (p< 0.05). One unit of enzyme activity was defined as quantity necessary to produce an increase in absorbance of 0.001 per 1 µmol of catechol per min.

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The PPO activity of outer flesh (43.72 units) decreased + 98.10% to be 0.83 units, while middle flesh decreased 97.71% and inner flesh decreased 97.83%. Similar results were performed by Utomo (2009) who described that pre-cooking of breadfruit was significantly able to reduce PPO activity. PPO activities on either fresh or pre-heated breadfruit flesh show similar profile, and PPO activities towards to inner flesh increase gradually. It was described by Bakar and Nurbaya (1979) that inner flesh of breadfruit having sticky plant-sap vessels in which a lot of polyphenol compound and PPO are present. If both elements are contact with oxygen of the air, therefore the brown color pigment will appear. The PPO activity of pre-heated breadfruit flour was only 2.89 units and it was very low equal to + 12.5% of the PPO activity of conventional breadfruit flour 23.22 units (Table 6). Akkisoe and Mestres (2005) observed that in-activation of total PPO on yam chips (Dioscorea retundata) occured as impact of heating on 70oC for 30 min. In other words that stability of PPO to the heat are varies depend on type of the biomass. It is clear that pre-heating on biomass is able to reduce PPO activity of breadfruit flour and subsequently reduce the potency of enzymatic oxidation or enzymatic browning reaction. Table 6. Polyphenol oxidase activity (unit) of breadfruit flour and other flours as Control Type of flours Polyphenol oxidase activity (unit) Breadfruit flour (conventional method) 23.22 + 0.97a*) Pre-heated breadfruit flour 2.89 + 0.27b Rice flour 0.89 + 0.17d Wheat flour 1.17 + 0.35c *) The different letter following the number in the same colum show significant different (p < 0.05). Sensory characteristics of sweet banana cakes and cookies Yield of pre-heated breadfruit flour and control flour (rice and wheat flour) were made to produce sweet banana cakes as wet product type and cookies as dry product type. Both sweet banana and cookies performed different specific sensory attributes such bitter taste or bitter flavor and brownish color (Table 7 and Table 8). Sweet banana cakes presented stronger bitter taste intensity than cookies (Table 7). It was evidence that processed food in wet condition showed stronger bitter taste than dry processed food such as cookies. Asfiyah (1997) described that decreasing of bitter taste on dry products larger than wet products type. Disappearance of bitter taste in several products especially made from breadfruit flour is depend on recipe used for cooking. Because each compound used in recipe and their interaction to the raw material will affect on required specific taste or flavor. Either sweet banana cakes or cookies made from preheated breadfruit flour gained improved taste or far less bitter taste compared with same products that made from conventional breadfruit flour (without pre-heating or in-activation of PPO enzyme). Undesirable bitter taste on breadfruit products, therefore can be reduced by modification of recipe as described by Sutardi (1995). The color of finished products were affected by the original of raw material color, although the color of food products appear after cooking. Because cooking using heat in dry condition such as bakery will generate a new intensive brownish color such cookies. Thus, the color of processed food are more affected by processing method. Sweet banana cakes made from pre-heated breadfruit flour was more bright than same product made from conventional breadfruit flour. Moreover nearly similar with the color of sweet banana cake made from rice flour as usual raw material.

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Table 7. Sensory difference test on taste of pre-heated breadfruit flour based food products Type of flours Processed food products Sweet banana cakes Cookies ap*) Breadfruit flour (conventional method) 2.65 + 0.74 3.20 + 0.61aq bq Pre-heated breadfruit flour 4.75 + 0.71 5.15 + 0.72bq cr Rice flour for sweet banana cakes and 5.90 + 0.21 6.50 + 0.68cr wheat flour for cookies *) The different first letter following the number in the same colum show significant different (p< 0.05), while the second letter following the number in the same row show significant different (p< 0.05). Note: 1 = very strong bitter – 7 = no bitter taste Brown color appearance of cookies was more due to the Maillard reaction or nonenzymatic browning raction that occurred during baking of cookies in the oven at 170 oC for 30 min. Several recipes to make cookies using a lot of sugar and eggs may accelerate to forming brown pigment or caramel. Therefore, the color of cookies tend to have brown appearance as shown in Table 8. Table 8. Sensory difference test on color of pre-heated breadfruit flour based food products Type of flours Processed food products Sweet banana Cookies cakes Breadfruit flour (conventional method) 2.85 + 0.67ap*) 6.20 + 0.71aq bq Pre-heated breadfruit flour 2.05 + 0.69 5.30 + 0.70bq cp Control flours (Rice flour for sweet 1.80 + 0.31 4.10 + 0.63cq banana cake and wheat flour for cookies) *)

The different first letter following the number in the same colum show significant different (p< 0.05), while the second letter following the number in the same row show significant different (p< 0.05). 1 = pure white – 7 = strong brown CONCLUSIONS

Pre-heating treatment using oven at 150 oC for 40 min on whole breadfruit was able to reduce polyphenol compound in outer, middle and inner flesh 52.78, 48.61 and 42.62%, respectively. While PPO activity was also decrease on outer flesh + 97.83%, middle flesh + 97.70%, and inner flesh 98.01% . The activity of PPO on pre-heated breadfruit flour decreased 87.55%, and it was followed by decreasing of 53.91%. polyphenol compound. Intensity of bitter taste and brownish color on sweet banana cakesand cookies made from pre-heated breadfruit flour was relatively very low compared to the same products that made from conventional breadfruit flour. REFERENCES Akkisoe, N. and Mestres, C., 2005. Biochemical Origin of Browning during the Processing of Fresh Yam (Dioscorea spp.) into Dried Product. J. Agric. Food Chem, 53(2005):2552−2557. Amarasinghe, 2008. Chemical Constituents of The Fruits of Artocarpus altilis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36 (2008):323-325.

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Anonim, 1995. Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Asfiyah. H., 1997. Pengaruh Kondisi Perendaman Irisan Daging Buah Sukun (Artocarpus altilis) Terhadap Mutu Tepung yang Dihasilkan. Skripsi S-1, Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Bakar dan Nurbaya, S., 1979. Mempelajari Pemanfatan buah Sukun Sebagai Bahan Pembuat Tepung serta Pengaruh Blenching dan Cara Pengeringan Terhadap Rendemen dan Faktor Mutu di dalam Proses Pembuatannya. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. Cheynier, V., 2008.Polyphenols in Foods are More Complex Than Often Thought. International Conference on Poplyphenols and Health, France. Gardjito, M. dan Wardhana, A. S., 2003.Hortikultura: Teknik Analisis Pasca Panen. Transmedia Global Wacana, Yogyakarta. Graham, H. D. and Negron, E., 1981.Composition of the Breadfruit. J. Sci., 46 (2):535-537. Hulme, A. C., 1970. The Biochemistry of Fruits and Their Products. Academic Press, New York. Larmond, E., 1977. Laboratory Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Food.Canada department of Agriculture.Kromar Printing Ltd. Ottawa. Ranganna, S., 1977. Manual of Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Products. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi. Siwela, 2007. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensory Acceptability of Wheat-Finger Millet Composite Cookies.Thesis Master of Science, Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Smith, W. H., 1972. Biscuit, Crackers and Cookies Technology, Production, and Management.Applied Science Publisher, London. Sutardi, 1995. Laporan Penelitian : Pengkajian Pembuatan Tepung Sukun dan Prospek Pengembangannya. Universitas Gadjah Mada dan Menteri Negara Urusan PanganBulog, Jakarta. Uswatun, A., 2009. Pengaruh Perlakuan Pramasan Menggunakan Oven Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Fisik Tepung Sukun (Artocarpus altilis). Skripsi S-1, Jurusan Teknologi Pengolahan Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, FTP UGM, Yogyakarta. Utomo, B., 2009. Pengaruh Perlakuan Pramasak Dengan Perebusan dan Pengukusan Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Fisik Tepung Sukun (Artocarpus altilis). Skripsi S-1, Jurusan Teknologi Pengolahan Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, FTP UGM, Yogyakarta.

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THE EFFECT OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PECTIN FROM BANANAPEEL ON DIGESTA AND LIPID PROFILE OF HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA RATS Nur Kholis1,2*, Mesa Dewi Puspita1, Sayidatul Siti Jamilah1, Hafiz Iqbal Maulana1, Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih1 1 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia 2 Ma Chung Research Centre for Photosynthetic Pigment, Indonesia * Email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Pectin had been successful extracted from banana peel with the yield of 15,7%. As a dietary fiber, pectin has functional properties to improve the health of digestion track and maintain blood cholesterol. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of oral administration of pectin derived from banana peel on digesta and lipid profile of hypercholesterolemia rats. Then, it was compared with oral administration of commercial pectin and banana peel meal. The result showed that there was an increasing of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in feces and caecum digesta of rats fed by banana peel pectin. It was followed by increasing of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production in caecum digesta of rats. Oral administration of banana peel pectin to the hypercholesterolemia rats also affected on decreasing of trigliseride, total cholesterol, LDL, and increasing of HDL of blood serum. Its effect was significant different (P<0,05) compared with oral administration of banana peel meal, but it was not significant different (P>0,05) compared with oral administration of commercial pectin. Key words: pectin, banana peel, digesta profile, lipid profile, hypercholesterolemia rat

INTRODUCTION The global demand of commercial pectin relatively increases until 35.000 tons per year (Food Navigator, 2009). Natural pectin has been explored from citrus peel, passion fruit rind, and apple pulp by the yield of extracted pectin of 10,75%, 14,06%, 20,92% respectively (Huong and Luyen, 1989; Laga, et al.,2001; Schemin, et al.,2005). Recently, pectin is also successful extracted from banana peel by the yield of 16% (Erawati, 2009). Pectin is an ingredient widely used in the food industry not only due to its physical properties as gelling agent (Dinu, 2001) but also its pharmaceutical properties (Georgieva, 1992; Cara, et al., 1993; Kim, 2005). Hotchkiss, et al. (2003) for the first time proves that the fraction of pectin derived from citrus peel has properties as a prebiotic agent. Gibson and Roberfroid (1995) define prebiotic as an undigested compound that selectively stimulates the growth of beneficial gut bacteria so that promote the health of gastrointestinal tract. Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli are two major bacteria genus that can beneficially colonize in the human colon (Gibson, et al., 1999) by the amount reached 10 10-1011 cells/ml (Gibson, et al., 2006). Prebiotic compound will be fermented by gut bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid (Monsma, et al., 2000; Khattak, 2002). It will affect on decreasing of colonic pH level (Apajalahti, et al., 2002), which can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Rycroft, et al., 2001). The high production of SCFA has been proven effective in preventing of colon cancer (Klurfeld,

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1997; Hughes and Rowland, 2001) and tumor (Bugaut and Bentejac, 1993; Smith et al. 1998) as well as decreasing of blood cholesterol (Berggren, et al. 1996; Hara, et al., 1999). Titgemeyer, et al. (1991) reported that SCFA produced from fermentation of citrus peel pectin has different composition compared with fermentation of apple pectin. According to Junihadi, et al. (2009) that banana peel juice can be utilized as a substrate for fermentation by Lactobacillus casei. It shows that pectin from banana peel may play role as prebiotic agent which can stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon. On the other hand, intake of pectin, as a kind of high solubility fibre (Schemin, et al., 2005), is effective in lowering blood cholesterol level (Luthi, 2009). Oral administration of pectin from citrus peel on pigs is able to decrease VLDL, LDL, and total cholesterol level of 67.1%, 41.1%, and 49.4%, respectively (Ahrens, et al. 1986). There is however, no information that describes the functional properties of banana peel pectin especially for its role as prebiotic agent and cholesterol controller. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of banana peel pectin on digesta and lipid profile of hypercholesterolemia rats. Then, it was compared with commercial pectin and banana peel meal to determine the effectiveness of banana peel pectin either in maintaining of colon health or controlling of serum lipid.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials. Banana peels were obtained and collected from the home industry waste of banana processing in Malang city, Indonesia. All chemical materials were purchased from Panadia, Co. Indonesia. Male albino wistar rats (8 weeks of age and 100-150 of weight) were employed in this study. They were fed by different composition of diet according on Tabel 1. All animals and diets were purchased from Nutritional Laboratory, Brawijaya University, Indonesia. Table 1. The composition of experimental diet (g/100g) C (-) C (+)* Composition T1 T2 T3 Comfeed PARS 67 53 53 53 53 Wheat flour 33 26 26 26 26 Boiled egg yolk 5 5 5 5 Goat fat 10 10 10 10 Pig fat 5 5 5 5 Coconut oil 1 1 1 1 Banana peel meal 5,8 Banana peel pectin 0,5 Commercial pectin 0,5 * Triana and Nurhidayat (2006) C(-) = normal diet; C(+) = hypercholesterolemia diet; T1 = Treatment 1; Treatment 2; T3 = Treatment 3

T2 =

Pectin extraction. Fresh banana peels were soaked in 0.5% sodium metabisulphite solution for 15 minutes and blanched for 10 minutes. It was then dried (40°C for 8 hours), grinded and sieved to obtain 60 mesh of banana peel meal in size (Erawati, 2009). Banana peel meal were extracted using citric acid (pH 2) with the ratio of 1:20 (material: solvent w/v), and stirred at temperature of 90oC for 1 hour. Filtered the suspension and remove the

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residual solid. Filtrate was then evaporated using vacuum rotavapour to remove the acid solvent. The evaporated filtrate was re-extracted by 96% ethanol with the ratio of 1:2 (material: solvent w/v) for 10 minutes and precipitated for 2 hours. Precipitated pectin was separated using filter and washed by 70% and 96% ethanol, respectively. Wet pectin was dried and grinded to obtain pectin powder (Schemin, et al., 2005). Animal studies. Wistar rats were acclimatized for one week with ad libitium access to drinking water and normal diet. Post-acclimatization, the rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on different kind of experimental diet (see Table 1). All group were treated with those diets for 3 weeks (Cholis, 2007). The rat‘s body weight were measured every week and the feces were removed for measuring of pH value and LAB (lactic acid bacteria) total. At the end of treatment, all rats were killed under anaesthesia with chloroform. The caecum (part of colon) was removed for analysing of colonic pH value (AOAC, 1990), LAB total (Lay, 1994) and level of SCFA (Titgemeyer, et al. 1991). The cardiac blood was also removed for analysis of level of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL (Gerhardt and Gallo, 1998). Data analysis. The means were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test (α = 0,05). Statistical analysis performed using SPSS 13.0 for Windows.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effects of Banana Peel Pectin on Digesta Profile As prebiotic compounds, pectin from banana peel was expected to be able to promote the health of gastrointestinal tract. Intake prebiotic compounds have an impact on increasing the number of beneficial gut bacteria (Macfarlane and Cummings, 1999; Henningsson, et al., 2002). In Fig.1a shows that there was an significant increasing of the LAB number in feces of rat groups fed either by banana peel pectin or commercial pectin during 3 weeks treatment. It was followed by decreasing of pH value in feces of both groups (Fig.1b). Waites, et al. (2001) defined LAB as lactic acid-producing bacteria which effectively grow in the healthy digestive tract. Matteuzi, et al. (2003) reported that administration of feed containing fiber as prebiotic for 20 days in experimental animal can significantly increase the number of LAB. In this case, the major indigenous LAB in human intestinal is Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria genus (Gibson, et al., 2006). Fermentation by LAB will produce organic acids as main metabolic resulting on decreasing of pH value in feces (Yang, 2000). (b)

(a)

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Fig 1. Changing of LAB number (a) and pH value (b) in rat feces Prebiotic effects of banana peel pectin can also be observed by its capability to stimulate the growth of LAB in the colon and produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Table 2 shows that group of rats fed by banana peel pectin had significant increasing of colonic LAB compared with the control groups. It means that pectin from banana peel was effective as an agent of prebiotic. According to Gibson and Williams (2000) that one of the criteria to be claimed as prebiotic agent was its selectivity as substrates for growing of beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract. Previously, Hotchkiss, et al. (2003) reported that prebiotic property of pectin due to its greater persistence through the colon. Oral administration of banana peel meal had less number of colonic LAB than banana peel pectin or commercial pectin administration. It means that pectin is the main component of banana peel that play role as prebiotic. Pectin is a kind of indigestible fiber which will be fermented in human colon (Jenkins, et al., 2002). Table 2. LAB total and SCFA composition in caecum digesta of rats Group of rats Control Control + Banana peel meal Banana peel pectin Commercial pectin

LAB total (log cfu/g) 9,14 a 9,49 a 10,11 b 11,08 c 10,87 c

pH 6,86 c 6,73 c 6,57 b 6,33 a 6,38 a

Acetic 5,83 b 5,21 a 6,74 c 7,23 c 7,11 c

SCFA (mg/g) Propionic Butyric 2,01 b 1,07 a 1,22 a 0,97 a 3,03 c 1,52 ab 3,54 d 1,61 b 3,50 d 1,62 b

Total 8,91 b 7,40 a 11,29 c 12,38 d 12,23 d

One of the functional properties of dietary prebiotic is the presence of SCFA produced during the fermentation by colonic bacteria. Table 2 shows that rat group fed with banana peel pectin had the highest level of colonic SCFA and was significant different (P<0.05) compared with others group except the commercial pectin group. According to Khattak (2002) that SCFA is the fermentation product of complex carbohydrates with large molecular size, such as resistant starch and dietary fiber. These carbohydrates can not be digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract but will be fermented in the colon by various bacteria. In this case, SCFA play role in preventing of colon cancer risk, especially for the fraction of propionic and butyric acid (Hughes and Rowland, 2001). On the other hand, the colonic pH value also decreased as the impact of increasing of SCFA level. The pH value indicated the disassociation level of H+ ions from the environment, in which the acid components (i.g SCFA) were the major donor of H+ ions. The low pH value of the environment will be useful to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the colon, such as E. coli and Salmonella sp. (Cholis, 2007). Effects of Banana Peel Pectin on Lipid Profile Pectin is known as a soluble fibre found in the cell walls of many plants. Many studies have, in fact, shown the beneficial effects of soluble fibres on body weight management (Artiss, et al., 2006), plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels (Anderson, et al., 2000; Jenkins, et al., 2002), and diabetes (Jenkins, et al., 2000; Brennan, 2005). This study determined the effect of oral administration of banana peel on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemia rats. Lipid profile was generally measured from the blood plasma consisted of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL (Siddiqua, et al., 2010).

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Group of rats Control Control + Banana peel meal Banana peel pectin Commercial pectin

Triglyceride 113 a 198 d 131 c 125 bc 119 ab

Lipid composition (mg/dL) Cholesterol LDL 110 a 43 a 231 d 161 d 158 c 87 c 125 b 74 b 120 b 70 b

HDL 34 b 22 a 29 b 33 b 33 b

Table 3. Profile of serum lipid of rats Table 3 shows that administration of pectin either from banana peel or commercial product resulted in a significant decrease (P<0.05) in total cholesterol of hypercholesterolemia rats. Pectin had been previously observed having a function in lowering of cholesterol (Cara, et al., 1993). This effect depend on the kind of pectin source. Apple pectin had demonstrated a better cholesterol lowering effect than orange pectin (Gonzalez, et al., 1998). In this study, banana peel pectin was able to decrease the cholesterol level up to 45,89% for 3 weeks treatment. The mechanism of pectin in lowering cholesterol was through the binding of bile acids in the small intestine which caused increasing of bile acids excretion in feces as well as synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol as raw material (Suskovic et al., 2001). This cholesterol lowering was also followed by the significant decreasing (P<0.05) of triglyceride and LDL level. Sanchez, et al. (2008) reported that the addition of 10% of apple pectin to the diet resulted in a significant decrease in triglycerides of rats. The hypotriglyceridemic effect may be due to a decrease of fatty acids synthesis (Bopanna et al., 1997), enhanced catabolism of LDL, activation of LCAT and tissues lipases (Khanna et al., 2002) and/or inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (McCarty, 2001) and production of triglycerides precursors such acetyl-CoA and glycerol phosphate. On the other hand, HDL level was significant increasing (P<0.05) in group of rats fed by either banana peel meal or pectin. According to Spector (1993) that HDL was a type of cholesterol that useful for human body. Higher levels of HDL in plasma, lower risk of disease related with atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION Pectin extracted from banana peel was proved having a prebiotic effect initial indicated by the profile of rat‘s digesta include: increasing of LAB in feces and colon as well as significant production of colonic SCFA level. Oral administration of banana peels pectin in hypercholesterolemia rats affected in lowering of total cholesterols, triglycerides, and LDL as well as increasing of serum HDL. Banana peel pectin was more effective than banana peel meal either as prebiotic agent or cholesterol lowering, however it was as effective as commercial pectin.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are deeply grateful to DP2M DIKTI (Department of Education) of Indonesia for the research grant of Student Creativity Program 2010.

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REFERENCES Ahrens, F.; Hagemeister, H.; Pfeuffer, M.; Barth, C.A. 1986. Effects of oral and intracecal pectin administration on blood lipids in mini pigs. J.Nutr. 116: 70-76. Anderson, J. W., Davidson, M. H., Blonde, L., Brown, W. V., Howard, W. J., Ginsberg, H., Allgood, L. D., Weingand, K. W. 2000. Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium as an adjunct to diet therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 1433–1438. AOAC. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. 15th edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C. Apajalahti, J. H., Kettunen, H., Kettunen, A., Holben, W. E., Nurminen, P. H., Rautonen, N. and Mutanen, M. 2002. Culture-independent microbial community analysis reveals that inulin in the diet primarily affects previously unknown bacteria in the mouse cecum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68: 4986–4995. Artiss, J. D., Brogan, K., Brucal, M., Moghaddam, M., Jen, K. L. C. 2006. The effects of a new soluble dietary fiber on weight gain and selected blood parameters in rats. Metab., Clin. Exp. 55, 195–292. Berggren, A. M., Nyman, E. M., Lundquist, I. and Bjorck, I. M. 1996. Influence of orally and rectally administered propionate on cholesterol and glucose metabolism in obese Rats. Br. J. Nutr. 76: 287– 294. Bopanna KN, Kannan J, Gadgil S, Balaraman ER, Rathore SP, 1997. Antidiabetic and antihyperglycaemic effects of neem seed kernel powder on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 29: 162–167. Brennan, C. S. 2005. Dietary fiber, glycaemic response, and diabetes. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 49, 560–570. Bugaut, M. and Bentejac, M. 1993. Biological effects of short-chain fatty acids in nonruminant mammals. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 13: 217–241. Cara, L., Dubois, M., Armand, N., Mekki, M., Senft, M., Portugal, H., Lairon, D. 1993. Pectins are the components responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect of apple fiber. Nutrition 12: 66–77. Cholis, M.N. 2007. In vivoevaluation of synbiotic effect L. plantarum B2 (a rice bran indigenous isolate) and L. casei (a commercial isolate) on rice bran based fermented media (formula treatment). Final year project. Dept. of Food Sci and Tech.University of Brawijaya. Indonesia. Dinu, D. 2001. Extraction and characterization of pectins from wheat bran. Roumanian Biotechnology Letter, 6: 37-43. Erawati, F. 2009. Extraction and characterization of pectin derived from banana peel (Studi kind of acid solvent and ratio of material:solvent). Final year project. Dept. of Food Sci and Tech.University of Brawijaya. Indonesia. Food Navigator. 2009. High grade pektin from low grade apples. FoodReviewIndonesia Vol. IV. No.6: 12. Georgieva, N. B. 1992. Effects of pectin in the ration on cholesterol metabolism in rats. Vopr Pitan. 2: 47– 50. Gerhardt, A.L. and N.B. Gallo. 1998. Full-fat rice bran and oat bran similarly reduce hypercholesterolemia in humans. Human Nutrition and Metabolism. 865-870.

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Gibson, G.R. and Roberfroid, M.B. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr, 125: 1401-1412. Gibson, G. R., Rastall, R. A. and Roberfroid, M. B. 1999. Prebiotics. In: Colonic Microbiota: Nutrition and Health. G. R. Gibson and M. B. Roberfroid (Eds). Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, 101–124. Gibson, G.R. and C.M. Williams. 2000. Functional Food Concept to Product. CRC Press Boca Raton New York Washington DC. Gibson, G.R., C.L. Vernazza, and B.A. Rabiu. 2006. Human Colonic Microbiology and the Role of Dietary Intervention: Introduction to Prebiotic. J Willey and Sons. Gonzalez, M., Rivas, C., Caride, B.; Lamas, M. A., Tabeada, M. C. 1998. Effects of orange and apple pectin on cholesterol concentration in serum, liver, and faeces. J. Physiol. Biochem. 54, 99–104. Hara, H., S. Haga, Y. Aoyama and S. Kiriyama. 1999. Short-chain fatty acids suppress cholesterol synthesis in rat liver and intestine.J. Nutr, 99: 942-949. Henningsson A.M., Inger M.E., Bjorck, and Margareta G.L.N. 2002. Combinations of indigestible carbohydrates affect short-chain fatty acid formation in the hindgut of rats. American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 3098-3104. Hotchkiss, A.T., E.O. Martin, W.E. Grace, G.R. Gibson, and R.A. Rastall. 2003. Pectic oligosaccharides as prebiotics. Oligosacc. in Food and Agriculture, 5: 54–62. Huong, D.M. and D.V. Luyen. 1989. Optimization of pectin extraction from dried peel of citrus grandis. Polymer Bulletin, 22: 599-602. Hughes, R. and Rowland, I.R. 2001. Stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis, 22: 43-47. Jenkins, D. J., Axelsen, M., Kendall, C. W., Augustin, L. S., Vuksan, V., Smith, U. 2000. Dietary fibre, lente carbohydrates, and insulin-resistant diseases. Br. J. Nutr. 83, 157–163. Jenkins, D. J., Kendall, C. W., Vuksa, V. 2002. Soluble fibre intake at a dose approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: Serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 75, 834–839. Junihadi D., Surya M., Mustikasari, dan Nina P.S. 2009. Utilization of banana peel juice in healthy drink using Lactobacillus casei. http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/ xhtml1-transitional.dtd. Accessed at May 25th 2010. Khanna K, Rizvi F, Chander R, 2002. Lipid lowering activity of Phyllanthusniruri in hyperlipemic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 82: 19–22. Khattak, M. 2002. Physiological effects of dietary complex carbohydratesand its metabolites role in certain diseases. Pakistan J. ofNutrition, 1 (4): 161-168. Kim, M. 2005. High-methoxyl pectin has a greater enhancing effect on glucose uptake in intestinal perfused rats. Nutrition 21: 372–377. Klurfeld, D.M. 1997. Fiber and Cancer Protection - Mechanisms. In: Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease. Kritchevsky, D. & Bonfield, C., 249–257. Laga, S., D.W. Marseno, Haryadi. 2001. Extraction and isolation used characterization of pectin derived from passion fruit rind. Agrosains 14(2): 121-127. Lay, B.W. 1994. Analisis Mikroba di Laboratorium. PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Indonesia. 324

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Luthi, R. 2009. Pektin As A Dietary Fibre. Natraceutical Group. Valencia, Spain. Macfarlane, G. T., and J. H. Cummings. 1999. Probiotics and prebiotics: can regulating the activities of intestinal bacteria benefit health? Br. Med. J.318: 999–1003. Matteuzzi, D., E. swennen, M. Rossi, T. Hartman, V. Lebet. 2003. Prebiotic effect of a wheat germ preparation in human healthy subjects. J. Food Micro. 21: 119-124. McCarty, M.F. 2001. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cystamine may mediate the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantetheine. Med. Hypotheses, 56: 314–317. Monsma, D.J., P.T. Thorsen, N.W. Vollendorf, T.D. Crenshaw and J.A. Marlett. 2000. In vitro fermentation of swine ileal digesta containing oat bran dietary fiber by rat cecal inocula adapted to the test fiber increases propionate production but fermentation of wheat bran ileal digesta does not produce more butyrate.Journal of Nutrition, 100: 585-594. Rycroft, C. E., Jones, M. R., Gibson, G. R. and Rastall, R. A. 2001. A comparative in vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 91: 878– 887. Sanchez, D., B. Muguerza, L. Moulay, R. Hernandez, M. Miguel, and A.Aleixandre. 2008. Highly methoxylated pectin improves insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors in Zucker fatty rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56: 3574–3581. Schemin, M.H.C., Heloísa C.R.F., Nina W., and Gilvan W. 2005. Extraction of pektin from apple pomace.Brazilian Archives of Biology and Tech. 48(2): 259-266. Siddiqua, M., K. Hamid, M. H. Ar Rashid, Mst.S. Akther, M.S.K. Choudhuri. 2010. Changes in lipid profile of rat plasma after chronic administration of Laghobanondo Rosh (LNR) - an ayurvedic formulation. Biology and Medicine, 2(3): 58-63. Smith, J. G., Yokoyama, W. H. and German, J. B. 1998. Butyric acid from the diet: Actions at the level of gene expression. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 38: 259–297. Spector, W.G; Spector, T.D. Translator: Soetjipto, dkk. 1993. Pengantar Patologi Umum. Edisi 3. Yogyakarta : Gadjah Mada University Press. pp 150-178. Suskovic, J., K. Blazenka, G. Jadranka, and M. Srecko. 2001. Role of LacticAcid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria in Synbiotic Effect. Dept. of Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva, Zagreb, Croatia. ISBN 1330-9862. Titgemeyer, E.C., Bourquin, L.D., Fahey, G.C. Jr. and Garleb, K.A. 1991. Fermentability of various fiber sources by hunan fecal bacteria in vitro. Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 53: 1418-1424. Triana, E. dan N. Nurhidayat. 2006. Effects of oral administration of fermented rice by Monascus purpureus on blood of hypercholesterolemia rats. J. Biodiversitas, 7(4): 317-321. Waites, M.J., N.L. Morgan, J.S. Rockey, and G. Higton. 2001. IndustrialMicrobiology. Blackwell Science Publishing Ltd. USA. Yang, Z. 2000. Antimicrobial compounds and extracellular polysaccharides-produced by lactic acid bacteria. Academic Desertation.Department of Food Technology. Helsinsky University.

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THE STUDY OF HACCP IMPLEMENTATION: MOTIVATION, BARRIERS, AND BENEFITS Nur Metasari and Sik Sumaedi Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), ABSTRACT Food safety is essential for food industry. Consequently, a food company should have a proper food safety management system to fullfill that condition. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system for food safety management implemented by food industries. This paper aims review HACCP implementation,more specifically, bydiscusing motivation, barriers, and benefits of HACCP implementation and then discuss the critical factor that effect the successful and failure of that standard implementation. Keyword: Food Safety, HACCP, Food Industry

INTRODUCTION Until recently, a number of food case have been occurred all over the world, including food poisoning outbreaks and food-related scares that happens in the society (Wilson, et al, 1997; Fotopoulos, et.al, 2009). Nowadays, people are more concern about the hygiene and quality practices of food industry, because they do not want to risk their own life. The use of melamine in some China‘s products, e.g. milk, has made the public more skeptical of the food they consume. According to Fotopoulos, et.al (2009), today, the food industry is not only responsible for producing safe food – a role that has always been recognized – but also for demonstrating in a transparent manner how food safety has been planned and assured. However, this has been achieved through the development of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan as part of the food companies‘ safety assurance systems (Motarjemi and Mortimore, 2005). Since the 1960‘s, food safety professionals have recognized the importance of HACCP principles for controlling risk factors that directly contribute to food poisoning (also known as foodborne illness or foodborne disease). The principles of HACCP embody the concept of active managerial control by encouraging participation in a system that ensures food borne illness risk factors are controlled (FDA, 2006). According to Semos and Kontogeorgos (2007), HACCP has proven to result in some benefits to industry, government, and consumer, as it performs a potential improvement of food safety and prevention of foodborne disease. But there are still some barriers to implement this standard. This paper aims to investigate all aspects of HACCP implementation, including the motivations, barriers, and benefits it results, from a comprehensive literature review. In the discussion section, it will be discussed about the critical factors that effected the successful and failure of HACCP implementation, especially in food industry. HACCP HACCP is a scientific and systematic preventive approach to food and pharmaceutical safety that addresses physical, chemical, and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection (Wikipedia). It is also a tool for the development, implementation, and management of effective safety assurance procedures (Ropkins and Beck in Fotopoulos, et.al, 2009). Hazards are biological, physical, or chemical properties that may cause food to be unsafe for human consumption. The goal of a food safety management system is to control

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certain factors that lead to out-of-control hazards (FDA, 2006). Hazards include biological agents (e.g. bacteria and their toxins, parasites, and viruses), physical objects (bandages, jewelry, stones, glass, bone and metal fragments, and packaging materials), and chemical contamination, such as natural plant and animal toxins, unlabeled allergens (allergencausing protein), nonfood-grade lubricants, cleaning compounds, food additives, and insecticides. HACCP is a common system used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards, so that key actions – known as Critical Control Points (CCPs) – can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realized. The system can be applied to control any stage in the food supply chain (supply-processing-distribution) and is designed to provide enough feedback to direct corrective activities (Unnevehr and Jensen, 1998 in Fotopoulos, 2007). HACCP is not a mandatory in some food industries in some countries, but basically, the principles of this standard has been utilized by all regulation concerning the food industries. But in all member states of the European Union (EU), this standard is a mandatory, that from 2005/2006, the food producers of all sectors of the food chain are required to fully adopt a HACCP system (Semos and Kontogeorgos, 2007). There are seven basic principles of HACCP as mentioned by the National Advisory Committee for the Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). Those are mentioned the following: perform a hazard analysis; decide on the Critical Control Points (CCPs); determine the critical limits; establish procedures to monitor CCPs; establish corrective actions; establish verification procedures; establish a record keeping system. (FDA, 2006) RESEARCH METHOD This research is a desk study. Desk study is a method of data collection which utilizes previous study reports, papers, as well as secondary data. Those data will be analyzed to generate some findings. The data collected for this paper is data involving HACCP, its benefits, some barriers to implement it, and the motivation of implementation from the food industry. From the data collected, it will be discussed about the critical success and failure factors of an implementation of HACCP program. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Motivation, Barrier, and Benefits of HACCP Implementation

A study by Fotopoulos, et.al (2009) shows that the main motivation of many Greek food companies in implementing HACCP system are ensuring food safety and protecting their consumers. It is done by their awareness, instead of fulfilling government legislation. In India, Deodhar (2003) conducted a study to investigate the motivations of HACCP implementation, especially in Indian food industry. His research shows that there are twelve common motivations in implementing HACCP, i.e.: they want to fulfill the need of major customer, to improve control of production processes, to improve product quality, to attract new customers and hold on to existing customers, to improve efficiency and profitability of the plant, to reduce product wastage, to reduce customers‘ complaint, and because HACCP is generally regarded as good practice in food safety management system, and because it is recommended by trade organization. From the above discussion, it could be concluded that the motivation to implement HACCP program in food industries can be divided into two (2) categories: internal motivation, and external motivation. Sampaio, et.al (2009) mentioned that Internal motivations are related with the goal of achieving organizational improvement, while external motivations are mainly related with promotional and marketing issues, customer

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pressures, improvement of market share, etc. Based on Deodhar‘s findings, the main reason of a food company to implement HACCP is ―to improve product quality‖. This means that the internal motivation plays greater role than the external ones. The same results also applied to Fotopoulos‘s research. Otherwise, recommendation by trade organization is the least affecting motivation of HACCP implementation. According to Deodhar (2003), the motivation to implement HACCP could also be divided into another category, which are production related factor and costumer related factor. May be the companies have already had the motivation to implement HACCP programs, but still there are some barrier when they were trying to implement it. The biggest barrier in implementing HACCP program is the additional resources needed for staff training, investments on buildings and equipment, extra purchase of supplies, and also the technical support (Henson, et.al in Semos and Kontogeorgos, 2007), but according to Motarjemi and Kaferstein (1999), those investments will be paid by the reduction of contamined food, improvements of quality and safety of the food, increased reliability and fewer complaints from the customers. Other barriers of HACCP implementation, especially in catering industry were: lack of knowledge, training problems, high staff turnover, large variety of products, and variation in potential demand and large numbers of part-time workers (Semos and Kontogeorgos, 2007). Inadequate information and lack of motivation have prevented food companies from implementing and operating HACCP. Henson, et.al (1999), shows that there are 4 factors that can be problems in the implementation and/or operation of quality control/assurance systems such as HACCP. Those factors are record keeping, product testing, staff training, and managerial/supervisory time. Those factors are rather difficult to overcome because they need a lot of resources that cannot be met by every company wish for HACCP implementation. Khatri and Collins (2007) underlined that costs in implementing HACCP, were the greatest barrier. Cots in implementing HACCP include capital costs of HACCP systems, costs of developing the HACCP system, costs of training, and costs of implementation. Another barrier was the lack of awareness of the company. They often wondered why HACCP was necessary and seemed too much at a time. Those will created a thoughts that HACCP will results in no perceived benefit. A risk assessment scheme that seems not so clear to the auditee was another barrier of implementing HACCP. From those data, it could be synthesized that the barriers of food companies in implementing HACCP can be categorized into ―costs‖ and ―staff skill and motivation‖ aspects. It is clear that costs to implement HACCP can cost a company‘s fortune, but it can be ignored if the company itself realizes the benefit of HACCP implementation. Staff skill and information can also be developed by providing the right training for the employee concerning HACCP implementation program. But once again, it will not become a barrier if the company realizes the benefit of HACCP implementation, especially in the long term. Regardless the barriers of HACCP implementation, still HACCP implementation has proven to give some benefits in food industry. As mentioned by FDA (2007), if properly implemented, a food safety management system based on HACCP principles may offer some of the following advantages: reduction in product loss, increase in product quality and better control of product inventory, consistency in product preparation, increase in profit, and increase in employee awareness and participation in food safety. Other research by Semos and Kontogeorgos (2007) address that HACCP implementation has resulted in some benefits. Some of the benefits mentioned are the ability to attract new customers, the ability to retain existing customers, increased product sales and access to new markets. Pun, et.al (2007) found that HACCP implementation will result in competitive advantage by advertising that those companies use HACCP in its day-to-day business. Besides, the use of HACCP could also decrease communication costs about safety to the producers. Gillespie et al. (2000) highlighted the effectiveness of the HACCP system. From their study, they determined that the microbiological quality of food produced in small establishments with HACCP was better than it was in establishments without HACCP. Furthermore, Henson and Caswell (1999) found that consumers showed

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more interest in food quality and safety than they did a few years prior to 1999. Moreover, it has been suggested that HACCP system can support inspection by regulatory authorities (e.g.: WHO). Thus, the implementation of the HACCP system to food processing can result in benefits to industry, government and consumers, promoting, in this way, a potential improvement of food safety and prevention of foodborne diseases. In Yunus Khatri and Ray Collins (2007), according to a study in Australia‘s HACCP implementation program conducted by Allen Consulting Group, the main benefits to the Australian food industry could not be precisely quantified but they centred around two main issues – the extent of any decrease in foodborne illnesses attributable to food safety programmes and the extent of the current incidence of foodborne illness and their associated costs. Other benefits were difficult to quantify. These were identified as improved food quality, reduced waste, better staff morale and awareness and improved routine. From the mentioned data, it can be conclude that HACCP could result in two different form of benefit. The first form is benefit directly linked to the quality of the food produced, and the second form is benefit that does not directly linked to the quality of the food produced. According to Semos and Kontogeorgos (2007), there is some tight correlation between the motivations of implementing HACCP with the benefits resulting from the implementation program. The motivation of food businesses to implement HACCP will reflect prior expectations of the costs and benefits involved. In cases where businesses perceive the costs of implementation to be high relative to the benefits, there may be less motivation to implement and operate HACCP. The finding from this discussion is that if a company wants to be success in their HACCP program, they must have strong motivation to get the benefit of HACCP implementation. DISCUSSION Critical Factors of HACCP Implementation

Oakland in Fotopoulos, et.al, (2007) says that critical factors are the critical areas that an organization should carefully examine and categorize their impacts on the system as well as on the whole organization, in order to successfully manage them and achieve the effective implementation of the system and the organization‘s mission. Critical factors influence business environment of an organization or a management system. Thus, the CFs of an effective HACCP system can be viewed as those factors that should effectively be managed in order to ensure the system‘s successful implementation and consequently food safety. Fom the discussion above, insufficient knowledge and resources to implement HACCP have been identified as being crucial to the successful implementation of HACCP. Sometimes, food industries are afraid to implement HACCP because they do not really know what the benefits of HACCP implementation are. Based on Ehiri‘s finding (Fotopoulos, et.al. 2007), this usually happens in micro industry or in SMEs. Besides, the commitment and awareness of the top management is also critical points in the success of HACCP implementation, as mentioned by CAC (2001). But still, the most important factors in HACCP implementation is the availability of funding to support the implementation of this program, because it cannot be denied that HACCP implementation needs to change some of the resources radically, and that it is not cheap. CONCLUSION As the objectives of the research that shown in Introduction section, the conclusion of this HACCP implementation‘s research are as follows. The food companies‘ motivations could be categorized as the external and internal motivation. Yet, the internal motivation plays greater role than the external ones. The internal motivation that affects HACCP implementation the most is ―to improve product quality‖. Meanwhile, one of the

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external motivations is ―recommendation by trade organization‖. The food companies‘ barriers are consist of two categorized which are ―costs‖ and ―staff skill and motivation‖. But actually those barriers could be overcome if the food company realized that they will get greater benefits by implementing a food management system – in this case HACCP – when compared to the cost they have to spend. There is some tight correlation between the motivations of implementing HACCP with the benefits resulting from the implementation program. The motivation of food businesses to implement HACCP will reflect prior expectations of the costs and benefits involved. The critical factors for food companies are ―insufficient knowledge and resources to implement HACCP‖ and ―the commitment and awareness of the top management‖. REFERENCES Deodhar, Satish Y. (2003). Motivation For and Cost of HACCP in Indian Food Processing Industry. Unpublished. Food and Drug Administration (2006). Managing Food Safety: A Manual for the Voluntary Use of HACCP Principles for Operators of Food Service and Retail Establishments. Fotopoulos, Christos V., et.al. (2007). ―Assessing the critical factors and their impact on the effective implementation of a food safety management system‖. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management. Vol. 26 No. 9, 2009. pp. 894-910. Gillespie, I., Little, C. and Mitchell, R. (2000), ―Microbiological examination of cold ready-to-eat sliced meats from catering establishments in the United Kingdom‖, Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 88, pp. 467-74. Henson, Spencer, et.al (1999). ―Costs and benefits of implementing HACCP in the UK dairy processing sector‖. Food Control. Vol. 10, 1999. Pp. 99-106. Henson, Spencer and Caswell, J. (1999). ―Food safety regulation: an overview of contemporary issues‖. Food Policy. Vol. 24 No. 6. pp. 589-603. Khatri, Yunus and Ray Collins. 2007. ―Impact and status of HACCP in the Australian meat industry‖. British Food Journal . Vol. 109 No. 5, 2007. pp. 343-354. Motarjemi, Y. and Kaferstein, F. (1999). ―Food safety, hazard analysis and critical control point and the increase in food-borne diseases: a paradox?‖. Food Control. Vol. 10 No 4-5, pp. 325-33. Motarjemi, Y. and Mortimore, S. (2005), ―Industry‘s need and expectations to meet food safety‖, Food Control. Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 523-9. Pun, Maria et al. (2007). ―Experience and Perceptions of ISO 9000 and HACCP by Hong Kong Food and Beverage Organizations‖. Journal of Asia Business Studies. Spring 2007. pp. 67-76. Sampaio, Paolo et al. (2009). ―ISO 9001 Certification Research: Questions, Answers and Approaches‖. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 38-58. Semos, Anastasios and Achilleas Kontogeorgos (2007). ―HACCP implementation in northern Greece: Food companies‘ perception of costs and benefits‖. British Food Journal. Vol. 109 No. 1, 2007. pp. 5-19. Wilson, Mervyn, et.al (1997). ―The implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points in hospital catering‖. Managing Service Quality. Vol. 7 No. 3, 1997. pp. 150–156.

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CHARACTERIZATION OF INDONESIAN TRADITIONAL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY WITH NEURAL NETWORK ANALYSIS Puji Kuswanti, Andreas Setiawan and Ferdy S. Rondonuwu Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Maths, Satya Wacana Christian University Jl. Diponegoro 52–60, Salatiga Jawa Tengah e-mail: [email protected] ABSTRACT Alcoholic beverages sometimes contain not only ethanol but also methanol or other toxic agents. With the increased importance of quality assurance in alcoholic beverages industries, Near Infra Red (NIR) spectroscopy has become an important quantitative tool for solvent characterization. This research focuses onthe analysis of Indonesian traditional alcoholic beverages by near-infrared spectroscopy. The purpose is to determine the specific nature of each sample and to classify into groups with similar characteristics. Optical characterization gives us information about their light absorbance spectra in the near-infrared region. Research using NIR on traditional alcoholic beverages indicates that some traditional homemade alcoholic drinks contain 13 to 30 percent alcohol. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to determine the methanol content in the beverages. Key words: Alcohol, NIR, Spectra, Artificial neural network

INTRODUCTION Alcoholic beverages mostly contain ethanol, commonly called alcohol. In Indonesia, traditional alcoholic beverages sometimes not only contain ethanol, but are also contaminated with methanol or other toxic agents. Methanol poisoning leading to blindness has been known to occur on consuming even small amounts, and can sometimes lead to death with higher concentrations. With the increased importance of quality assurance in alcoholic beverage industries, Near Infra Red (NIR) spectroscopy has become an important quantitative tool for solvent characterization, due to minimal required sample preparation and fast data acquisition. Measurement of the alcohol composition for traditional alcoholic beverages could be used to improve people‘s safety. NIR spectroscopy is a non-destructive measurement technique for many chemical compounds, including products of petroleum refining and petrochemicals, food products (tea, fruit, milk, meat etc.), pharmaceuticals (drugs, tablets, bioreactor monitoring etc.) and combustion products.1 Alcohol has a polar covalent molecular bond, which makes it near infrared (NIR) active. Alcohols from a variety of hydrogen-bond types have been investigated intensively using NIR spectroscopy. NIR spectroscopy studies have clearly identified the bands due to different hydrogen bond types. This feature can be used to analyse the different content of alcohol in various alcoholic beverages. [2] Preliminary research using NIR on traditional alcoholic beverages indicates that some traditional homemade alcoholic drinks contain 13 to 30 percent alcohol. Ciu Bekonang, a popular homemade alcoholic beverage made in Solo, has the highest alcohol concentration compared to arakand tuak taken from Salatiga.[3] According to Indonesian government regulations, traditional alcoholic beverages can be classified into B category (containing 5 to 20 percent alcohol) or C category (containing more than 20 percent alcohol). Spectral imaging of methanol and ethanol can be used to measure the methanol content. The large amount of spectral data generated by the NIR system has caused problems for many researchers. Sophisticated software and analysis techniques are

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required to extract the relevant information.[4] In earlier work, classic techniques such as second derivative, smoothing, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) have been used to investigate the spectroscopic imaging data. These data analysis techniques are simple and fast, but they cannot handle the more complicated patterns of the spectral data from the NIR system. The difficulty in determining the methanol content in the alcoholic beverages is caused by the overlapping nature of the spectral data. There is a need to use classification techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN), which can deal with this complicated pattern recognition. 5 This research focuses onthe analysis of Indonesian traditional alcoholic beverages by near-infrared spectroscopy. The purpose is to determine the specific nature of the samples and to classify these into groups with similar characteristics. Optical characterization of alcoholic beverages gives us information about their light absorbance spectra in the near-infrared region. These spectra are compared to ethanol and methanol. ANN is used to determine the composition of Indonesian traditional beverages. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sample Preparation 25 kinds of alcoholic beverages were taken from various places in Indonesia. All of the samples were labelled according to their type and origin of local producer. Four types of alcoholic beverages were used. Ciu were labelled as C1 to C8, tuakwere T1 to T5, arakwere A2 to A8 and Brem were B1 to B3. Table 2

Types of Alcoholic Beverage Samples Type Size Ciu 8 Tuak 5 Arak 8 Brem 4 Total 25

Most of the samples were taken from Central Java. Brem is a by-product of tape (fermented sticky rice or cassava). The wine comes out of the rice during fermentation. Brem originally comes from Bali. Ciuand arak are more popular in Central Java. Ciu and arak are similar; they are made of fermented sugar palm milk or coconut water, while tuak is fermented from the sap of a special kind of palm tree. Spectroscopy Measurements All of the experiments were recorded in a laboratory at 20°C. The room was kept at this temperature to avoid quick evaporation of the samples. Each 20ml sample was scanned using the NIRFLEX 500 System in order to obtain the NIR spectra. Each spectrum is based on the average of 32 scans within the wave number range of 4000 – 10000 cm-1. Each sample was scanned three times, and the mean value was calculated for more accurate measurement. Figure 1 represents the original NIR spectra of 4 of the samples and the inset shows their second derivatives.

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Figure 3. Representative Raw Spectra from Samples and Second Derivative Signal of those Spectra (Inset) Figure 1 shows the spectra of four samples scanned with NIRFLEX 500. Each line represents a specific character of a sample. The analysis used second derivative spectra to improve their accuracy and resolution. Quantitative analysis of absorption and second derivative absorption spectra can be applied to obtain composition of the samples.6 An ethanol – water mixture (of different concentrations) is prepared along with the samples. samples from 10 percent to 100 percent (in 10 percent increments) of ethanol are prepared and used as the calibrations sets. Artificial Neural Network Analysis Forty seven blends of methanol and ethanol were prepared in the laboratory by adding methanol gradually to create a range of concentrations between 2% and 60% (v/v). The forty seven blends were used to build an ANN model of methanol concentration. Thirty eight blends were used in training the model, while the remaining nine were used to validate it. Figure 2 shows the validation curves derived from the ANN model, showing a high degree of correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The neural network model used was a back propagation consisting of three layers. The inputs were composed of second derivative signals from 1500 wave numbers in the range 4000 to 10000 cm-1. Second derivative spectra are used to remove the baseline from the original spectra so it shows only the peaks. The hidden layer consists of 38 neurons, and the output layer shows the amount of methanol content in the sample. In this study the trainings of the networks were carried out by using the error back-propagation method. Training was ended when the maximum error converged to less than 10 -6.

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0.8

Prediction (v/v methanol)

0.7

y = 1*x - 0.047

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

Experiment (v/v methanol)

Figure 4 Validation Line of Methanol Concentration ANN Model Validation line shows that the samples follow the regression line. This means that the ANN model performs well in predicting the methanol content in the samples. Therefore, the ANN model built in this research can be used to analyse other samples.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Characteristic of Indonesian Traditional Alcoholic Beverages Figure 3 shows the second derivative spectra of ethanol concentration used as the calibration set. Ethanol peak in the spectra shifted upward linearly from 0 percent of ethanol to pure ethanol (100 percent). These spectra fitted Beer‘s Law, which states that a linear relationship exists between the molar concentration of a substance and the absorbance of this substance at a given wavelength. [1]

Figure 5

Ethanol Content Calibration Spectra with an increment of 10 percent at wave number of 5720 to 5800 cm-1

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Using the calibration set, the samples can be re-categorized as seen in Table 2. Table 3. Categorization of Samples According to Indonesian Policy Categories

Type

A

B C1, C2, C4 T2, T3, T4, T5 A2, A4 B1, B2, B4

Size

C C3, C5, C6, C7, C8

8 Ciu T1 5 Tuak A1, A3, A5, A6, A7, A8 8 Arak B3 4 Brem 25 Total * According to Indonesian alcohol policy, there are three categories of alcoholic beverage allowed. The categories are A : contain less than 5%; B: contain 5% – 20%; C: contain 20% – 45% Table 2 shows that certain types of alcoholic beverages, – ciu, tuak, arakor brem – do not necessarily have the same concentrations of alcohol. The amount of alcohol in the beverages depends not only on the producer but also on the vendor. Some vendors have been known to mix alcoholic beverages with water and methanol to receive a greater profit. Most ciu and arak are in category C. It means that ciu and arak are two types of alcoholic beverages with higher alcohol content compared to tuak and brem which mostly in category B. The linear relationship in the optical characteristic of each sample makes it easier to predict the alcohol content in the beverages, but recognizing the methanol content is still difficult. Indonesian traditional alcoholic beverages are popular because they are cheap and easy to obtain. The cheapest price usually correspond to samples in which methanol and water has been mixed in the beverages, as it is cheaper than ethanol. Figure 6 graphically demonstrates the methanol estimation predicted by the ANN model.

Methanol Prediction (v/v)

C5

C3

0.40

C2 B3

C1 T1

T2

A1

C6

B1 B2 T3 T4

A2

0.38

C4

A6

A3

C8 A7

T5 C7 A6

A4

A8 B4

0.35 0

5

10

15

20

25

Samples

Figure 6

Neural Network Prediction of Methanol Content in the samples

Figure 4 shows that all of the samples contained methanol at various concentrations ranging from 35 percent to 40 percent. The ANN methods used in the research show that 335

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the model can be used to estimate methanol content in the samples. The methanol content predicted by the ANN model is higher than expected. The samples are hard to be categorized according to methanol content in the beverages. The average of methanol content in the beverage is 37 percent. Although methanol has a poisonous effect, many of the people who consume these drinks do not fall ill. Medically, this may be explained by people‘s metabolic differences, associated ethanol consumption or availability of essential cofactors needed for methanol to affect metabolism. The smallest amount of methanol reported to cause death is 15 ml of 40 percent methanol; the highest dose recorded for a survivor is in the range of 500 to 600 ml.7 CONCLUSIONS The result presented in the paper shows that Indonesian traditional alcoholic beverages contain methanol. The artificial neural network model created in the research could be used to predict methanol content in sample. However, the methanol content predicted is higher than is expected. This might be caused by parameters of the ANN model such as the number of input, the size and structure of the training set. Suggestion for the next research would be to improve the ANN model of pattern recognition. More samples need to be added to increase the number of training set, therefore would increase the accuracy of the prediction. AKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank Mark D. Chandler for his helpful contribution to the preparation of this paper; and to Riana Amalia, and Hosiana S. Nareshwari for their kind assistance in preparing the experiment. REFERENCES 1

Roman M. Balabina, Ravilya Z. Safievab, Ekaterina I. Lomakina. Gasoline classification using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data: Comparison of multivariate techniques. Analytica Chimica Acta 671 (2010) 27–35.

2

Siesler, H.W., Y. Ozaki, S. Kawata, H.M. Heise, Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Principles, Instruments, Applications. Willey-VCH. German.

3

Puji Kuswanti, Aloysius Apriadi, Bertrus Sesroni, Ferdy S. Rondonuwu. Identifikasi Kandungan Alkohol dalam Minuman Keras Lokal dengan Spektroskopi Infrared Dekat. Physics Education National Seminar UNS. 2010.

4

Broeka, W.H.A.M. van den, D. Wienkeb, W.J. Melssenb, L.M.C. Buydens. Plastic material identification with spectroscopic near infrared imaging and artificial neural networks. 1997. Analytica Chimica Acta 361. P. 161-176.

5

Nicolas Garcıa-Pedrajas, Cesar Hervas-Martınez1, and Jose Mu˜noz-Perez. SYMBIONT: A cooperative evolutionary model for evolving artificial neural networks for classification.

6

Martin P. Horvath, Robert A. Copeland, and Marvin W. Makinen. The Second Derivative Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Cytochrome c Oxidase in the Soret Region. Biophysical Journal Volume 77 September 1999. 1694–1711.

7

Becker CE: Acute methanol poisoning – The blind drunk – Medical Staff Conference, University of California, San Francisco. West J Med 135:122-128, Aug 1981.

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STUDY ON MERAH DELIMA WAX APPLE (Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry) STORAGE Qanytah and Indrie Ambarsari Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) Central Java, Bukit Tegalepek, Kotak Pos 101, Sidomulyo Ungaran. Email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Wax apple c.v Merah Delima from Demak District is increasing in significance in local, regional, and national trade. The major research issues are quality retention and post harvest storage life that place constraints on marketing. The mechanical, physical, and microbial injury of the fruits are conditions that limit storage life and account for large losses in wax apple. The packaging treatment and storage temperatures effect on wax apple were examined. The wax apple packaged in some plastics packaging and then stored in refrigerator and under ambient temperature. The investigations result showed that wax-apple postharvest disease incidence were 2~5% after 5 days storage under ambient temperature and 27 days storage under saran wrap package and stored in refrigerator. Postharvest decay found after storage are chilling injury,pathogens disease of wax-apple fruits, such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phytophothora palmivora, and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The wax-apple postharvest disease incidence are closely related to the storage temperature, humidity and package.

Key words: wax apple, storage, disease.

INTRODUCTION Wax apple (Syzygium aqueum Burn. F Alst.) is a tropical fruit that is native to Indies and Southeast Asia. Generally, wax apple are divided into 2 they are S. aqueum that sour in taste and S. semarangense that sweet in taste. Among the wax Apple cultivar, there are some superior cultivars or variety based on consumer assessment (Rukmana, 1997). One of the superior variety is merah delima wax apple. Merah delima wax apple are bellshaped, sweet and fresh, because in every one kilogram wax Apple content of Total Soluble Solid 7,2 Brix, 117 mg vitamin C, and 84% water. Merah delima wax Apple is drawn up as superior variety in Regulation of Minister of Agriculture Number 512/Kpts/SR, dated December 12, 2005. Demak Regency is the producer center for merah delima wax apple in Central Java. The merah delima wax apple is an economically important fruit in Demak Regency, so many farmers planted it. The cultivation area in Demak was spread in 14 sub district. Production in 2007 reached 4.878 tons from 99.852 trees with total value more than Rp. 23,4 Billion. Some sub district as production center in Demak are Wonosalam with ± 27.971 trees, Demak with ± 11.745 trees, Mijen with ± 9.880 trees, Guntur with ± 9.316 trees, Wedung with ± 6.264 trees, and other sub districts (9 sub district) with ± 34.526 trees.

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The Merah Delima wax apple from Demak market include local, regional and national, therefore it potential to develop. The fruit is usually sale per fruit with the relatively high price. The price is about Rp 350/each fruit, whereas if it sale by weight, its price is about Rp 10.000/kg. This price is become higher nowadays, where in traditional market the price can reach Rp 10.000/kg, whereas in supermarket reach Rp 15.000/kg (Anonim, 2007). Merah Delima wax apple shelf life is very short only less than 10 days at ambient temperature, so it have limited time and market destination. Besides wax apple demands from some big city that located far away from Demak Regency is very high. Some of technologies that develop to prolong fruit shelf life are packaging and low temperature storage. The main function of a produce package is to prevent and reduce injury to the crop during storing, transit and handling. Some packaging using in package fresh fruit are paper, plastic, bamboo, and wooden box. One of display packaging that using to package merah delima wax apple is plastic. Good temperature management is essential to successful marketing of fresh products. The low temperature could slow biological activity of product, to slow growth and spread of microorganisms and to reduce product moisture lost and the resulting wilting and shrivel. The research on postharvest handling for merah delima wax apple is very limited. Some research on wax apple storage are: 1) Effect of cool storage on Camplong wax apple quality (Suhardjo et. al, 1999); 2) The wax apple storage under refrigerated and controlled atmosphere conditions (Basanta, 2008); and 3) Wax apple postharvest disease (Chu, 2004). The objectives of the study are: 1) to study effect of low temperature storage and plastic packaging types on wax apple shelf life and 2) to study some injury and postharvest disease that affected merah delima wax apple during storage. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conduct in June 2008. The major material for the study was merah delima wax appleharvested from farmers in Tempuran village, Tempuran sub district, Demak Regency. The fruit using in this study was merah delima wax apple without any physical damage and had similar size. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design in two factors that is packaging and storage temperatures. Packaging types consist of 6 treatments: A1 = PP with 0,5 mm thickness; A2 = PP with 0,3 mm thickness; A3 = PP with 0,2 mm thickness; A4 = PE with 0,3 mm thickness; A5 = Saran Wrap plastic; and A0 = control, without packaging. Storage treatment consist of 2 treatments: C1 = refrigerated storage (temperature around 20ºC; dan C0 = control (ambient temperature, 28-30 ºC). The observation was done at the beginning and at the end of storage include weight loss, shelf life, disease incidence after storage. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 1. Fruit Shelf Life and Weight Loss Merah delima wax apple have a short shelf life that is less than 10 days at ambient temperature and without packaging. Merah delima wax apple shelf life and its weight loss treated in some plastic packaging and storage temperature shown in Table 1.

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Table 1. Merah delima wax apple shelf life and weight loss in some treatments Treatment Ambient Temperature

Cool Temperature

Shelf Life (day)

Weight loss (g)

PP with 0,5 mm thick

7

2

PP with 0,3 mm thick

7

4

PP with 0,2 mm thick

7

4

PE with 0,3 mm thick

7

4

Saran Wrap

7

4

Control

5

8

PP with 0,5 mm thick

18

0,5

PP with 0,3 mm thick

19

0,5

PP with 0,2 mm thick

21

2

PE with 0,3 mm thick

17

0,5

Saran Wrap

27

0,5

Control

8

3

The study showed that wax apple stored at ambient temperature without any packaging had the most short life (5 days) and had the highest weight loss (8 g). Low temperature storage could prolong merah delima wax apple storage. Wax apple is living organs carrying on many biological processes after harvest, include respiration. Respiration process converts food reserves into energy. Some energy produced during respiration activity goes to maintain the life process in fruit culture, and some other is released as vital heat. This vital heat could increase temperature around storage which would accelerate senescence and suitable to microorganism growth. That is why low temperature is crucial in fruit storage because each 10 ºC temperature reduction reduces respiratory activity by a factor of 2 to 4 (Mitchell, 1992). Good cooling and temperature management practices are, therefore, critical to slowing physiological deterioration and prolong the shelf life. Fruit package with plastic and store at ambient temperature could not prolong wax apple shelf life. But plastic packaging using at ambient temperature could reduced weight loss. At ambient temperature, respiratory process occur faster so it released more vital heat. This heat would accumulated in plastic packaging which will support deterioration process and shorten shelf life. The combination treatment of low temperature storage and plastic packaging could prolong shelf life. Wax apple that package with Saran Wrap and store under refrigerator had longest shelf life (27 days) and weight lost 0,5 g. This result showed the longer shelf life then the study of Parvathy, et.al (2003) and Basanta (2008). Saran wrap have a very low gas and water permeability. Permeability reflect the difficulty of gas, water vapor, liquid, ions, and molecule to penetrate a material.

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Parvathy, et.al (2003) on wax apple (Eugenia javanica syn. Samarangense) storage showed that packaging and low temperature are essential to wax apple storage. Wax apple packaged in LDPE have highest quality than wax apple package in stretch film, where fruit freshness and colour could maintain for 6 days at ambient temperature and for 12 days at 10°C. Wax apple packaged in stretch film keep fresh until 8 days, and in the tenth day show the black spot. Basanta (2008) research showed that wax appleSyzygium malaccense stored in controlled atmosphere storage with 1% O2 and 14% CO2 at temperature 5 °C could prolong wax apple storage life until 25 days. 2. Merah Delima Wax Apple Postharvest Disease The major fruit postharvest disease are caused by fungi and bacteria. The propagule functioning to disperse fungi is generally a spore. Spore generally deposit on fruit skin, and then germinate into appressoria and hyfa to infect and stay in skin cell in latent condition. When fruit become mature it germinates immediately and develop disease to rot the fruit. Fruit rot also caused by microorganism infection through fresh wound at harvest or handling. According to Suhardjo et.al, (1999), camplong wax apple usually contaminate by Aspergillus, Sclerotiorum, Botrytis, and Penicillium sp. Chu (2004) found there are 8 pathogens in stored wax apple, they are Phytophothora palmivora, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., Mucor sp., Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Pestalotiopsiseuginae. The postharvest disease incidence in wax apple due to storage temperature, relative humidity, and type of packaging. This study showed that some decay on wax apple during storage: a) Chilling injury. During storage wax apple could affected by low temperature that caused chilling injury. Paull and Chen (1999) stated that chilling injury in wax apple could occur at temperature 2-10 °C. The symptom is red skin discoloration as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Chilling injury symptom. b)

Anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Infected fruit would show brown round lesion and become bigger as lesion develop as shown in Figure 2. The first symptoms of anthracnose are round, and sunken spots on the body of the ripening fruit. Lesions may become as large as 5 cm in diameter. Pinkishorange areas are formed by the conidial masses that cover the lesion center and are

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frequently produced in a concentric ring pattern. Symptoms also may appear as irregular to circular spots 1 to 10 mm in diameter, sharply defined, occasionally slightly depressed and reddish-brown in color. These lesions are referred to as "chocolate spots." As the fruit ripens, these spots rapidly enlarge (up to 20 mm in diameter), to form the characteristic circular sunken lesions.

Figure 2. C. gloeosporioides symptom. The fruit wound could occur during handling in the field, at harvest, postharvest handling, transporting, and marketing. The wound may facilitate entrance of a pathogen into the fruit. c) Fruit rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora. C. C. Lin. Phytophthora palmivora caused a watersoak and rot on the body of the wax apple. The infected part commonly covered with white mycelium that become encrusted (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Phytophthora palmivora. C. C. Lin symptom.

Figure 4. Further infection of Phytophthora palmivora. C. C. Lin. d)

Black rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae. Infected fruit would show brown round lesion and develop into brown and black. 341

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Figure 5. Fruit infected by Botryodiplodia theobromae CONCLUSIONS The combination treatment of low temperature storage and plastic packaging could prolong merah delima wax apple shelf life. Wax apple that package with Saran Wrap and store under refrigerator had longest shelf life (27 days) and weight lost 0,5 g. Merah delima wax-apple postharvest disease incidence were 2~5% after 5 days storage under ambient temperature and 27 days storage under saran wrap package and stored in refrigerator. Postharvest decay found after storage are chilling injury,pathogens disease of wax-apple fruits, such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phytophothora palmivora, and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The wax-apple postharvest disease incidence are closely related to the storage temperature, humidity and package

REFERENCES Anonim. 2003. Demak Kembangkan Komoditas Jambu Air. Harian KOMPAS, Jumat 13 Juni 2003. Anonim. 2007. Membuang Mitos Jambu Merah Delima. Harian Suara Merdeka, Senin 06 Agustus 2007. Anonim. 2009. Jambu Air. http://syl4r.blogspot.com/2009/01/jambu-air-mawar.html Basanta, A. 2008. The postharvest storage of pomerac (Syzygium malaccense) under refrigerated and controlled atmosphere conditions. http://www.worldagro forestry.org/sites Chu, C.Y. 2004. The Primary Report of Waxapple Postharvest Disease. Research Bulletin of KDARES Vol.15(3). Departemen Pertanian. 2005. Keputusan Menteri Pertanian Nomor 512/Kpts/SR, tertanggal 12 Desember 2005 tentang Pelepasan Jambu Air Merah Delima sebagai Varietas Unggul. Mitchell, F.G. 1992. Preparation for Fresh Market: Fruits. University of California Parvathy, S. Abdullah, H, Latifah, M.N, and Tarmizi, S. 2003. Effect of packaging system on the quality of wax apple (Eugenia javanica syn. Samarangense) stored at low temperature. Journal of food science and technology. vol. 40, no2, pp. 177-182 [6 page(s) (article)] (23 ref.) Paull, R.E and C.C. Chen. 1999. Wax Apple. Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI Rukmana, R. 1997. Jambu Air. Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

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THE STUDY OF ISO 9001 IMPLEMENTATION IN FOOD INDUSTRY: MOTIVATION, BARRIERS, AND BENEFITS Sik Sumaedi1, Nur Metasari2 Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI)

1,2

ABSTRACT Quality is a pre-requisite for achieving competitiveness in free trade era. Given this, a food company should have a proper quality management system to face that condition. ISO 9001, an international standard of quality management system, is one of quality management system model that implemented by some food companies. This paper aims to investigate the ISO 9001 implementation in food industry using a comprehensive literature review. More specifically, this paper aims to describe the motivations, barriers, and benefits of food industry and discuss the critical factor that effected the successful and failure of ISO 9001 implementation in food industry. Keywords: Quality, ISO 9001, Food Industry

INTRODUCTION The food industry‘s competition level is getting tight as the consequence of free trade era. Nowadays a food company does not only compete with the domestic companies but also overseas companies. A food company has to provide a superior quality product and focus on their customers‘ satisfaction in an effort to have the business advantage and even survival (Magd and Nabulsi, 2003). Even though the free trade has increased the competition level, it also gives benefit for food companies in terms of opportunity for getting higher sales. Due to the free trade, a food company could market its product to overseas market without worrying the tariff barrier. However, the only major barrier on free trade era is technical barrier in term of system and technical standard that should be fulfilled. A food company should have a proper quality management system in order to occupy ―the free trade opportunity‖ and facing the competition among the food business. Related to that matter, some food companies have adopted ISO 9001 as their quality management system. This phenomenon is quite interesting due to ISO 9001 is a generic standard (ISO, 2008) that is not specially designed for food sector. A food company needs to make some adjustments on the ISO 9001 requirements fulfillment. Furthermore, this condition has possibility to give difficulties for it. Some researchers have investigated the ISO 9001 implementation in food industry. However, all of them investigated that matter with specific region context, such as UK food industry context (Grig and McALinden, 2001), Thai context (Rohitratana and Boonitt, 2001), Canada context (Nguyen et al., 2003), Hongkong context (Pun et. al, 2007), Greek context (Fotopoulos et al., 2008). This means there is a lack of references that could give the description of ISO 9001 implementation on general and integrated context. Given this, a comprehensive literature review that was synthesized from all those research is needed to explain the phenomenon of ISO 9001 implementation in food industry at a general and integrated context. ISO 9001 ISO 9001 is an international standard on quality management system where an organization needs to demonstrate a consistent ability to meet customer requirements, regulations and legislation and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through effective application system, including processes for continuous improvement system and guarantee customer suitability requirements, regulations, and legislation (ISO, 2008).

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ISO 9001 is published on 1987 and revised on 1994, 2000, and 2008. Van den Heuvel et al. (2005) explained that the standard represents an international consensus on good management practices with the aim of ensuring that the organization can continuously deliver the product or service that meet the customer‘s quality requirements, meet applicable regulatory requirements, enhance customer satisfaction, and achieve continuous improvement of its performance in pursuit of these objectives. Others authors, such as Lewis et al. (2005), Vouzas and Gotzamani (2005), and Piskar and Dolinsek (2006) claim that this standard is a model for implementing Total Quality Management (TQM). This standard has five main requirements which are the quality management system requirements, the management responsibility requirements, resource management requirements, product realization process requirements and measurement, analysis and improvement requirements (ISO, 2008). Organizations that adopted ISO 9001 should meet all those requirements. RESEARCH METHOD The research design is a desk research. This research consists of three stages. The first stage is to identify the research topic and questions. As the result of this stage, this research tried to focus in answering some research questions as follows. What are the food companies‘ motivations in implementing ISO 9001? What are the food companies‘ barriers in implementing ISO 9001? What are the benefits of ISO 9001 implementation for food industry? What are the critical success factors of ISO 9001 implementation in food industry? The second stage is the data collection. As the research design, the data that were collected are the previous researches that related to ISO 9001 implementation in food industry. More specifically, the researches that were collected are the researches that investigated the motivations, barriers, benefits, and critical success factors on ISO 9001 implementation in food industry. To achieve ―the quality of data‖, the researcher only used the researches results that published by international journal. The third stage is data synthesis and conclusions withdrawal. At this stage, the researcher synthesis the data from previous researches becomes a trend of ISO 9001 implementation on food industry. The researcher used special framework for synthesizing the ISO 9001 implementation motivations and benefits, which are external and internal motivations and benefits framework (Sampaio et. al, 2009). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ISO 9001 implementation motivations Rohitratana and Boon-itt (2001) study found that the motivation of Thai‘s seafood companies in implementing ISO 9001 is for exporting business in world market‘s purposes. Fotopoulos et al. (2008) study found four group Greek food companies motivations in implementing ISO 9001, which are ―the company‘s advantage in the market‖, ―improvement of the company (quality, productivity, cost)‖, ―quality policy of the company‖ and ―market (customers and competitors)‖. Pun et al (2007) study found that the Hongkong food companies motivations are to improve their quality management systems or as an intermediate step in achieving total quality management (TQM), to drive continuous improvement or to reduce non-conforming products, directives from headquarters, to promote business competitiveness, to maintain a quality image, to change the company culture, and to satisfy customers‘ requirements. Meanwhile Nguyen et al. (2003) found that the main Canada food company‘s ISO 9001 implementation motivation is to incorporate structure and discipline into their quality systems. Other motivations for those companies are included recognition, better document control, the need for a framework for self-managed work teams, and the desire to add value to the process and procedures for manufacturing. From those data, it could be synthesized that the motivations of food companies in implementing ISO 9001 is varying between external and internal motivations. According to Sampaio et al. (2009), Internal motivations are related with the goal of achieving

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organizational improvement, while external motivations are mainly related with promotional and marketing issues, customer pressures, improvement of market share, etc. Rohitratana and Boon-itt (2001) and Fotopoulos et al. (2008) found that the most important ISO 9001 implementation motivations for food companies are included in external motivation. Meanwhile, Pun et al (2007) and Nguyen et al. (2003) found that the most important motivations are included in internal motivation. This means the food companies around the world have different background in looking the function of ISO 9001 standard. This finding of this research also shows that the motivation of food companies‘ trend in implementing ISO 9001 is not different with other industries. Sampaio et al. (2009) has summarized the results of researches on ISO 9001 implementation and found that the motivations of companies in implementing ISO 9001 is also classified into external and internal motivations. Furthermore, they also found that different context may have different main motivation in implementing ISO 9001. The ISO 9001 implementation barriers Rohitratana and Boon-itt (2001) study found that the barriers for Thai‘s seafood companies in implementing ISO 9001 are lack of understanding of the standard, lack of knowledgeable personnel in this subject matter, and lack of personnel support and coordination. Fotopoulos et al. (2008) study found that Greek food companies did not face any particular barriers during the implementation of the standard, except for the time taken to implement the standard‘s requirements, which was specified as a difficulty of a relatively high degree. Pun et al (2007) study found that the Hongkong food companies felt that training of employees and documentation as their barriers in implementing ISO 9001. Meanwhile Nguyen et al. (2003) found that the barriers encountered by the Canada food companies can be grouped into two categories, integration and people. ―Integration‖ relates to the process of developing, implementing and maintaining the ISO 9000 systems. The main barrier faced by the companies was in defining the work process for various departments. This process was further complicated by time conflicts among department managers, which made it extremely difficult to progress with program development. Meanwhile ―people‖ relates to the willingness to personnel to change following on quality issues.From those data, it could be synthesized that the barriers of food companies in implementing ISO 9001 is consist of two categorized which are ―integration‖ and ―people‖ aspect. The barriers on integration aspect that faced by food companies are the time taken to implement the standard‘s requirements, documentation, and defining the work process for various departments. Meanwhile the barriers on people aspect are lack of knowledgeable personnel, lack of personnel support and coordination, training of employees, and resistance of personnel to change. The trend of food companies‘ barrier is quite different with the barrier that faced by others industries. At the food companies, there is no research result that shows ―lack of management commitment‖ as barrier in implementing ISO 9001. Meanwhile Sampaio et al. (2009) reported that lack of management is the main barrier that faced in ISO 9001 implementation on general industry context. This finding shows that top management‘s food companies aware of the quality importance and their role in a quality management system. The ISO 9001 implementation benefits Fotopoulos et al. (2008) study found that ISO 9001 implementation benefits for Greek food companies could be grouped into improved position in the market, improved quality, Customer benefits, Employee benefits, and Supplier benefits. Pun et al (2007) study found that ISO 9001 implementation benefits for Hongkong food companies are maturity of the quality management system, product segregation, and foundation for TQM. From those data, it could be known that the ISO 9001 implementation gives a lot of benefits to food companies. Those benefits itself could be categorized as external benefits and internal benefits. The external benefits that perceived by food companies are market position improvement and Customer benefits. Meanwhile the internal benefits are maturity of the quality management system, product segregation, foundation for TQM, Employee benefits, and Supplier benefits. This finding shows that the food companies perceived

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benefits has same trend with other industries. Sampaio et al. (2009) state that, generally, companies got external and internal perceived benefits in implementing ISO 9001. At the Greek food companies‘ case, the most perceived benefits that were obtained are included in external benefits. Meanwhile at the Hongkong food companies‘ case, the perceived benefits are included in internal benefits. This facts show that the perceived benefits which the food companies got are appropriate with their motivations. This finding also shows that the trend of food companies‘ benefit has similarities with the other industries. Gotzamani and Tsiotras (2002 in Psomas et al., 2010) stated that companies seeking ISO 9001 certification mainly based on external motivations will also achieve mostly external benefits, while those that seek certification based on true quality improvement will get benefits mainly in terms of internal operations improvement. DISCUSSION ISO 9001 implementation critical factor As we can see at ―the ISO 9001 implementation benefits‖ section, the perceived benefits that obtained by food companies consist of external and internal benefits. Basically, as the ISO 9001 objectives, the standard implementation should give the internal benefits. However, some research shows that there are not a few companies that failed in getting perceived benefits as state by Magd et al (2003) and Casadesus et al. (2001). In spite of that, this section will try to discuss what the ISO 9001 implementation critical factors in getting internal perceived benefits at food industry context are. ―Critical factors‖ can be defined as the crucial elements that require examination and categorization to ensure effective management and implementation of an individual system and/or the overall mission of an organization (Oakland, 1995 in Psomas et al., 2010). At this paper, critical factors are all factors that could be used by organization to minimize the ISO 9001 implementation barriers and endorse ISO 9001 implementation benefits. As we can see at ―the ISO 9001 implementation benefits‖ section, all researches show that companies perceived benefits are appropriate with their benefits. Food companies with internal motivation get internal benefits while food companies with dominantly external motivation get more external benefits. On other side, the data show that the external motivation driven companies that got the internal perceived benefits also have the internal motivation. From that condition, it could be said that one of critical factors for ISO 9001 implementation at food industry is ―internal motivation‖. All researches show that ―people‖ and ―integration‖ are the barriers for ISO 9001 implementation. Nguyen et al. (2003) stated that the ―people‖ and ―integration‖ could be solved by the commitment management in supporting and involving the implementation. As example, the lack of personnel knowledgeable could be minimized by the investment of management in training. The personnel resistance could be minimized by specific and appropriate rule that initiated by management. Furthermore the problem of integration could be minimized by the clear direction of management on the working/process scope boundary. In spite of that, it could be said that the other of critical factors for ISO 9001 implementation at food industryis―the commitment of management to involve and support the implementation‖. CONCLUSION As the research questions that shown in research method section, the conclusion of this ISO implementation‘s research is as follows. The food companies‘ motivations could be categorized as the external and internal motivation. The internal motivation are to improve their quality management systems or as an intermediate step in achieving total quality management (TQM), to drive continuous improvement, to reduce non-conforming products, to change the company culture, incorporate structure and discipline into their quality systems, better document control, the need for a framework for self-managed work teams, and the desire to add value to the process and procedures for manufacturing while the external motivations are directives from headquarters, to promote business

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competitiveness, to maintain a quality image, and to satisfy customers‘ requirements. The food companies‘ barriers are consist of two categorized which are ―integration‖ and ―people‖ aspect. The barriers on integration aspect are the time taken to implement the standard‘s requirements, documentation, and defining the work process for various departments while the barriers on people aspect are lack of knowledgeable personnel, lack of personnel support and coordination, training of employees, and resistance of personnel to change. The food companies perceived benefits itself could be categorized as external benefits and internal benefits. The external benefits that perceived by food companies are market position improvement and Customer benefits while the internal benefits are maturity of the quality management system, product segregation, foundation for TQM, Employee benefits, and Supplier benefits. The critical factors for food companies are ―internal motivation‖ and ―the commitment management to involve and support the implementation‖. REFERENCES ISO 9001 (2008), International Standard, Quality Management Systems Requirements. Fotopoulos, Cristos V et al., (2008), ―ISO 9001:2000 Implementation in the Greek Food Sector‖, the TQM Journal, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 129-142. Grig, Nigel P and McAlinden (2001), ―A New Role for ISO 9001 in the Food Industry‖, British Food Journal, Vol. 103 No. 9, pp. 644-656. Lewis, W. G et al. (2005). ―An AHP-based study of TQM benefits in ISO 9001 certified SME‘s in Trinidad and Tobago‖. The TQM Magazine Vol. 17 No. 6. pp. 558-572. Magd, Hesham and Nabulsi, Fahd (2003), ―ISO 9000 implementation: a study of manufacturing companies in Saudi Arabia‖, Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol.18 No.4, pp. 313-322. Nguyen, Than et al. (2003), ―Food Safety and Quality Systems in Canada, An Exploratory Study‖, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 21 No. 6, pp. 655-671. Piskar, Franka and Dolinsek (2006), ―Implementation of the ISO 9001: from QMS to Business Model‖,Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 106 No. 9, pp. 1333-1343. Pun, Maria et al. (2007), ―Experience and Perceptions of ISO 9000 and HACCP by Hong Kong Food and Beverage Organizations‖, Journal of Asia Business Studies, pp. 67-76. Rohitratana, Kaewta and Boon-itt, (2001),‖Quality Standard in Thai Seafood Processing Industry‖, British Food Journal, Vol. 103 No.9, pp. 623-630. Sampaio, Paolo et al. (2009). ―ISO 9001 Certification Research: Questions, Answers and Approaches‖. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 38-58. Van den Heuvel, Jaap et al. (2005), ―An ISO 9001 quality management system in a hospital Bureaucracy or just benefits? ‖International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, Vol. 18 No. 5, pp. 361-369. Vouzas,Fotis K. and Gotzamani (2005). ―Best Practices of Selected Greek Organizations on Their Road to Business Excellence. The Contribution of the New ISO 9000:2000 Series of Standards‖ The TQM Magazine Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 259-266.

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THE EFFECTS OF SOAKING TIME OF CASSAVA CHIPS ON QUALITY OF CASSAVA CRUMBS AND OPTIMIZATION OF MIXED RICE FORMULA Sutardi, Bambang Priyanto and Murdijati Gardjito Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT Production of cassava crumbs (oyek) and mixed rice (nasi uleng) is still varies in several regions. The aims of the research were to study the effects of soaking time of dried cassava chips on cassava crumbs and to determine the best formula for mixed rice preparation that most acceptable for community. Preliminary study on cassava crumbs preparation methods was conducted by survey in Wonosari, Yogyakarta and Lampung regions. The results of survey showed that method of cassava crumbs preparation in Lampung region was selected as feasible method for study and future development. The next experiment was to study the effects of soaking time of dried cassava chips for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively on yield quality of cassava crumbs. The yield of cassava crumbs were then evaluated organoleptically in order to choose the best quality or the most acceptable cassava crumbs. The selected cassava crumbs was then made for mixed rice by mixing rice and cassava crumbs with the ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (v/v), respectively. Sensory evaluation was subsequently done to choose the best formula of mixed rice. Nutritional values of mixed rice were determined. All of the collected data were statistically analyzed. The results show that selected cassava crumbs was obtained from soaking of dried cassava chips during 48 hours that was characterized by 13.00% moisture content, 0.37 % protein, 0.33% fat, 0.60% ash and 98.70 % carbohydrate. While mixed rice made by 1:1 of rice and cassava crumbs was the most acceptable mixed rice. The quality of such mixed rice was performed by about 58.97% moisture, 1.05% protein, 0.10% fat, 1.77% ash, 0.48% reduction sugar, 2.73% total sugar, 82.63% starch, and 11.23 % dietary fiber, respectively, and mixed rice was to have white color with dispersed light brown stains and the hardness of mixed rice was 0.49 N (moderately soft). Keywords: cassava crumbs (oyek), mixed (uleng) rice, chemical and physical properties.

INTRODUCTION Foods is basic needs for human being in order to sustain their life and therefore foods security for each person for any time is a human right that must be fulfilled (Suryana, 2005). Based on Food Laws No. 7, 1996 is defined as condition for food need for household that reflected by the food availability in the form of quantity, quality, safty, distributable and accessible by community. In the last decade, national food security decrease drastically as impacts of economical crisis and several other causes such as increasing of population, natural disaster, limited productive land and consumption pattern that only using rice as single staple food. Based on production rate of rice about 2.50% annually, it is high risk for keeping rice stock stability as single staple food. Therefore, efforts for supporting of food diversification is assumed as the most rational way out to overcome these problems (Samad, 2002). Facts show that Indonesian community to have many kinds of staple foods according to the potency of each region. The strong promotion of rice consumption to community, however community consumption pettern already change and the only rice is

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as sigle staple food choice. Moreover, Indonesia to have potensial source of non-rice carbohydrate such as cassava, corn, sago and other tubers. Several regions for example Wonogiri, Wonosari and Lampung, where community utilize cassava as secondary staple food during foods crisis season by producing cassava crumbs (tiwul/oyek) or mixed rice (uleng rice) (Rangkuti, 2007). Mixed rice is staple food made by mixing of rice and cassava crumbs in various ratio between rice and cassava crumbs. The usual ratio used in mixed rice preparation consist of 1 part of rice with 1, 2, 3 or 4 parts of cassava crumbs, respectively. Preparation of mixed rice, therefore the consumption of rice can be prudently reduced up to 50%. The aims of the experiment were to know the effects of soaking time of dried cassava chips on quality of cassava crumbs (oyek) and to find optimum ratio between rice and cassava crumbs in preparation of mixed rice that was preferably accepted by community. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Dried cassava was purchased from Wonosari traditional market, Gunungkidul District, Yogyakarta, C4 King rice variety was purchased from Kranggan market, Yogyakarta. Chemical reagents for analysis purposes were analytical grade and obtained from Laboratories at Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology. The main equipments for analysis were UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1650PC) Universal Testing Machine Model 1000 S. Lloyd Instrument Inc., and pH meter. Survey on cassava crumbs preparation Survey was conducted in Wonosari District, Yogyakarta and Lampung region to determine methods of cassava crumbs preparation used by community in both regions. The methods of cassava crumbs preparation in both regions were evaluated and selected as method that was feasible and proper method for study at laboratory. Cassava crumbs preparation Selected method of cassava crumbs preparation was obtained from Lampung region. The procedure of cassava chips preparation was as follow: good quality of dried cassava was selected and such dried cassava was washed and drained completely. Dried cassava was sliced to produce dried cassava chips and it was subsequently soaked for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively, and the soaking water was replaced periodically every 12 hours.. Yield of soaked cassava chips was milled to produce cassava flour. Cassava crumbs was prepared by mixing of cassava flour with proportion of water and mixed gently until the crumbs was form. Cassava crumbs was then steamed to obtain well cook cassava crumbs and finally it was dried by sundrying method until the moisture content of dried cassava crumbs about 14.0% or less. The control sample was also made by using dried cassava chips without soaking treatment. Yield of dried cassava crumbs was organoleptically tested for its acceptability by 20 panelist. Preparation of mixed rice C4 King rice variety was pre-cooked by suspending of 1 kg rice in 1 liter water and boiled for about 20 min in order to meet a similar condition with dried cassava crumbs that has been washed and drained completely. Pre-cooked rice and dried cassava crumbs was mixed homogeneously with the volume/volume ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, respectively. Each mixture was steamed for about 30 min to produce well cooked mixed rice. Sensory evaluation 349

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Sensory attributes such as aroma, flavor, texture or hardness and color of mixed rice were evaluated by 20 panelist using hedonic scale method with range of value 1 dislike very much, 2 dislike moderately, 3 neither like nor dislike, 4 like moderately and 5 like very much (Larmond, 1977). Physical and chemical analysis of mixed rice and rice The texture or hardness of selected mixed rice was determined by using Lloyd Texture Analyzer Model 1000 S, Lloyd Instrument Inc., UK. While moisture content was determined by thermogravimetry method (AOAC, 1995), ash content was determined by dry ashing method (AOAC, 1995), protein content was analyzed by microkjeldahl method (AOAC, 1995), fat content was analyzed by soxhlet method (AOAC, 1995) and starch, reduction sugar and total sugar were determined by Nelson – Somogyi method (AOAC, 1995). The collected data were statistically analyzed by Anova method and followed by DMRT with degree of significancy 95% (Kramer and Twigg, 1973). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chemical composition of cassava crumbs. Chemical composition of cassava crumbs as results of soaking time variation of dried cassava chips is presented in Table 1. Table 1 shows that prolonged time of soaking tend to increase moisture content of dried cassava crumbs. It is due the ability of starch to absorb much more water during soaking (Fennema, 1996) and especially after 72 and 96 h of soaking were significantly increase and significantly different with control sample. The change of water content of starchy products was reversible as described by Mayer (1976). All of water content of samples were still under 14.0%, therefore the dried cassava crumbs was recomended to be safe during storage for couple of months (Muljohardjo, 1978). While protein content of dried cassava crumbs was also slightly decrease but not significant different between treated samples, but significant different with the control sample (p < 0.05) (Table 1). The decreasing of protein content in samples might be due the part of soluble protein leaching into the soaking water as confirmed by Winarno (1997).

Table 1. Effects of soaking time of dried cassava chips on chemical composition of cassava crumbs (+ s.d.)*) Soaking time of dried cassava (h) 24 48 72 96 Control *)

Moisture (% wb) 12.95 + 0.18a 13.00 + 0.12a 13.30 + 0.12b 13.52 + 0.11c 12.92 + 0.19a

Chemical composition Protein Fat Ash (% wb) (% wb) (% wb) 0.39 + 0.09a 0.25 + 0.12a 0.40 + 0.02b a 0.37 + 0.01 0.33 + 0.07a 0.60 + 0.02c a a 0.37 + 0.05 0.37 + 0.02 0.39 + 0.04b a a 0.35 + 0.02 0.39 + 0.09 0.33 + 0.02a b a 0.49 + 0.08 0.28 + 0.05 1.17 + 0.04d

Carbohydrate (by diff.% wb) 98.96 98.70 98.87 98.94 98.05

Mean + s.d. of triplicate determination on two experiments The different letters following the numbers in the same colum show significant defferent (p< 0.05).

Table 1 shows that fat content of dried cassava crumbs were also tend to relatively constant and there were no effect of soaking time on fat content of samples, although 48 h up to 96 h of soaking caused the fat content of samples were slightly increase. This case

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might be due to the fat within mass of cassava crumbs were retained strongly by fibers (Lewis, 1987). Similar to the other compounds within cassava crumbs, however the ash content decreased gradually compared to control sample that to have the highest ash content of 1.17% (Table 1). The main reason was that samples as results of various time of soaking caused part of minerals such as Ca, Mg and Fe etc. leached into the soaking water was similar to the other components of cassava crumbs. Thus, longer soaking time of deied cassava hips will affect to the leaching of several components into the soaking water. Sensory characteristics of cassava crumbs The results of sensory evaluation on cassava crumbs is presented in Table 2 showing that most panelist gave an average score near 3 scale (neither like nor dislike) for all of sensory attributes such as aroma, flavor, texture and color. The highest score 3.05 for total acceptability was given to the cassava crumbs as a result of soaking of cassava chips for 96 h. Based on all of sensory attributes, therefore the most accepted cassava crumbs was cassava crumbs made from soaked dry cassava chips for 48 hours. Table 2. Sensory evaluation of cassava crumbs (oyek) Soaking time of dried cassava (hrs) 24 48 72 96 Control

Aroma 2.80 + 1.06bc 2.95 + 0.89bc 2.60 + 0.75ab 3.30 + 0.80c 2.15 + 1.23a

Sensory attributes Texture/ Color Hardness 2.90 + 0.91a 2.60 + 0.68a 2.95 + 0.94a a b 2.65 + 0.58 3.15 + 0.93 3.05 + 0.89a a b 2.85 + 0.93 2.80 + 0.77 3.10 + 0.85a a b 2.85 + 0.99 3.20 + 0.95 2.60 + 1.23b a a 2.75 + 1.12 2.15 + 1.04 3.20 + 1.36a Flavor

Preferency 2.75 + 0.79a 2.80 + 0.83a 2.55 + 0.69a 3.05 + 0.94a 2.65 + 0.88a

*)

Mean + s.d. of 20 panelist on two experiments The different letters following the numbers in the same colum show significant defferent (p< 0.05). While the color of cassava crumbs with variation of soaking time were performed in Figure 1. The color of cassava crumbs made from soaked cassava chips for 96 hours was light brown and brighter than other samples. The most dark brown color was control sample in which the sample without soaking caused several impurities were still present and non-enzymatic browning reaction or Maillard reaction was more intensive occure.

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Cassava crumbs Cassava crumbs Cassava crumbs (24 h soaking, brown 4+) (48 h soaking, brown 3+) (72 h soaking, brown 2+)

Cassava crumbs (96 h soaking, brown 1+)

Cassava crumbs (control, brown 5+)

Fig. 1. Color of cassava crumbs made by soaked cassava chips with various soaking time

Sensory evaluation of mixed rice Aroma, taste, texture and color of mixed rice were organoleptically tested by panelist and the result is presented in Table 3. Table 3 shows that the most accepted cassava crumbs was formula with the ratio between rice and cassava crumbs of 1:1, and acceptability was decrease followed by ratio of 1:2 and the following ratio. Table 3. Sensory evaluation of mixed rice Ratio rice to cassava crumbs 1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 *)

Aroma

Taste

Sensory attributes Texture

3.25 + 0.85b 3.55 + 0.83b 3.65 + 0.88cd 3.20 + 0.83ab 3.35 + 0.67ab 3.20 + 0.95bc 2.80 + 0.83ab 2.95 + 0.94a 2.60 + 0.68a 2.65 + 1.04a 3.15 + 0.93ab 2.80 + 1.06ab

Color

Preferency

3.25 + 0.85a 3.35 + 0.99a 2.90 + 0.85a 2.85 + 1.23a

2.79 + 0.79bc 3.32 + 0.75b 2.58 + 0.77a 2.58 + 1.02a

Mean + s.d. of 20 panelist on two experiments The different letters following the numbers in the same colum show significant defferent (p< 0.05).

It is understood that mixed rice with fifty-fifty between both components of mixed rice gave more interesting color as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 explains that the appearance of mixed rice was more bright, and it was due to the more white color of rice dispersed within mixed rice inbetween of cassava crumbs.

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Mixed rice (rice : cassava crumbs = 1:1)

Mixed rice (rice : cassava crumbs = 1:2)

Mixed rice (rice : cassava crumbs = 1:3) Mixed rice (rice : cassava crumbs = 1:4) Fig. 2. The color of mixed rice made by variation ratio of rice and cassava crumbs It was also assumed that other sensory attributes were more better than the others. The main sensory atrtribute especially taste or flavor will be main factor to panelist to decide the best choise. Moreover, based on the total preferency shows that the best choice come from mixed rice made by 1 part of rice and one part of cassava crumbs with total score of 3.79 meaning like moderately. This information will be good news that mixed rice can be promoted to be alternative or as diversification menue for community toward to gain the food security program. Nutritional value of cassava crumbs, rice, boiled rice and mixed rice To make comparison in nutrition content of mixed rice, therefore it was compared to cassava crumbs and rice as raw material for making mixed rice and also it was compared to boiled rice as main staple food for most community (Table 4). Table 4. Nutritional value of crumb cassava, raw rice, boiled rice and mixture of crumb cassava and boiled rice (mixed rice) Components of sample Moisture (% wb) Protein (% db) Fat (% db) Ash (% db) Starch (% db) Total sugar (% db) Reduction sugar (% db) Dietary fiber (by diff. % db) *)

Cassava crumbs 13.00 + 0.11 0.37 + 0.01 0.33 + 0.07 0.60 + 0.02 86.08 + 0.05 5.30 + 0.32 1.74 + 0.67 5.58

Raw rice

Boiled rice

Mixed rice

14.61 + 0.09 1.30 + 0.39 1.17 + 0.18 2.46 + 0.37 91.14 + 0.05 3.36 + 0.02 0.26 + 0.01 3.31

63.25 + 0.19b 1.83 + 0.04b 0.10 + 0.02a 3.25 + 0.02b 87.49 + 0.08b 2.72 + 0.40a 0.51 + 0.01a 4.09

58.83 + 0.60a 1.05 + 0.02a 0.10 + 0.02a 1.77 + 0.15a 82.63 + 0.09a 2.73 + 0.41a 0.48 + 0.02a 11.23

Mean + s.d. of triplicate determination on two experiments The different letters following the numbers in the same colum show significant defferent (p< 0.05).

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Over all, nutritive value of mixed rice was not significant different, except a certain components in mixed rice may be higher or lower than boiled rice. These indications will confirm to us that to consume mixed rice is no problems regarding to effort to make balancing and variation on food consumption. The similar case was also described by Kusumasari (2008). Based on statistical analysis may be concluded that there were no significant different on nutrition content between boiled rice and mixed rice, except protein, ash and starch content of mixed rice were slightly lower than boiled rice. The texture or hardness of boiled rice and selected mixed rice (ratio of 1:1) is presented in Table 5. Mixed rice to have higher texture or hardness than boiled rice, it might be due to the higher content of dietary fiber of cassava crumbs (5.58%). Such condition will affects on increasing of texture or hardness of mixed rice that have been made by mixing of 50% rice and 50% cassava crumbs. Table 5. Texture of selected mixed rice Sampel Boiled rice Selected mixed rice

Hardness (N) 2.79 5.49

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Conclusion The best quality of cassava crumbs was made from dried cassava chips which was soaked for 48 h., and the most accepted mixed rice was made from mixture between 50% rice and 50% cassava crumbs (ratio of 1:1). The accepted mixed rice was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, starch, total sugar, reduction sugar and dietary fiber as follow 58.83, 1.05, 0.1, 1.77, 82.63, 2.73, 0.48 and 11.23%, respectively. While the texture or hardness of mixed rice was recorded of 5.49 N (moderately soft). Suggestion Study on preparation of mixed rice composite should be promoted in order to create mixed rice composite that can be easily cooked in rice cooker.

REFERENCES AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemist.AOAC International. Suite500, Maryland. Fennema, O.R., 1996. Principles of Food Science. Part I: Food Chemistry. Marcell Dekker Inc., New York. Kusumasari, H. A. 2008. Sifat Fisik dan Tingkat Penerimaan Inderawi Nasi dari BerasCihampat Dengan Penambahan Tepung Ubi Jalar Uleng VarietasWulung.Skripsi Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Kramer, A. and B.A. Twigg. 1973. Quality Control for The Food Chemistry. The AVI Publishing Company Inc., Westport. Connecticut.

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Larmond, E. 1977. Laboratory Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Food. Canada Deparment of Agriculture Publication, Food Research Institute, Ottawa. Lewis M. J., 1987. Physical Properties of Food Processing Systems.Ellis Hardwood Ltd. Chicester. Meyer, L. H., 1976. Food Chemistry. Reinhold Publishing Co.. New York. Muljohardjo, M., 1978. Perbaikan Cara Pengolahan dan Penyimpanan Gaplek. Laporan Penelitian Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta. Rangkuti, 2007. Nasi Tiwuldalam www.google.com/nasi/tradisional. Didownload 21 November 2008 pukul 13.25 WIB. Samad, M.Y. 2002. PembuatanBeras Tiruan (Artificial Rice) dengan Bahan Baku UbiKayu dan Sagu. Jurnal Saint dan Teknologi BPPT. PusatPengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi Agroindustri. Jakarta. Suryana,

A. 2005. Kebijakan Ketahanan http://pse.litbang.deptan.go.id/ind/pdffiles/Anjak_2005_IV_15.pdf

Winarno, F.G. 1997. Kimia pangan dan Gizi. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, jakarta.

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PRODUCTION OF GOAT MILK POWDER: A STRATEGY FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITY AND DIVERSIFYING MILK PRODUCTS OF ETAWAH CROSSEDBRED GOATS Widodo*1,2), Nosa Septiana Anindita1, Evi Agustina Wulandari1 and I Gede Suparta Budisatria3 1) Laboratory of Meat, Draught, and Companion Animals, Faculty of Animal Science, UGM 2) Laboratory of Food and Animal Products, Faculty of Animal Science, UGM 3) Research Centre for Biotechnology, UGM *) Corresponding author: [email protected] ABSTRACT Etawah Crossedbred Goats are known for their ability to produce fresh milk during the lactation periods. With high level of nutritional contents, goat milk becomes more susceptible to bacterial contamination and spoilage. The objective of this recent study was to apply spray drying technology for evaporating water, dryng the fresh milk and subsequently lengthening storage life of the dried products. Using the inlet temperature at 120o C and outlet temperature at 65oC, milk powders were produced with water content at 1.7 and 1.5% from fresh milk from the initial total solid of 17.4 and 20%, respectively, suggesting that initial total solid applied is high enough for producing milk powder with low water content. Further nutritional analysis showed protein contents at 28.5 and 27.4%, and fat contents at 17.4 and 13.5% as well as lactose contents at 8.0 and 8.2% were obtained from similar fresh milk with total solid at 17.42 and 20%, respectively. Physical quality showed lower wettability and higher level of unintended materials as seen by sieving test compared to that of commercial samples. This suggests a low physical quality of goat milk powder, and this needs a further improvement. Recommendation for the next study is improving the wettability by adding emulsifier and simultaneously enriching milk powder with minerals and vitamins by means of fortification.

Key words: Milk powder, Etawah crossedbred goat, milk quality

INTRODUCTION Etawah crossbred goats are local breed that is adaptive for tropical climate in Indonesia. This breed is generated from a cross-breeding between Jamnapari goats from India with local goat of Kambing Kacang. As dual functions, Etawah crossbred goats are known not only for meat but also for dairy production. According to Knights and Garcia (1997), Ettawah crossbred goats were generally able to produce milk at 0.9 kg per day. A similar level of production was reported by Sutama and Budiarsana (1997) at 0.92 kg per day with lactation periods of 170 days. The highest level of production was achieved after 6 to 8 weeks after giving birth, and getting constant for the period of 3 months before declining at the rate of 3.5% per week (Badamana dkk., 1990 cit. AFRC, 1998). The main nutritional composition of goat milk is: lactose (4.3%), protein (3.2%), fat (4.5%) and total solid of between 13 to 14%. As rich on nutrient, crossbred goat milk is succeptible to microbiological contamination, and this leads to milk degradation (Widodo, 2003). Milk processing is therefore important to be carried out with the purpose of preservation and increasing the effectiveness of keeping and storage. A number of processing technologies for dairy are performed, and this incluces: (a) drying technology for the production of milk powder, (b) milk fermentation for the production of sourmilk, yoghurts, and cheeses, (c) milk evaporation and sweetening for the production of sweetened condensed milk, and (d) milk heating for the production of pasterurized and sterilized milk products (McCarthy,

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1985a; Anonim, 1988; Widodo, 2003). The production of pasteurized and sterilized milk products is intended to preserve milk products by means of killing pathogenic microbes and accordingly reducing other microbial contaminants without changing the quantity (volume) of the milk (McCarthy, 1985b; Tamplin, 1990). Production of milk powder, in the other hands, is a matter of milk preservation by means of evaporating and decreasing the water content, leading to a low quantity of milk products with concentrated nutrients. As dried products, the volume and weight are highly reduced resulting in more efficient for distribution of the products. Moreover, dried milk products have a longer storage life at about 0.5 to 2 years when packaged under vacuum situation (Early, 1998).The objective of this recent study was to produce goat milk powder by means of spray drying as a matter to improve nutritional quality through fortification and physical quality through emulsification. MATERIALS AND METHODS Crossbred goat milk and other materials used Fresh crossbred goat milk was collected from goat farmers in Turi, Sleman and from CV Lembah Hijau Yogyakarta. The goats were fed with forages such as Glicirida, Calliandra and Leucaena as together with cassava flour. Other materials utilized were alcohol 30% and 70%, skim milk powder (SMP), distilled water, tomato juice,Kalium Iodida (KI) 10%, HCl 2 N, NaCl 0.86%, glycerol, sucrose, NaH3, H2SO4, Na2S2O3, ZnSO4, NaOH 0.75 N, NaOH 0.1 N, NaOH 50%, methylene blue 0.02% and Chloramine-T. Fresh milk collection and evaluation Fresh milk was collected in the morning time and was subsequently sent to lab