diagnostic test - Prismic

Loading...

Part Two

DIagnostic Test

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 31

4/21/12 6:30 PM

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 32

4/21/12 6:30 PM

Diagnostic Test Answer Grid Before taking this Diagnostic Test, find a quiet place where you can work uninterrupted for about three hours. Make sure you have a comfortable desk, several No. 2 pencils, and a few ballpoint ­pens. The Diagnostic Test includes a ­multiple-­choice section and a ­free-­response question. Use the answer grid to record your ­multiple-­choice answers. Write the essays on the pages provided; use additional sheets if ­needed. Once you start the test, don’t stop until you’ve finished, except for a 10-minute break between the ­­ multiple-­choice and essay sections. The answer key and explanations follow the ­test. Good luck! 1.

19.

37.

2.

20.

38.

3.

21.

39.

4.

22.

40.

5.

23.

41.

6.

24.

42.

7.

25.

43.

8.

26.

44.

9.

27.

45.

10.

28.

46.

11.

29.

47.

12.

30.

48.

13.

31.

49.

14.

32.

50.

15.

33.

51.

16.

34.

52.

17.

35.

53.

18.

36.

54.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 33

4/21/12 6:30 PM

Computing Your Score There is no way to determine precisely what your AP grade will be because: • the conditions under which you take the Practice Test will not exactly mirror real test conditions. • while the multiple-choice questions are scored by computer, the free-response questions are graded manually by faculty consultants. You will not be able to accurately grade your own essays.

Section I: Multiple-Choice Number Correct

× 1.298 =

= Multiple-Choice Raw Score

Section II: Free-Response (Do Not Round) Question 1: (out of 9 points possible)

× 3.0556 =

Question 2: (out of 9 points possible)

× 3.0556 =

Question 3: (out of 9 points possible)

× 3.0556 =

Total Questions 1, 2, and 3 =

= Free-Response Raw Score

Composite Score Section I Multiple-Choice Score

+ Section II Free-Response Score

Conversion Chart

=

= Composite Score (round to the nearest whole number)

Composite Score Range AP Grade

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 34

112–150

5

98–111

4

80–97

3

55–79

2

0–54

1

4/21/12 6:30 PM

DiAgnostic Test

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions Time—1 ­hour Number of questions—­54 Percent of total grade—45% Directions: This part consists of selections from prose works and questions on their content, form, and style. After reading each passage, choose the best answer to each question and completely fill in the corresponding oval on the answer ­sheet.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 35

4/21/12 6:30 PM

36

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

Questions 1–14. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers.

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

Although my early life tended to encourage my flirting propensities it did not make me the real heartless coquette, I afterwards became. The flirtations of school life were harmless, for there was no real love between myself and the parties concerned. When I left school I was just seventeen. Young, gay, rich, happy and thoughtless, without a wish ungratified. I had been accustomed to admiration all my life, and now I really deserved it. I was rather ­stylish in my personal appearance, so every one said. Every advantage, that money could give, had been given me, and I do not flatter myself, when I say I improved my talents. I rode well, danced well, played and sang well, conversed well, and in truth everything I attempted I did well. Among the first satellites that moved around my sphere, were two young gentlemen, both handsome, but very unlike in personal appearance and disposition. One was dark as a Spaniard, with eyes and hair as dark as night when the moon and stars have hid their beams under a canopy of cloud. He was very handsome and talented, yet I could not love the man, for I feared him. Still it amused me to lead him on, intending to tell him every time we met, that his love was vain; but I continued putting it ­off. The ­other—­God knows I loved him, if woman is capable of loving. He was fair, very fair, with dark eyes and light hair. His mouth was beautiful, but deceit lurked in each exquisite curve of his lips. An Adonis was not more perfect in form: and he knew it. He was young in years, yet old in sin. I now sometimes think that he, like Bulwer’s Zanoni, had found the true secret of perpetual youth, and that he had lived for centuries, so well was

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

(70)

(75)

(80)

he versed in the ways of the world, and in each phase of human nature. He often boasted of the many conquests he had made, and said that no woman he chose to captivate could escape loving him. I did not like this speech; but I loved him. He had certainly many rare traits of character. His generosity was proverbial; he was a warm friend and had the most perfect control over his very high temper. It was not long before we became engaged. He said that he loved me at first sight; and God knows that his love was more than returned. He called to see me each day, and every night escorted me to some place of amusement. He was very jealous, but I liked that. He was my sun during the day, and my moon at night. There was a cloud over all my happiness when he failed to come. He was young, ardent, fiery and passionate, and ­I—­I was a fool! The passionate devotion of my heart was lavished upon a worthless object. I knew nothing of his former conduct or character, as he had come to Macon but recently. Knowing how particular my father was about such things, I employed a friend to visit the town he was from, and enquire into his past history. Now, friends, bear with pity my sad trial, and paint to your own imaginations how you would feel in such a ­case. Within two weeks of marriage, with a man that you loved with your whole heart and soul, a perfect man, as you thought, imagine how you would feel to hear that he had (Oh God! how can I relate truth as I heard it! but I must or you will never hear with charity my flirtations) that he had been compelled to leave the town in which he lived, on account of his base seduction of a most beautiful, but poor girl, under solemn promise of marriage. He lived as a husband with her for a few months, and then deserted her, leaving her to GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 36

4/21/12 6:30 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

(110)

(115)

(120)

die alone, in ignominy, and the most abject poverty. On her ­death-­bed she divulged her secret to her brother, who traced the seducer to the city and wounded him in a duel, and was fatally shot himself. A seducer and a double murderer, the man I thought free from guile as an angel in heaven! It was enough to drive one mad, and I am sure I was crazed for ­years. He came to see me that night! How my hand trembles! I can scarcely write to describe our meeting. I was sitting alone, for I had refused to receive visitors that night, when he entered the room. ‘Ah! darling,’ said he, kissing me. ‘Alone I see. I am very glad too, for I wanted to see you with no one near.’ How handsome he looked, with his flushed cheeks, red from his ride in the wintry wind. ‘What’s the matter with my bird ­to-­night? her voice is as sweet as ever, but it is too sad for me.’ ‘Ella do let me urge you to appoint our wedding day a week sooner, for you are so pretty and sweet, you will tempt me to’—he did not finish the sentence, but I understood his meaning but too well. It was the first time he had ever acted in such a singular manner, and I saw he was excited highly by spirituous ­liquors. ‘Indeed sir,’ I answered, ‘If I have heard the truth I am not the first woman who proved too sweet and pretty for you, and in whose presence you could not control your passions.’ ‘Who told you that Ella?’ he exclaimed, starting from his seat! ‘By all that is sacred if I find out, he shall not live an hour!’ ‘You shall never know,’ said I. ‘Two murders are quite enough to doom your blackened soul, Dudley Earle!’ How pale he looked, but not with penitence, it was anger only toward the person who had divulged his secret. He

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 37

(125)

(130)

(135)

(140)

(145)

(150)

(155)

(160)

37

remained an hour trying to persuade me to revoke my decision, and then left me a ­heart-­broken sad woman, without an object in life. And then and there I bent my knee, before the throne of God. (I know now it was blasphemy) but I was crazy then! and vowed to revenge myself upon the whole sex, for the misery one, I then supposed the type of the species, had wrought in my soul; and faithfully I kept that ­vow. The Devil aids his own, and he surely helped me. Even unsought, men would lay their love at my feet, and their foibles, rendered harmless by my own ­self-­control, became my playthings. Often, very often have I acted in such a way, that I knew would inflame an even unimpressable man, and then would send his love back ungratified, to corrode his very heart. Was that just or right? No indeed, it was not. It was dangerous to me, and outrageous to others. But dear reader in pity for my anguish, and for the long years of intense mental suffering, forgive me. Never! believe me, would I divulge this passage of my life to any one, did I not think that perhaps it may be a warning to the young, of both ­sexes. Let the young gentlemen always think and know, that no matter how secret an evil act may be committed, it will always come to light, and at the very time you may wish it to be kept concealed. To the girls: No matter my dears, how handsome or fascinating a gentleman may appear, never allow your affections to become fixed on any human being, until you know that being worthy. Often times the veriest serpent wears a shining coat, most beautiful to look upon, but the poison of whose fangs will corrupt a young heart and mar its peace a whole life ­time. From Confessions of a Flirt by Mrs. Edward Leigh (1859) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

4/21/12 6:30 PM

38

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

1. This passage can best be described ­as (A) a process narrative that provides the background of a flirtatious young ­woman. (B) a personal narrative that shows the development of a flirtatious nature. (C) a cause and effect essay that explains some unladylike ­behavior. (D) an argument that justifies personal ­revenge. (E) a comparison of two very handsome but very different young ­gentlemen.

2. The narrator can best be described ­as (A) indulged but ­sensitive. (B) revengeful but ­trustworthy. (C) angry but ­personable. (D) vindictive but ­personable. (E) spoiled but generous ­spirited.

3. In the context of the entire essay, paragraph 2 provides which of the ­following? (A) It describes the naiveté of a young ingénue. (B) It discloses a heartlessness preparatory to her later behavior toward ­men. (C) It gives the reader a poetic description using ­astronomy. (D) It contrasts two very different young suitors and the narrator’s behavior toward ­them. (E) It explains the narrator’s naiveté in her early years of ­womanhood.

4. Paragraph 3 utilizes all of the following stylistic devices ­EXCEPT (A) ­allusion. (B) ­simile. (C) ­hyperbole. (D) ­polysyndeton. (E) ­anaphora.

5. In paragraph 3, the narrator primarily relies upon which of the following sentence ­structures? (A) Simple ­sentences (B) Compound sentences (C) Parenthetical ­sentences (D) Fragmented ­sentences (E) Periodic ­sentences

6. Based on the rest of the passage, the best description of the young man as depicted in paragraph 3 ­is (A) charming and ­thoughtful. (B) sensitive and ­artistic. (C) suave and ­experienced. (D) brave and ­adventurous. (E) modest and ­mannerly.

7. The last sentences of paragraph 4 (lines 85–89) employ which of the following two ­characteristics? (A) Repetition and ­exaggeration (B) Irony and ­hyperbole (C) Explanation and ­sorrow (D) Simile and ­metaphor (E) Juxtaposition and ­understatement

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 38

4/21/12 6:30 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

8. The most likely meaning of the word “singular” (line 107) would ­be (A) ­remarkable. (B) by ­oneself. (C) ­earnest. (D) ­deceitful. (E) ­duplicitous.

9. The pronoun “that” in line 70 refers ­to (A) his guilty ­conscience. (B) his surprise at her ­anger. (C) the despicable ­gentleman. (D) the murder he committed. (E) her sadness over his ­deceit.

10. The phrase “The Devil aids his own” (line 133) can best be interpreted to ­mean (A) the narrator’s prayers were directed to the ­Devil. (B) the Devil only helps out other ­devils. (C) the narrator’s evil revenge on men was accomplished with the help from the ­Devil. (D) the deceitful gentleman was like the Devil in his ­actions. (E) without the Devil’s help, the narrator might never have learned the ­truth.

39

12. The tone of the last paragraph can best be described ­as (A) ­sarcastic. (B) ­melodramatic. (C) ­angry. (D) ­injured. (E) ­didactic.

13. The best alternative for the phrase “veriest serpent wears a shining coat” (lines 158–159) ­is (A) wolf in sheep’s ­clothing. (B) coal in a holiday ­stocking. (C) garbage wrapped in shiny ­paper. (D) snake in the shiny wet ­grass. (E) reptile clothed in ­jewels.

14. This story, especially in light of its last paragraph, can best be summed up by the cliché (A) “Beware of Greeks bearing ­gifts.” (B) “Don’t judge a book by its ­cover.” (C) “Beauty is only skin ­deep.” (D) “Always walk a mile in another’s ­moccasins.” (E) “Don’t look a gift horse in the ­mouth.”

11. Paragraph 11 (lines 133–148) utilizes all of the following rhetorical devices ­EXCEPT (A) ­alliteration. (B) ­assonance. (C) rhetorical ­question. (D) ­zeugma. (E) ­exclamation. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 39

4/21/12 6:30 PM

40

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

Questions 15–28. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your ­answers.

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

The only purpose of being in politics is to strive for the values and ideals we believe in: freedom, justice, what we Europeans call solidarity but you might call respect for and help for others. These are the decent democratic values we all avow. But alongside the values we know we need a ­hard-­headed ­pragmatism—­a ­realpolitik—­required to give us any chance of translating those values into the practical world we live ­in. The same tension exists in the two views of international affairs. One is utilitarian: each nation maximizes its own ­self-­interest. The other is utopian: we try to create a better world. Today I want to suggest that more than ever before those two views are ­merging. I advocate an enlightened ­self-­interest that puts fighting for our values right at the heart of the policies necessary to protect our nations. Engagement in the world on the basis of these values, not isolationism from it, is the ­hard-­headed pragmatism for the 21st century. Why? In part it is because the countries and people of the world today are more interdependent than ever. In truth, it is very rare today that trouble in one part of the globe remains limited in its effect. Not just in security, but in trade and ­finance—­witness the crisis of 1998 which began in Thailand and ended in ­Brazil—­the world is ­interlocked. This is heightened by mass communications and technology. In Queen Victoria’s time, reports of battles came back weeks or months after they were won or lost. Today we ­see them enacted live on the BBC, Sky or CNN. Their very visibility, immediate and in technicolour,

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

(70)

(75)

inflames feelings that can spread worldwide across different ethnic, religious and cultural ­communities. So today, more than ever, “their” problem becomes “our” problem. Instability is contagious and, again today, more than ever, nations, at least most of them, crave stability. That’s for a simple reason. Our people want it, because without it, they can’t do business and prosper. What brings nations ­together—­what brought them together post–September 11—is the international recognition that the world needs order. Disorder ­is the enemy of ­progress. The struggle is for stability, for the security within which progress can be made. Of course, countries want to protect their territorial integrity but few are into ­empire-­building. This is especially true of democracies whose people vote for higher living standards and punish governments who don’t deliver them. For 2,000 years Europe fought over ­territory. Today boundaries are virtually fixed. Govern­ments and people know that any territorial ambition threatens stability, and instability threatens ­prosperity. And of course the surest way to stability is through the very values of freedom, democracy and justice. Where these are strong, the people push for moderation and order. Where they are absent, regimes act unchecked by popular accountability and pose a threat; and the threat ­spreads. So the promotion of these values becomes not just right in itself but part of our ­ ­long-­term security and prosperity. We can’t intervene in every case. Not all the wrongs of the world can be put right, but where disorder threatens us all, we should ­act. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 40

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

(80)

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

(110)

(115)

Like it or not, whether you are a utilitarian or a utopian, the world is interdependent. One consequence of this is that foreign and domestic policy are ever more closely ­interwoven. It was September 11 that brought these thoughts into sharper focus. Watching the horror unfold, imagining the almost unimaginable suffering of the thousands of innocent victims of the terror and carnage, the dominant emotion after the obvious feelings of revulsion, sympathy and anger was ­determination. The guts and spirit of the people of New York and America in the aftermath of that terrible day were not just admirable, they were awesome. They were the best riposte to the terrorists that humanity could give and you should be very proud of that. I want you to know too that the British people were with you from the first moment, and we will always be with you at times like those. We are not ­half-­hearted friends and we never will be. But the determination must be not just to pursue those responsible and bring them to justice but to learn from September 11. There is a real danger we ­forget the lessons of September 11. Human beings recover from tragedy and the memory becomes less fraught. That is a healthy part of living. But we should learn from our ­experience. The most obvious lesson is indeed our interdependence. For a time our world stood still. Quite apart from our security, the shock impacted on economic confidence, on business, on trade, and it is only now, with the terrorist network on the run, that confidence is really returning. Every nation in the world felt the reverberation of that fateful day. And that has been well illustrated by the role which the United ­Nations—­under Kofi Annan’s

(120)

(125)

(130)

(135)

(140)

(145)

41

excellent ­leadership—­has played since September ­11. So if we didn’t know it before, we know now: these events and our response to them shape the fate not of one nation but of one ­world. For America, it has laid bare the reality. American power affects the world fundamentally. It is there. It is real. It is never irrelevant. It can affect the world for good, or for bad. Stand aside or engage; it never fails to ­affect. You know I want it engaged. Under President Bush, I am confident it will be and for good. But if that’s what I and many others want, it comes at a price for us too. It means we don’t shirk our responsibility. It means that when America is fighting for those values, then, however tough, we fight with her. No grandstanding, no offering implausible but impractical advice from the comfort of the touchline, no wishing away the hard not the easy choices, but working together, side by ­side. British Prime Minister Tony Blair to the American citizens following 9/11/2001

15. In opening this speech, Prime Minister Blair engages his audience by ­immediately (A) talking about ­politics. (B) referring to ideals the masses believe ­in. (C) referring to the need for ­hard-­headed ­pragmatism. (D) translating values into the practical world we live ­in. (E) directing attention to international ­affairs.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 41

4/21/12 6:31 PM

42

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

16. The sentence that best expresses the essence of the message of the ­speech is (A) “Disorder is the enemy of progress” (line 52). (B) “In truth, it is very rare today that trouble in one part of the globe remains limited in its effect” (lines 27–29). (C) “We are not half-hearted friends and we never will be” (lines 100–101). (D) “American power affects the world fundamentally” (lines 127–128). (E) “So if we didn’t know it before, we know it now: these events and our response to them shape the fate not of one nation but of one world” (lines 122–125).

17. In two parts of this speech, lines 62–65 and lines 122–125, the two-sentence and single‑sentence paragraphs are included ­to (A) provide a break from the tension of longer ­paragraphs. (B) show a reader the syntactical cleverness of the speech ­writer. (C) provide syntactical transition to indicate shifts in the focus of the ­speech. (D) give the speaker a moment to collect his ­thoughts. (E) keep the audience ­attentive.

18. Throughout the speech, Prime Minister Blair includes all the following pairs of contrasting ideas ­EXCEPT (A) engagement not ­isolation. (B) ours not ­theirs. (C) interdependent not ­independent. (D) utilitarian not ­utopian. (E) stability not ­disorder.

19. Blair’s use of the words “guts” and “awesome” (lines 92 and 95) can best be described ­as (A) informal ­diction. (B) an attempt to be ­humorous. (C) a slip in his British ­stuffiness. (D) a speech writer’s ­error. (E) a throwback to the speaker’s common ­upbringing.

20. The long sentence in lines 85–91 has its main clause appearing at the end of the sentence. This is known as what type of ­sentence? (A) ­Loose (B) ­Rhetorical (C) ­Periodic (D) ­Compound (E) ­Complex

21. Paragraph 14 (lines 110–121) contains all of the following stylistic devices ­EXCEPT (A) parenthetical ­statement. (B) ­hyperbole. (C) ­metonymy. (D) ­personification. (E) ­assonance.

22. The major effect of the syntactical structure of paragraph 16 (lines 126–131) makes this ­paragraph (A) pointedly ­powerful. (B) boringly ­repetitious. (C) unimaginatively ­simplistic. (D) dramatically ­stressful. (E) abruptly ­brief.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 42

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

23. In the final paragraph, Blair effectively makes his point ­by (A) explaining how Britain will work side by side with the ­United States. (B) appealing to responsibility and ­commitment. (C) using a series of negatives followed by a ­positive. (D) speaking directly to the audience by using the pronoun “you.” (E) reminding the audience that everything comes with a ­price.

24. The word “riposte” used in line 95 refers most specifically to (A) ­a meal. (B) a ­request. (C) a ­challenge. (D) ­a retort. (E) ­a retaliation.

25. The sentence, “It can affect the world for good, or for bad” (lines 129–130) utilizes a literary device known ­as (A) ­contradiction. (B) ­asyndeton. (C) ­assonance. (D) ­litote. (E) ­zeugma.

43

26. From the last sentence of paragraph 5 (lines 38–41) we can infer that the speaker’s attitude toward this point ­is (A) ­ambiguous. (B) ­displeased. (C) ­inflammatory. (D) ­regretful. (E) ­critical.

27. In lines 129–131, the pronoun “it” refers ­to (A) September ­11. (B) international ­involvement. (C) British ­solidarity. (D) American ­power. (E) American ­retaliation.

28. The speaker in the passage can best be described as a person who (A) is committed to developing independent nations. (B) is actually more interested in the camaraderie between the United States and Britain. (C) has an interest in the utilitarian view of international affairs. (D) encourages collaboration and international solidarity. (E) aspires to greatness but knows that he will never achieve it.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 43

4/21/12 6:31 PM

44

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

Questions 29–41. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your ­answers.

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

To a professional critic (I have been one myself ) ­theatre-­going is the curse of Adam. The play is the evil he is paid to endure in the sweat of his brow; and the sooner it is over, the better. This would place him in irreconcilable opposition to the paying playgoer, from whose point of view the longer the play, the more entertainment he gets for his money. It does in fact so place him, especially in the provinces, where the playgoer goes to the theatre for the sake of the play solely, and insists so effectively on a certain number of hours’ entertainment that touring managers are sometimes seriously embarrassed by the brevity of the London plays they have to deal ­in. For in London the critics are reinforced by a considerable body of persons who go to the theatre as many others go to church, to display their best clothes and compare them with other people’s; to be in the fashion, and to have something to talk about at dinner parties; to adore a pet performer; to pass the evening anywhere rather than home: in short, for any or every reason except interest in dramatic art as such. In fashionable centres the number of irreligious people who go to church, of unmusical people who go to concerts and operas, and of undramatic people who go to the theatre is so prodigious that sermons have been cut down to ten minutes and plays to two hours; and, even at that, congregations sit longing for the benediction and audiences for the final curtain, so that they may get away to the lunch or supper they really crave for, after arriving as late as (or later than) the hour of beginning can possibly be made for ­them. Thus from the stalls and in the Press an atmosphere of hypocrisy spreads. Nobody says

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

(70)

(75)

(80)

straight out that genuine drama is a tedious nuisance, and that to ask people to endure more than two hours of it (with two long intervals of relief ) is an intolerable imposition. Nobody says “I hate classical tragedy and comedy as I hate sermons and symphonies; but I like police news and divorce news and any kind of dancing or decoration that has an aphrodisiac effect on me or on my wife or husband. And whatever superior people may pretend, I cannot associate pleasure with any sort of intellectual activity; and I don’t believe anyone else can either.” Such things are not said; yet ­nine-­tenths of what is offered as criticism of the drama in the metropolitan Press of Europe and America is nothing but a muddled paraphrase of it. If it does not mean that, it means ­nothing. I do not complain of this, though it complains very unreasonably of me. But I can take no more notice of it than Einstein of the people who are incapable of mathematics. I write in the classical manner for those who pay for admission to a theatre because they like classical comedy or tragedy for its own sake, and like it so much when it is good of its kind and well done that they tear themselves away from it with reluctance to catch the very latest train or omnibus that will take them home. Far from arriving late from an eight or ­half-­past eight o’clock dinner so as to escape at least the first ­half-­hour of the performance, they stand in queues outside the theatre doors for hours beforehand in bitingly cold weather to secure a seat. In countries where a play lasts a week, they bring baskets of provisions and sit it out. These are the patrons on whom I depend for my bread. I do not give them performances twelve hours long, because circumstances do not at present make such entertainments feasible; but an ­all-­night sitting in a theatre would be at least GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 44

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

as enjoyable as an ­all-­night sitting in the House of Commons, and much more ­useful. Still I am sorry for the ­pseudo-­critics and the fashionable people whose playgoing is a hypocrisy. They forget, however, that all men are not as they are. I cannot for their sakes undo my work and help the people who hate the theatre to drive out the people who love it, yet I may point out to them that they have several remedies in their own hands. They can escape the first part of the play by their usual practice of arriving late. They can escape the epilogue by not waiting for it. And if the irreducible minimum thus attained is still too painful, they can stay away altogether. But I deprecate this extreme course, because it is good neither for my pocket nor for their own soul. Already a few of them, noticing that what matters is not the absolute length of time occupied by a play, but the speed with which that time passes, are discovering that the theatre, though purgatorial in its Aristotelian moments, is not necessarily always the dull place they have so often found it. What do its discomforts matter when the play makes us forget ­them? George Bernard Shaw: “To the Critics, Lest They Should Feel Ignored” from Saint Joan (1924)

45

30. The tone of this passage can best be described ­as (A) complex and ­formal. (B) ambiguous and ­chastising. (C) direct and ­uncomplicated. (D) abstract and ­pedantic. (E) scathing and ­libelous.

31. The dominant stylistic device used by the writer in paragraph 2 is (A) antithesis. (B) oxymoron. (C) metaphor. (D) analogy. (E) metonymy.

32. The focus of paragraph 3 is (A) people’s preferences of classical tragedy. (B) the public’s preferences for entertainment. (C) the lack of originality in theater audiences. (D) society’s general dislike of sermons and symphonies. (E) the hypocrisy of the Press and the public for not stating what they feel.

29. The writer’s primary purpose in this passage is ­to (A) explain why shorter plays need to be ­performed. (B) criticize the provincial playgoers’ dramatic ­demands. (C) chastise the London public for their ­shallow-­minded ­hypocrisy. (D) explain why his plays are so ­long. (E) berate the theater critics for their superficial ­reviews.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 45

4/21/12 6:31 PM

46

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

33. Paragraph 2 is best summarized by which of the following? (A) People often do the right thing for the wrong reason. (B) In a busy world, churches and theaters have to accommodate the busy lifestyles of potential audiences. (C) People will do just about anything to avoid returning home. (D) Churches and theaters are experiencing a dramatic increase in their attendance. (E) It is far more fashionable to attend a play than it is to attend church.

34. Lines 58–61 can best be understood as meaning which of the following? (A) The author won’t complain about things he cannot fix, just as Einstein is unable to solve all problems. (B) The author cannot worry about the London public’s view of theater any more than Einstein can worry about the math-­challenged people of the world. (C) Einstein is more capable of helping people who dislike math than he is of helping people who dislike theater. (D) Theater people and math people rarely belong to the same social circles. (E) The author feels he has been unjustly criticized, just as Einstein has been unjustly misunderstood.

35. The main conclusion that one can draw from paragraph 4 (lines 58–82) is that (A) the long lines (queues) of ticket buyers at some theaters have become a problem. (B) standing in long theater lines can be an unpleasant experience, especially in the winter cold. (C) 12-­hour-­long performances are not unheard of. (D) week-­long performances require theatergoers to bring their own food. (E) dedicated theater patrons are what make the author’s efforts seem worthwhile.

36. The repetition of infinitive phrases used in paragraph 2 is an example of the stylistic device (A) anaphora. (B) apostrophe. (C) assonance. (D) ambiguity. (E) asyndeton.

37. The author’s reference to the House of Commons is most likely used to (A) add credibility to the passage. (B) show that the author is politically correct. (C) indicate the author’s probable disdain for the government. (D) demonstrate the author’s intelligence. (E) provide an analogy to the point he is making.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 46

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

38. The phrase “irreducible minimum” (line 93) is a reference to (A) the fewest number of plays the public needs to attend to be considered appropriately sociable. (B) the shortest time left after the beginning and end of an event have been eliminated. (C) the sum total of entertainment possibilities people have at their disposal. (D) that which remains after all the pseudo‑critics have been eliminated. (E) the smallest price theaters can charge and still pay the playwright and make a profit.

39. When the author says in lines 96–97 that people avoiding the theater altogether is “good neither for [his] pocket nor for their own soul,” he most likely means (A) like church, the theater can be a religious experience. (B) hypocrisy is a sin, so people should avoid being guilty of it. (C) going to the theater will make audiences feel better. (D) inadvertently, people may actually learn something and possibly even come to appreciate the art of theater. (E) if people don’t attend, they will be reducing the profits of the theaters and losing the opportunity to view plays.

47

40. In lines 100–103, “. . .[They] are discovering that the theatre, though purgatorial in its Aristotelian moments, is not necessarily always the dull place they have so often found it,” the author utilizes a rhetorical device known as (A) ethical appeal. (B) historical reference. (C) analogy. (D) hyperbole. (E) allusion.

41. Overall, the conclusion of this passage is that (A) theater is boring and just an excuse to see and be seen. (B) if given a chance, theater has more to offer than simply providing a social opportunity for Londoners. (C) theater and church are closely aligned in their purpose and their audiences. (D) shallow people are incapable of understanding the true artistic benefits of theater. (E) attending a play is about as beneficial as attending a session of Parliament.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 47

4/21/12 6:31 PM

48

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

Questions 42–54. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers.

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

It is now many years ago, my children, when I was quite a young woman, and your father, Freddy, was less than you are at present, that we lived in a village more than a hundred miles from here. It was a very pretty village, situated on the bank of a broad, beautiful stream, which added much to the fertility and loveliness of the whole country through which it passed. We had not always dwelt in so pretty a place; but your grandfather, thinking it would be better for his business, concluded to take up his abode there. About the time we removed, another family took a steerage passage in a vessel bound from Ireland to this country. There were seven of them altogether—­the father, mother, and five children. Their home had hitherto been a cabin, with a mud floor. A Bible, an iron pot, and a few wooden stools constituted their furniture; while their fare consisted of the scanty supply of milk afforded by one ill-­fed cow, with a few potatoes. Willing to labor, yet finding wages humbled so low that they were often obliged to go both weary and hungry to bed, they concluded, after many struggles, to leave kindred and friends and come to America. How often, when speaking of this unhappy country, is the sentence ‘Why don’t they emigrate?’ uttered with the greatest indifference. But to a warm Irish heart, this is often a severe trial. They are taxed, we might almost say, for the very air they breathe; yet how fondly they still cling to the soil of that island home, where nature must smile in spite of oppression; where the dust of their kindred repose; where are more loving hearts and words of warmer greeting than are to be met with elsewhere. No wonder the Irishman loves his country, crushed, trampled upon as she is. Her soil is among the most fertile, her sons among

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

(70)

(75)

the noblest, and the language of even her rudest children the most poetical of any on earth. Oh, Ireland, fair Ireland, would we might yet live to see thee take thy proper place among the nations, to see the period approach when thy children will not be forced to seek in other countries the bare sustenance denied them at home. The Nevilles, after many struggles to obtain means sufficient to defray the expenses of a passage, and after borrowing from several neighbors small sums, which they promised to repay with interest, found themselves in the steerage of a vessel on their way to this land of promise. I will pass over the first few weeks of their arrival—­strangers on a strange soil. Suffice it to say, that some one directed them to our village as a place where they could likely find steady employment. And here, one evening in early spring, cold, hungry, and penniless, they arrived. My husband, contrary to his usual custom, chanced to be abroad on that evening; and, as he was a devout believer in that blessed word which teaches that we may sometimes entertain angels unawares, on hearing the landlord refuse to keep them on account of their inability to pay, he brought them all home with him. I confess, I was taken a good deal by surprise at this unusual act; but, as it was his pleasure, I bade them welcome; and the heartfelt blessing which the poor strangers asked over the meal we prepared for them went far towards prepossessing me in their favor. The man, his wife, and the two little girls we accommodated in the house, while the three boys found lodgings among the fragrant hay in the well-­stored mow. These people, my children, were not particularly attractive as far as appearance was concerned; they all appeared healthy and good-­humored, and the little ones seemed uncommonly well-­mannered for children in their rank of life; but still I was in some way unaccountably interested in GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 48

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

(80)

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

(110)

(115)

(120)

them; and I have since thought God permitted this feeling in order that I might bestir myself in behalf of those who were undoubtedly his followers. At any rate, we were willing to accommodate them a few days until something could be done for them; and, at the expiration of that time, a quiet-­looking little cottage, with a willow tree before the door, standing just across the brook, was procured for them. I parted with several articles of furniture I could spare, in order to assist them in fitting out their new home; and my efforts among my neighbors procured them many other gifts of the same description. And now how happy was Mrs. Neville. Her husband had steady employment given him on a farm near by; her two eldest boys, of the ages of twelve and thirteen, both obtained good places; while the youngest boy, with the little girls, aged ten, eight, and six, were kept at home, where they were generally as busy as bees, for their mother held idleness to be the parent of all evil. I have often, on going in, been struck with the picture of neatness and humbled contentment their small kitchen presented. The furniture was of the coarsest and most common description, yet scrupulously neat and clean. Here the family were generally found, pursuing their evening avocations, seated before the quiet blaze of their own fireside; and truly, where its comforts are properly appreciated, there is nothing gives the heart a finer or more touching idea of enjoyment than this same calm, domestic light. Evening, too, is the period of time which may truly be called the poor man’s season of enjoyment; the implements of daily labor are laid aside, and it is then he may rest his wearied limbs and enjoy the prattle and playful wiles of his children, whose caresses sometimes lead him to forget the bitterness of his lot. The Nevilles were poor, very poor; the money they had borrowed from friends

(125)

(130)

(135)

(140)

(145)

(150)

(155)

(160)

49

in Ireland, they had obligated themselves to return, and they were straining every nerve to accomplish this. It was ten months before they were able, by their united labor, with practicing the most rigid self-­denial, to realize this amount. At length, however, the sum was raised; and a benevolent gentleman inclosed and forwarded it in such a manner as it would be sure to reach its destination. They had, however, barely felt their minds relieved in this particular, when Mr. Neville was laid upon a bed of sickness. He had, perhaps, overworked himself and taken cold. His disease was inflammatory rheumatism. He lingered for a month, oftentimes suffering greatly; and then, after commending his wife and little ones to the care of that God who is the protector of the widow and the fatherless, strong in the hope of a blissful immortality, he died. As I told you before, my children, the Nevilles were pious people; and I could not but notice, in their mode of expression, a degree of intellectual refinement peculiar to those who make the Holy Scriptures an habitual study. “You will observe, my children,” said Mrs. Bruce, as she came to this portion of their discourse, “the unwavering faith which this poor woman possessed. She was a stranger in a strange land; there was no one upon whom she had any claim; yet I never heard her utter one repining word, or wonder how she was to get along without the assistance of her husband, there was so little selfishness in her grief. And although tears must flow at these sad sunderings of beloved ties, yet, when she did indulge in this outward exhibition of distress, she would almost immediately dry them, and give utterance to something which would discover how entire and unchanging was her trust in God. I was a great deal with her, and, I must say, after the last sad duties were performed, I was astonished to see how GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 49

4/21/12 6:31 PM

50

(165)

(170)

(175)

(180)

(185)

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

energetically she set to work in order to support herself and her children. Her husband had often told me that all the fortune his wife had brought him was her religion, her energy, and her steady habits of industry, and that these had proved the blessing of his life. Now, too, she found ample exercise for these estimable qualities, and it was surprising how she could turn her hand to anything that offered; and, indeed, with the assistance the children were able to afford her, they managed to live very comfortably.” There, amid the far-­stretching forests, on a farm which in Europe might be called a principality, a wife and mother, she is spending her days in the enjoyment of all that heart can desire. I have now done with the history of this family; yet I would have you observe how fearlessly Christian parents may repose upon the strength of the promises of Him who holds the hearts of all men in his hand. The skeptic may laugh and the worldling may sneer, but an appeal may confidently be made to those who have noted the dealings of Providence as to whether any who have trusted in him have been confounded. From Godey’s Lady’s Book (1850)

42. In the lament expressed about Ireland and its people in lines 28–45, the narrator utilizes all of the following stylistic devices EXCEPT (A) apostrophe. (B) paradox. (C) anaphora. (D) personification. (E) litote.

43. According to this passage, the Irish can best be described as (A) people who are anxious to leave their unpleasant living conditions. (B) rude people whose children do not have any manners. (C) indifferent folks whose apathy makes it easy for them to be tolerant. (D) oppressed people who regret having to leave the land that they love. (E) complacent folks who have learned to embrace their situation with understanding.

44. Lines 1–37 utilize all of the following types of sentences EXCEPT (A) compound-­complex. (B) imperative. (C) rhetorical question. (D) loose. (E) periodic.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 50

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

45. Initially the Neville family can be characterized as (A) penurious and devout. (B) weak and hopeless. (C) fortunate but ungrateful. (D) indifferent and idle. (E) self-­sufficient and apathetic.

46. The narrator’s attitude toward the Nevilles can be summed up as (A) taken aback by their forwardness. (B) fascinated by their intrepid spirit. (C) prepossessed in their favor. (D) distraught by their presence in her house. (E) apathetic toward their situation.

47. Lines 94–101 encompass a long sentence with many independent clauses, without the aid of conjunctions. This is a syntactical device known as (A) periodic. (B) an apostrophe. (C) rhetorical question. (D) a run-­on. (E) asyndeton.

48. When the narrator states, “They [the Irish] are taxed, we might almost say, for the very air they breathe” (lines 29–30), she is using a rhetorical exaggeration known as (A) juxtaposition. (B) hyperbole. (C) metonymy. (D) parenthetical interruption. (E) imperative declamation.

51

49. The phrase “uncommonly well-­mannered for children in their rank of life” (lines 77–78) can be interpreted as meaning which of the following? (A) It is uncommon for children of rank to have manners. (B) Good manners were not commonly practiced during that historical time. (C) Poor people were not uncommon at that time, nor were their children. (D) Children of the poor were often less well mannered than those born to the more economically successful. (E) For their age, the children’s manners can be well ranked compared to other children’s manners.

50. The verb “to realize” in line 125 can be best defined as meaning (A) to amass. (B) to recognize. (C) to beg for. (D) to squander. (E) to return.

51. The sentence beginning “And although tears must flow . . . ” (lines 153–159) can best be interpreted as meaning (A) Mrs. Neville’s love of God increases her sadness at her husband’s death. (B) Mrs. Neville’s ties are reinforced by her beloved’s tears and sundering. (C) although Mrs. Neville inevitably cries due to her loss, she finds strength in her faith. (D) although Mrs. Neville’s trust in God is unchanging, her life is not. (E) tears come and they go just as beloved people come and go in our own lives.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 51

4/21/12 6:31 PM

52

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

52. After the loss of her husband, Mrs. Neville can best be characterized as (A) irretrievably lost in grief. (B) so remorseful that she was unable to go on. (C) resourceful and plucky in her movement forward. (D) caught up in her need to exercise her energy amply in order to live comfortably. (E) so caught up in her own endeavors that she quickly forgot her grief.

53. The word “repining,” line 150, means (A) resting. (B) depositing. (C) distrustful. (D) lamenting. (E) complaining.

54. The most significant message in this ladies’ story is best summarized by which of the following? (A) Hard work and a good marriage are what bring you a successful life. (B) Sometimes we must leave our beloved home country in order to live comfortably and prosper. (C) No matter what difficulties one might encounter, a strong faith in Providence will help you through life. (D) A hard-­working woman is always the center of a happy family. (E) Friendship and generosity are attributes worth having; they will bring you new and good-­hearted friends.

stop 02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 52

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

53

Section II Reading Period—15 minutes Total Time—2 hours and 15 minutes Number of questions—3 Percent of total grade—55% Directions: This section contains three essay questions. For 15 minutes, you may read the essay questions and take notes on the question sheets. After this initial 15-minute reading period, you may begin writing your essay. You may not start writing on the lined paper until after the 15-minute reading period has ended. When you start writing on the three questions, budget your time carefully. Each essay counts as one-third of your total essay score.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 53

4/21/12 6:31 PM

54

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

QUESTION ONE (Suggested reading time—15 minutes) (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Directions: The following prompt is based on the accompanying six sources. This question requires you to synthesize a variety of sources into a coherent, well-written essay. Refer to the sources to support your position; avoid mere paraphrase or summary. Your argument should be central; the sources should support this argument. Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations. Introduction: The question of Political Correctness has been a hot-button topic on college campuses and in cultural circles for nearly two decades. To what extent are we more aware of the words we choose to use and the labels that we give to different ethnic, religious, and other groups? Likewise, to what degree has the backlash against all things “PC” contributed to a perceived rift in our country? Assignment: Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully. Then, in an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that the campaign to promote the usage of nonoffensive language and politically correct terminology has been a successful agent for positive change and increased sensitivity. You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descriptions in parentheses. Source A (Wallace) Source B (Hayakawa) Source C (Mairs) Source D (Random House) Source E (The First Amendment Center) Source F (Ravitch)

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 54

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

55

Source A Wallace, David Foster. “Tense Present: Democracy, English, and the Wars over Usage.” Harper’s Magazine, April 2001. The following passage is excerpted from a monthly journal of literature, politics, culture, and the arts. I refer here to Politically Correct English (PCE), under whose conventions failing students become “high-potential” students and poor people “economically disadvantaged” and people in wheelchairs “differently abled” and a sentence like “White English and Black English are different and you better learn White English if you don’t want to flunk,” is not blunt but “insensitive.” Although it’s common to make jokes about PCE (referring to ugly people as “aesthetically challenged” and so on), be advised that Politically Correct English’s various pre- and proscriptions are taken very seriously indeed by colleges and corporations and government agencies, whose own institutional dialects now evolve under the beady scrutiny of a whole new kind of Language Police. . . . Usage is always political, of course, but it’s complexly political. With respect, for instance, to political change, usage conventions can function in two ways: On the one hand they can be a reflection of political change, and on the other they can be an instrument of political change. These two functions are different and have to be kept straight. Confusing them—in particular, mistaking for political efficacy what is really just a language’s political symbolism—enables the bizarre conviction that America ceases to be elitist or unfair simply because Americans stop using certain vocabulary that is historically associated with elitism. This is PCE’s central fallacy—that a society’s mode of expression is productive of its attitudes rather than a product of those attitudes. . . .

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 55

4/21/12 6:31 PM

56

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

Source B Hayakawa, S. I. Language in Thought and Action (Fifth Edition). New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1991. The following passage is excerpted from a book that examines language and its essentially cooperative function necessary to survival in society. Names that are “loaded” tend to influence behavior toward those to whom they are applied. Currently, the shop doorways and freeway underpasses of American cities are sheltering tens of thousands of people who have no work and no homes. These people used to be referred to as “bums”—a word that suggests not only a lack of employment but a lack of desire to work, people who are lazy, satisfied with little, and who have no desire to enter the mainstream of the American middle class or subscribe to its values. Thus, to think of these people as “bums” is to think that they are only getting what they deserve. With the search for new names for such people—“street people,” “homeless,” “displaced persons”—we may find new ways of helping deal with it. . . . One other curious fact needs to be recorded about the words we apply to such hotly debated issues as race, religion, political heresy, and economic dissent. Every reader is acquainted with people who, according to their own flattering descriptions of themselves, “believe in being frank” and like to “tell it like it is.” By “telling it like it is,” such people usually mean calling anything or anyone by the term which has the strongest and most disagreeable affective connotations. Why people should pin medals on themselves for “candor” for performing this nasty feat has often puzzled me. Sometimes it is necessary to violate verbal taboos as an aid to clearer thinking, but, more often, to insist upon “telling it like it is” is to provide our minds with a greased runway down which we may slide back into unexamined and reactive patterns of evaluation and behavior.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 56

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

57

Source C Mairs, Nancy. “On Being a Cripple” in Plaintext. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1986. The following passage is excerpted from a personal essay. . . . I am a cripple. I choose this word to name me. I choose from among several possibilities, the most common of which are “handicapped” and “disabled.” I made the choice a number of years ago, without thinking, unaware of my motives for doing so. People—crippled or not—wince at the word “cripple,” as they do not at “handicapped” or “disabled.” Perhaps I want them to wince. I want them to see me as a tough customer, one to whom the fates/gods/viruses have not been kind, but who can face the brutal truth of her existence squarely. But, to be fair to myself, a certain amount of honesty underlies my choice. “Cripple” seems to me a clean word, straightforward and precise. “Disabled,” by contrast, suggests any incapacity, physical or mental. And I certainly don’t like “handicapped,” which implies that I have deliberately been put at a disadvantage. . . . These words seem to me to be moving away from my condition, to be widening the gap between word and reality. Whatever you call me, I remain crippled. But I don’t care what you call me, so long as it isn’t “differently abled,” which strikes me as pure verbal garbage designed, by its ability to describe anyone, to describe no one. And I refuse to participate in the degeneration of language to the extent that I deny that I have lost anything in the course of this calamitous disease . . . that the only differences between you and me are the various ordinary ones that distinguish any one person from another. But call me “disabled” or “handicapped” if you like. Society is no readier to accept crippledness than to accept death, war, sex, sweat, or wrinkles. I would never refer to another person as a cripple. It is the word I use to name myself.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 57

4/21/12 6:31 PM

58

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

Source D “Avoiding Insensitive and Offensive Language.” [email protected] Available at www.randomhouse.com/words/language/avoid_essay.html The following passage is excerpted from an explanatory essay on the inclusion of offensive terms in the dictionary and a guide on avoiding such usage. Certain words are labeled in Random House Webster’s College Dictionary as vulgar, offensive, or disparaging. Words in these categories, which include those referring to sexual or excretory functions and racial, ethnic, or social groups, are usually inappropriate and should be treated with caution. While there are some circumstances where these words are accepted, there are many others where their use can be hurtful and upsetting. Other factors complicate the question. A group may disagree within itself as to what is acceptable and what is not. Many seemingly inoffensive terms develop negative connotations over time and become dated or go out of style as awareness changes. A “within the group” rule often applies, which allows a member of a group to use terms freely that would be considered offensive if used by a nonmember of the group. What is considered acceptable shifts constantly as people become more aware of language and its power. The rapid changes of the last few decades have left many people puzzled and afraid of unintentionally insulting someone. At the same time, these changes have angered others, who decry what they see as extremes of “political correctness” in rules and locutions that alter language to the point of obscuring, even destroying, its meaning. The abandonment of traditional usages has also upset many people. But while it is true that some of the more extreme attempts to avoid offending language have resulted in ludicrous obfuscation (is “animal companion” necessary as a replacement for “pet”?), it is also true that heightened sensitivity in language is a statement of respect, indicates precision of thought, and is a positive move toward rectifying the unequal social status between one group and another.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 58

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

59

Source E The First Amendment Center. 2005. STATE OF THE FIRST AMENDMENT 2005 [computer file]. Nashville, TN: First Amendment Center [producer and distributor]. The following chart comes from an online digital archive devoted to cultural policy studies.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 59

4/21/12 6:31 PM

60

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

Source F Ravitch, Diane. The Language Police: How Pressure Groups Restrict What Students Learn. New York: Knopf, 2003. The following list was collected from more than 20 sets of guidelines produced by state departments of education, textbook publishers, test developers, educational research organizations, and other interest groups.

A Glossary of Banned Words Dialect (banned as ethnocentric, use sparingly, replace with language) Differently abled (banned as offensive, replace with person who has a disability) Dirty old man (banned as sexist and ageist) Disabled (banned as offensive, replace with people with a disability) Dissenter (ethnocentric, use with caution) Distaff side (banned as sexist) Dogma (banned as ethnocentric, replace with doctrine, belief   ) Doorman (banned as sexist, replace with door attendant) Down’s syndrome (banned as offensive, replace with Down syndrome) Draftsman (banned as sexist, replace with drafter) Drunk, drunken, drunkenness (banned as offensive when referring to Native Americans) Duffer (banned as demeaning to older men) Dummy (banned as offensive, replace with people who are speech impaired  ) Dwarf (banned as offensive, replace with person of short stature) Heretic (use with caution when comparing religions) Heroine (banned as sexist, replace with hero) Hispanic American (use with caution as some groups object to the term’s suggestion of a shared European cultural heritage, replace with specific nationality) Homosexual (banned, replace with person, child ) Hordes (banned as reference to immigrant groups) Horseman, horsewoman (banned as sexist, replace with equestrian) Horsemanship (banned as sexist, replace with riding skill ) Hottentot (banned as a relic of colonialism, replace with Khoi-khoi) Houseman, housemaid (banned as sexist, replace with servant, housekeeper) Housewife (banned as sexist, replace with homemaker, head of the household ) Hussy (banned as sexist) Huts (banned as ethnocentric, replace with small houses)

stop 02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 60

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

61

QUESTION TWO (Suggested time—40 minutes) Read the following selection by Annie Dillard carefully and consider the attitude of the narrator in the passage. Then, in a well-­organized essay, identify this author’s attitude and how her choice of diction, syntax, tone, and rhetorical devices helps demonstrate this attitude within the passage.

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

Here, on the obstetrical ward, is a double sink in a little room—­a chrome faucet, two basins and drains, just like any kitchen sink. There is a counter on the left, and a counter on the right. Overhead, a long heat lamp lights and warms the two counters and the sink. This is where they wash the newborns like dishes. A nurse, one or another, spends most of an eight-­hour shift standing here at the sink. Different nurses bring in newborns, one after another, and line them down the counter to the sink’s left. The newborns wear flannel blankets. Knit hats the size of teacups keep sliding up their wet heads. Their faces run the spectrum from lavender through purple and red to pink and beige. Nurse Pat Eisberg wears her curly blond hair short in back; her thin neck bends out of a blue collarless scrub as she leans left for the next bundle. The newborn’s face is red. “Now you,” she says to it in a warm voice, unsmiling. She slides it along the counter toward her, plucks off its cap, unwraps its body and leaves the blanket underneath. This baby is red all over. His tadpole belly is red; his scrotum, the size of a plum, is fiercely red, and looks as if it might explode. The top of his head looks like a dunce cap; he is a conehead. He gazes up attentively from the nurse’s arms. The bright heat lamp does not seem to bother his eyes, nor do the silver nitrate eyedrops, which prevent gonorrhea. His plastic ID bracelet, an inch wide, covers a full third of his forearm. Someone has taped his blue umbilical cord—­the inch or so left of it—­upward on his belly. A black clamp grips the cord’s end, so it looks like a jumper cable. The nurse washes this boy; she dips a thin washcloth again and again in warm water. She cleans his head and face, careful to wash every fold of his ears. She wipes white lines of crumbled vernix from folds in his groin and under his arms. She holds one wormy arm and one wormy leg to turn him over; then she cleans his dorsal side, and ends with his anus. She has washed and rinsed every bit of his red skin. The heat lamp has dried him already. The Qur’an says Allah created man from a clot. The red baby is a ball of blood Allah wetted and into which he blew. So does a clown inflate a few thin balloons and twist them lickety-­split into a rabbit, a dog, a giraffe. Nurse Pat Eisberg drains the sink. She drops the newborn’s old blanket and hat into an open hamper, peels a new blanket and hat from the pile on the right and sticks the red baby on the right-­hand counter. She diapers him. She swaddles him: she folds the right corner of the blanket over him and rolls him back to tuck it under him; she brings up the bottom blanket corner over his chest: she wraps the left corner around and around, and his weight holds it tight as he lies on his back. Now he is tidy and compact, the size of a GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 61

4/21/12 6:31 PM

62

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

(35)

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

one-­quart Thermos. She caps his conehead, and gives the bundle a push to slide it down the counter to the end of the line with the others she has just washed. The red newborn looks up and studies his surroundings, alert, seemingly pleased, and preternaturally calm, as if enchanted. Every few minutes another nurse comes in to pick up whichever washed baby has reached the head of the line. The nurse returns the parcel to its mother. When the red boy’s number is up, I follow. The mother is propped on a clean hospital bed, and she looks a bit wan. The mother is white as the sheets, in her thirties, puffy, pretty, and completely stunned. She looks like the cartoon Road Runner who has just had a steamroller drive over it. The nurse has put the baby on his back in a basinet cart. Americans place infants on their backs now—­never on their stomachs, lest they smother in their sleep and die. Ten years ago, Americans placed infants on their stomachs—­never on their backs, lest they choke in their sleep and die. A nurse unwraps him. He does not like it; he hates being unwrapped. He is still red. His fingernail slivers are red, as if someone had painted nail polish on them. His toenails are red. The nurse shows the father how to swaddle him. “. . . and then you wrap the last corner tight around the whole works,” the nurse says. As she finishes binding him into his proper Thermos shape, the baby closes his mouth, opens his eyes, and peers about like a sibyl. He looks into our faces. When he meets our eyes in turn, his father and I each say “Hi,” involuntarily. In the nurses, this impulse has perhaps worn out.

stop 02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 62

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

63

QUESTION THREE (Suggested time—40 minutes) In his description of springtime at Walden Pond, Henry David Thoreau shares his ideas about nature with us. After reading the passage closely, discuss Thoreau’s attitudes toward nature and its importance to us. Be sure to discuss his uses of the resources of language to convey his feelings to the reader.

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

On the 29th of April, as I was fishing from the bank of the river near the Nine-­Acre-­Corner bridge, standing on the quaking grass and willow roots, where the muskrats lurk, I heard a singular rattling sound, somewhat like that of the sticks which boys play with their fingers, when, looking up, I observed a very slight and graceful hawk, like a nighthawk, alternately soaring like a ripple and tumbling a rod or two over and over, showing the under side of its wings, which gleamed like a satin ribbon in the sun, or like the pearly inside of a shell. This sight reminded me of falconry and what nobleness and poetry are associated with that sport. The Merlin it seemed to me it might be called: but I care not for its name. It was the most ethereal flight I had ever witnessed. It did not simply flutter like a butterfly, nor soar like the larger hawks, but it sported with proud reliance in the fields of air; mounting again and again with its strange chuckle, it repeated its free and beautiful fall, turning over and over like a kite, and then recovering from its lofty tumbling, as if it had never set its foot on terra firma. It appeared to have no companion in the universe—­sporting there alone—­and to need none but the morning and the ether with which it played. It was not lonely, but made all the earth lonely beneath it. Where was the parent, which hatched it, its kindred, and its father in the heavens? The tenant of the air, it seemed related to the earth but by an egg hatched some time in the crevice of a crag;—or was its native nest made in the angle of a cloud, woven of the rainbow’s trimmings and the sunset sky, and lined with some soft midsummer haze caught up from earth? Its eyry1 now some cliffy cloud. Beside this I got a rare mess of golden and silver and bright cupreous fishes, which looked like a string of jewels. Ah! I have penetrated to those meadows on the morning of many a first spring day, jumping from hummock to hummock2, from willow root to willow root, when the wild river valley and the woods were bathed in so pure and bright a light as would have waked the dead, if they had been slumbering in their graves, as some suppose. There needs no stronger proof of immortality. All things must live in such a light. O Death, where was thy sting? O Grave, where was thy victory, then? Our village life would stagnate if it were not for the unexplored forests and meadows which surround it. We need the tonic of wildness—­to wade sometimes in marshes where the bittern and the meadow-­hen lurk, and hear the booming of the snipe; to smell the whispering sedge where only some wilder and more solitary fowl builds her nest, and the mink crawls with its belly close to the ground. At the same time that we are earnest to explore and learn all things, we require that all things be mysterious and unexplorable, 1. eyry—home for birds 2. hummock—a hill or a rise in the land

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 63

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

4/21/12 6:31 PM

64

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test

that land and sea be infinitely wild, unsurveyed and unfathomed by us because unfathomable. We can never have enough of nature. We must be refreshed by the sight of inexhaustible vigor, vast and titanic features, the sea-­coast with its wrecks, the wilderness with its living and its decaying trees, the thunder-­cloud, and the rain which lasts three weeks and produces freshets. We need to witness our own limits transgressed, and some life pasturing freely where we never wander. We are cheered when we observe the vulture (40) feeding on the carrion which disgusts and disheartens us, and deriving health and strength from the repast. There was a dead horse in the hollow by the path to my house, which compelled me sometimes to go out of my way, especially in the night when the air was heavy, but the assurance it gave me of the strong appetite and inviolable health of Nature was my compensation for this. I love to see that Nature is so rife with life that myriads can (45) be afforded to be sacrificed and suffered to prey on one another; that tender organizations can be so serenely squashed out of existence like pulp—­tadpoles which herons gobble up, and tortoises and toads run over in the road; and that sometimes it has rained flesh and blood! With the liability to accident, we must see how little account is to be made of it. The impression made on a wise man is that of universal innocence. Poison is not (50) poisonous after all, nor are any wounds fatal. Compassion is a very untenable ground. It must be expeditious. Its pleadings will not bear to be stereotyped. (35)

stop 02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 64

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answer Key

65

Diagnostic Test: Answer Key

Passage ­1

Passage 2 ­

Passage 3 ­

Passage 4

1. B

15. B

29. C

42. E

2. D

16. E

30. B

43. D

3. B

17. C

31. D

44. B

4. E

18. D

32. E

45. A

5. B

19. A

33. A

46. B

6. C

20. C

34. B

47. E

7. B

21. E

35. E

48. B

8. A

22. A

36. A

49. D

9. C

23. D

37. C

50. A

10. C

24. D

38. B

51. C

11. D

25. E

39. E

52. C

12. E

26. A

40. E

53. E

13. A

27. D

41. B

54. C

14. B

28. D

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 65

4/21/12 6:31 PM

66

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

Answers and Explanations

(40)

Questions 1–14

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

Although my early life tended to encourage my flirting propensities it did not make me the real heartless coquette, I afterwards became. The flirtations of school life were harmless, for there was no real love between myself and the parties concerned. When I left school I was just seventeen. Young, gay, rich, happy and thoughtless, without a wish ungratified. I had been accustomed to admiration all my life, and now I really deserved it. I was rather stylish in my personal appearance, so every one said. Every advantage, that money could give, had been given me, and I do not flatter myself, when I say I improved my talents. I rode well, danced well, played and sang well, conversed well, and in truth everything I attempted I did well. Among the first satellites that moved around my sphere, were two young gentlemen, both handsome, but very unlike in personal appearance and disposition. One was dark as a Spaniard, with eyes and hair as dark as night when the moon and stars have hid their beams under a canopy of cloud. He was very handsome and talented, yet I could not love the man, for I feared him. Still it amused me to lead him on, intending to tell him every time we met, that his love was vain; but I continued putting it off. The other—­God knows I loved him, if woman is capable of loving. He was fair, very fair, with dark eyes and light hair. His mouth was beautiful, but deceit lurked in each exquisite curve of his lips. An Adonis was not more perfect in form: and he knew it. He was young in years, yet old in sin. I now sometimes think that he, like Bulwer’s Zanoni, had found the true secret of perpetual youth, and that he had lived for centuries, so well was

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 66

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

(70)

(75)

(80)

he versed in the ways of the world, and in each phase of human nature. He often boasted of the many conquests he had made, and said that no woman he chose to captivate could escape loving him. I did not like this speech; but I loved him. He had certainly many rare traits of character. His generosity was proverbial; he was a warm friend and had the most perfect control over his very high temper. It was not long before we became engaged. He said that he loved me at first sight; and God knows that his love was more than returned. He called to see me each day, and every night escorted me to some place of amusement. He was very jealous, but I liked that. He was my sun during the day, and my moon at night. There was a cloud over all my happiness when he failed to come. He was young, ardent, fiery and passionate, and I—­I was a fool! The passionate devotion of my heart was lavished upon a worthless object. I knew nothing of his former conduct or character, as he had come to Macon but recently. Knowing how particular my father was about such things, I employed a friend to visit the town he was from, and enquire into his past history. Now, friends, bear with pity my sad trial, and paint to your own imaginations how you would feel in such a case. Within two weeks of marriage, with a man that you loved with your whole heart and soul, a perfect man, as you thought, imagine how you would feel to hear that he had (Oh God! how can I relate truth as I heard it! but I must or you will never hear with charity my flirtations) that he had been compelled to leave the town in which he lived, on account of his base seduction of a most beautiful, but poor girl, under solemn promise of marriage. He lived as a husband with her for a few months, and then deserted her, leaving her to

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

(110)

(115)

(120)

die alone, in ignominy, and the most abject poverty. On her death-­bed she divulged her secret to her brother, who traced the seducer to the city and wounded him in a duel, and was fatally shot himself. A seducer and a double murderer, the man I thought free from guile as an angel in heaven! It was enough to drive one mad, and I am sure I was crazed for years. He came to see me that night! How my hand trembles! I can scarcely write to describe our meeting. I was sitting alone, for I had refused to receive visitors that night, when he entered the room. ‘Ah! darling,’ said he, kissing me. ‘Alone I see. I am very glad too, for I wanted to see you with no one near.’ How handsome he looked, with his flushed cheeks, red from his ride in the wintry wind. ‘What’s the matter with my bird to-­night? her voice is as sweet as ever, but it is too sad for me.’ ‘Ella do let me urge you to appoint our wedding day a week sooner, for you are so pretty and sweet, you will tempt me to’—he did not finish the sentence, but I understood his meaning but too well. It was the first time he had ever acted in such a singular manner, and I saw he was excited highly by spirituous liquors. ‘Indeed sir,’ I answered, ‘If I have heard the truth I am not the first woman who proved too sweet and pretty for you, and in whose presence you could not control your passions.’ ‘Who told you that Ella?’ he exclaimed, starting from his seat! ‘By all that is sacred if I find out, he shall not live an hour!’ ‘You shall never know,’ said I. ‘Two murders are quite enough to doom your blackened soul, Dudley Earle!’ How pale he looked, but not with penitence, it was anger only toward the person who had divulged his secret. He

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 67

(125)

(130)

(135)

(140)

(145)

(150)

(155)

(160)

67

remained an hour trying to persuade me to revoke my decision, and then left me a heart-­broken sad woman, without an object in life. And then and there I bent my knee, before the throne of God. (I know now it was blasphemy) but I was crazy then! and vowed to revenge myself upon the whole sex, for the misery one, I then supposed the type of the species, had wrought in my soul; and faithfully I kept that vow. The Devil aids his own, and he surely helped me. Even unsought, men would lay their love at my feet, and their foibles, rendered harmless by my own self-­control, became my playthings. Often, very often have I acted in such a way, that I knew would inflame an even unimpressable man, and then would send his love back ungratified, to corrode his very heart. Was that just or right? No indeed, it was not. It was dangerous to me, and outrageous to others. But dear reader in pity for my anguish, and for the long years of intense mental suffering, forgive me. Never! believe me, would I divulge this passage of my life to any one, did I not think that perhaps it may be a warning to the young, of both sexes. Let the young gentlemen always think and know, that no matter how secret an evil act may be committed, it will always come to light, and at the very time you may wish it to be kept concealed. To the girls: No matter my dears, how handsome or fascinating a gentleman may appear, never allow your affections to become fixed on any human being, until you know that being worthy. Often times the veriest serpent wears a shining coat, most beautiful to look upon, but the poison of whose fangs will corrupt a young heart and mar its peace a whole life time. From Confessions of a Flirt by Mrs. Edward Leigh (1859)

4/21/12 6:31 PM

68

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

1.  B This first question is identifying the mode of discourse of the passage. The young lady is telling us about her own story. Although there is some justification of behavior going on (cause and effect), the dominant mode of discourse is a simple personal narrative, making (B) the correct response. 2.  D It is not unusual for the AP exam to ask you to make a judgment about the probable attitude or characteristics of the narrator. In this case, we have a young woman who is definitely out for revenge. However, she is so up-front and likeable that (D) is the best response to this question. 3.  B Basically, paragraph 2 is a foreshadowing of the young lady’s later behavior. She talks about how she dallied with suitors and mercilessly kept stringing one man along. This early behavior is a precursor to her later vindication against men. Therefore, (B) is the correct response. 4.  E Paragraph 3 uses a couple of allusions, including a reference to mythology. In addition, lines 22–24 show simile  ; exaggeration, hyperbole, is evident in several places, in particular in her lavish description of the young gentleman; the narrator also presents a series of clauses, almost every one of them connected by conjunctions, polysyndeton. Nowhere, however, is there a repetition of wording in a series of phrases or clauses, making (E), anaphora, the correct answer. 5.  B In conjunction with the previous question, paragraph 3 has numerous independent clauses (connected by appropriate conjunctions). The syntactical structure of this paragraph is primarily compound sentences, (B). 6.  C Remember, you are being asked for the best description of the young man. Although several of

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 68

the responses describe his character, the best response is (C)—he is smooth and a man with a history. 7.  B “A seducer and a double murderer, the man I thought free from guile as an angel in heaven! It was enough to drive one mad, and I am sure I was crazed for years.” These lines definitely display irony, contrast between the expected and the actual, as well as hyperbole, exaggeration. Response (B) is the correct answer to this question. 8.  A “It was the first time he had ever acted in such a singular manner. . . .” The narrator is surprised and taken aback by this young man’s unusual behavior. Although several of the responses readily describe this young man, (A), remarkable, is the most accurate synonym in this case for singular. 9.  C This question is actually one of basic grammar. It asks you to identify the antecedent (word being replaced by the pronoun). Although all of the responses are present somewhere in the passage, the antecedent of that is the despicable gentleman, (C). 10.  C This question actually is a bit of a confession on the part of the narrator. She admits she is part devil, and therefore it apparently takes a devil to know and aid a fellow devil. Her successful revenge on all men was aided by the devil, (C). 11.  D Paragraph 11 (lines 133–148) demonstrates several rhetorical devices: although not abundant, alliteration, the repetition of initial consonant sounds, is present; assonance, the repetition of similar internal vowel sounds, is also present. In addition, a rhetorical question is asked in line 141; exclamation is used in line 145. Nowhere is zeugma present, that is, grammatically correct linkage of one subject with two or more verbs or a verb with two or more objects. Therefore, (D) is the correct response.

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

12.  E The last paragraph is very moralistic and almost preachy. Given the response choices, didactic, (E), is the best. 13.  A The best alternative for “veriest serpent wears a shining coat,” means that even the lowliest snake can pass itself off as something glamorous. This makes (A) the best cliché to echo the meaning of this phrase. 14.  B Overall, the story is a lesson to young women everywhere to beware of men who seem more than they are. This can best be stated by the cliché in (B), not to judge a book by its cover.

(25)

(30)

(35)

(40)

Questions 15–28

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

The only purpose of being in politics is to strive for the values and ideals we believe in: freedom, justice, what we Europeans call solidarity but you might call respect for and help for others. These are the decent democratic values we all avow. But alongside the values we know we need a hard-­headed pragmatism—­a realpolitik—­required to give us any chance of translating those values into the practical world we live in. The same tension exists in the two views of international affairs. One is utilitarian: each nation maximizes its own self-­interest. The other is utopian: we try to create a better world. Today I want to suggest that more than ever before those two views are merging. I advocate an enlightened self-­interest that puts fighting for our values right at the heart of the policies necessary to protect our nations. Engagement in the world on the basis of these values, not isolationism from it, is the hard-­headed pragmatism for the 21st century.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 69

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

69

Why? In part it is because the countries and people of the world today are more inter­dependent than ever. In truth, it is very rare today that trouble in one part of the globe remains limited in its effect. Not just in security, but in trade and finance—­witness the crisis of 1998 which began in Thailand and ended in Brazil—­the world is interlocked. This is heightened by mass communications and technology. In Queen Victoria’s time, reports of battles came back weeks or months after they were won or lost. Today we see them enacted live on the BBC, Sky or CNN. Their very visibility, immediate and in technicolour, inflames feelings that can spread worldwide across different ethnic, religious and cultural communities. So today, more than ever, “their” problem becomes “our” problem. Instability is contagious and, again today, more than ever, nations, at least most of them, crave stability. That’s for a simple reason. Our people want it, because without it, they can’t do business and prosper. What brings nations together—­what brought them together post–September 11—is the international recognition that the world needs order. Disorder is the enemy of progress. The struggle is for stability, for the security within which progress can be made. Of course, countries want to protect their territorial integrity but few are into empire-­building. This is especially true of democracies whose people vote for higher living standards and punish governments who don’t deliver them. For 2,000 years Europe fought over territory. Today boundaries are virtually fixed. Govern­ments and people know that any territorial ambition threatens stability, and instability threatens prosperity.

4/21/12 6:31 PM

70

(70)

(75)

(80)

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

And of course the surest way to stability is through the very values of freedom, democracy and justice. Where these are strong, the people push for moderation and order. Where they are absent, regimes act unchecked by popular accountability and pose a threat; and the threat spreads. So the promotion of these values becomes not just right in itself but part of our long‑term security and prosperity. We can’t intervene in every case. Not all the wrongs of the world can be put right, but where disorder threatens us all, we should act. Like it or not, whether you are a utilitarian or a utopian, the world is interdependent. One consequence of this is that foreign and domestic policy are ever more closely interwoven. It was September 11 that brought these thoughts into sharper focus. Watching the horror unfold, imagining the almost unimaginable suffering of the thousands of innocent victims of the terror and carnage, the dominant emotion after the obvious feelings of revulsion, sympathy and anger was determination. The guts and spirit of the people of New York and America in the aftermath of that terrible day were not just admirable, they were awesome. They were the best riposte to the terrorists that humanity could give and you should be very proud of that. I want you to know too that the British people were with you from the first moment, and we will always be with you at times like those. We are not half-­hearted friends and we never will be. But the determination must be not just to pursue those responsible and bring them to justice but to learn from September 11. There is a real danger we forget the lessons of September 11. Human beings recover from tragedy and the memory becomes less fraught. That is a

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 70

(110)

(115)

(120)

(125)

(130)

(135)

(140)

(145)

healthy part of living. But we should learn from our experience. The most obvious lesson is indeed our interdependence. For a time our world stood still. Quite apart from our security, the shock impacted on economic confidence, on business, on trade and it is only now with the terrorist network on the run, that confidence is really returning. Every nation in the world felt the reverberation of that fateful day. And that has been well illustrated by the role which the United Nations—­under Kofi Annan’s excellent leadership—­has played since September 11. So if we didn’t know it before, we know now: these events and our response to them shape the fate not of one nation but of one world. For America, it has laid bare the reality. American power affects the world fundamentally. It is there. It is real. It is never irrelevant. It can affect the world for good, or for bad. Stand aside or engage; it never fails to affect. You know I want it engaged. Under President Bush, I am confident it will be and for good. But if that’s what I and many others want, it comes at a price for us too. It means we don’t shirk our responsibility. It means that when America is fighting for those values, then, however tough, we fight with her. No grandstanding, no offering implausible but impractical advice from the comfort of the touchline, no wishing away the hard not the easy choices, but working together, side by side. Prime Minister Tony Blair to the American citizens following 9/11

15.  B The best way for the speaker to get his audience on his side and listening to him is to appeal to those ideas with which the majority of the audience will

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

agree. This is exactly what Tony Blair has done in this speech. Therefore, (B) is the correct response. 16.  E To answer this question correctly, you must go through a process of elimination. Although almost every choice has some validity, the focus of Prime Minister Blair’s speech is that we can no longer be independent nations, that as John Donne reminded us many years ago, “No man is an island.” Blair extends this sentiment by implying that each “island” is a part of the whole, making (E) the correct response to this question. 17.  C Common sense and your composition skills should lead you to the correct response, (C). Each time a short one-­sentence paragraph is injected into Blair’s speech, it indicates a transition to the next point he intends to make. 18.  D Lines 79–80 assure us that utilitarian and utopian are not necessarily contrasting ideas but philosophies that can co­exist. Choice (D) is correct. 19.  A Although you might be tempted to respond with one of the other answers to this question, the inclusion of “guts” and “awesome” are examples of informal diction—­an unusual inclusion in a British politician’s vocabulary, (A). 20.  C When the main, independent clause follows a series of introductory phrases and clauses, the syntactical structure is known as (C), periodic sentence. 21.  E In paragraph 14, parenthetical statement (A) is found between the dashes. Hyperbole, exaggeration for effect, (B), is present throughout the paragraph. Metonymy—­figure of speech that uses the name of one thing to name or designate something else—­is present in the reference to “terrorist network” and United Nations. Personification is present in that nations, per se, cannot really “feel” reverberations, a human feeling. Therefore, the correct response is (E), assonance. There is no repetition of similar vowel sounds in close proximity within this paragraph.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 71

71

22.  A Because of Blair’s well-­crafted appeal to the majority of his audience, embracing of the United States in times of trauma and its consequential girding of strength, repetition of key points, all manipulated by the syntactical structure of short and long sentences as well as short, terse paragraphs, (A), pointedly powerful, best describes the major effect of his speech. 23.  D In the finale of this speech, Prime Minister Blair returns to his appeal to the audience. He shifts to the pronoun you and intones the camaraderie between Britain and the United States. He appeals to the audience directly, making (D) the correct response. 24.  D “They were the best riposte to the terrorists that humanity could give” indicates a response, or in this case a retort (strong response), making (D) the correct response. 25.  E A zeugma, (E), is when two or more parts of a sentence utilize another part that is only stated once. In other words, these lines really say, “It can affect the world for good, or it can affect the world for bad.” In other words, the phrase “it can affect the world” is assumed but not stated. None of the other devices are present in this paragraph. 26.  A It is difficult to tell exactly how Blair feels about what he says in these lines. Although we might think it is just a statement, the word inflame indicates a possible negative inference, but this is not clear. Therefore, (A), ambiguous, is correct. 27.  D This last question is basically just a grammar question. The job of pronouns is to replace or rename a noun somewhere else in the sentence. In this case, the antecedent for the pronoun it is American power, (D). 28.  D Prime Minister Blair focuses heavily in his speech on interdependence. He advocates that we can no longer be independent nations, but instead need a united engagement of democratic values with other countries. This makes (D) the correct answer.

4/21/12 6:31 PM

72

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

Questions 29–41

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

To a professional critic (I have been one myself ) theatre-­going is the curse of Adam. The play is the evil he is paid to endure in the sweat of his brow; and the sooner it is over, the better. This would place him in irreconcilable opposition to the paying playgoer, from whose point of view the longer the play, the more entertainment he gets for his money. It does in fact so place him, especially in the provinces, where the playgoer goes to the theatre for the sake of the play solely, and insists so effectively on a certain number of hours’ entertainment that touring managers are sometimes seriously embarrassed by the brevity of the London plays they have to deal in. For in London the critics are reinforced by a considerable body of persons who go to the theatre as many others go to church, to display their best clothes and compare them with other people’s; to be in the fashion, and to have something to talk about at dinner parties; to adore a pet performer; to pass the evening anywhere rather than home: in short, for any or every reason except interest in dramatic art as such. In fashionable centres the number of irreligious people who go to church, of unmusical people who go to concerts and operas, and of undramatic people who go to the theatre is so prodigious that sermons have been cut down to ten minutes and plays to two hours; and, even at that, congregations sit longing for the benediction and audiences for the final curtain, so that they may get away to the lunch or supper they really crave for, after arriving as late as (or later than) the hour of beginning can possibly be made for them. Thus from the stalls and in the Press an atmosphere of hypocrisy spreads. Nobody says

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 72

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

(70)

(75)

(80)

straight out that genuine drama is a tedious nuisance, and that to ask people to endure more than two hours of it (with two long intervals of relief ) is an intolerable imposition. Nobody says “I hate classical tragedy and comedy as I hate sermons and symphonies; but I like police news and divorce news and any kind of dancing or decoration that has an aphrodisiac effect on me or on my wife or husband. And whatever superior people may pretend, I cannot associate pleasure with any sort of intellectual activity; and I don’t believe anyone else can either.” Such things are not said; yet nine-­tenths of what is offered as criticism of the drama in the metropolitan Press of Europe and America is nothing but a muddled paraphrase of it. If it does not mean that, it means nothing. I do not complain of this, though it complains very unreasonably of me. But I can take no more notice of it than Einstein of the people who are incapable of mathematics. I write in the classical manner for those who pay for admission to a theatre because they like classical comedy or tragedy for its own sake, and like it so much when it is good of its kind and well done that they tear themselves away from it with reluctance to catch the very latest train or omnibus that will take them home. Far from arriving late from an eight or half-­past eight o’clock dinner so as to escape at least the first half-­hour of the performance, they stand in queues outside the theatre doors for hours beforehand in bitingly cold weather to secure a seat. In countries where a play lasts a week, they bring baskets of provisions and sit it out. These are the patrons on whom I depend for my bread. I do not give them performances twelve hours long, because circumstances do not at present make such entertainments feasible; but an all-­night sitting in a theatre would be at

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

least as enjoyable as an all-­night sitting in the House of Commons, and much more useful. Still I am sorry for the pseudo-­critics and the fashionable people whose playgoing is a hypocrisy. They forget, however, that all men are not as they are. I cannot for their sakes undo my work and help the people who hate the theatre to drive out the people who love it, yet I may point out to them that they have several remedies in their own hands. They can escape the first part of the play by their usual practice of arriving late. They can escape the epilogue by not waiting for it. And if the irreducible minimum thus attained is still too painful, they can stay away altogether. But I deprecate this extreme course, because it is good neither for my pocket nor for their own soul. Already a few of them, noticing that what matters is not the absolute length of time occupied by a play, but the speed with which that time passes, are discovering that the theatre, though purgatorial in its Aristotelian moments, is not necessarily always the dull place they have so often found it. What do its discomforts matter when the play makes us forget them? George Bernard Shaw: “To the Critics, Lest They Should Feel Ignored” from Saint Joan (1924)

29.  C Although all the answers are mentioned in the passage, the overall message comes across as (C), a chastisement of the London public for their lack of imagination or artistic appreciation. 30.  B Shaw’s tone is not always clear. Often he chastises, but overall his messages are mixed, making them somewhat ambiguous, (B). 31.  D Antithesis is contradiction—­although there is a bit of that, it does not dominate paragraph 2. There are no examples of oxymoron, metaphor, or metonymy

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 73

73

in this paragraph. However, the comparison between dramatic presentation and church services, particularly the sermon, is definitely an analogy, (D). 32.  E Reading paragraph 3, you can find several of the responses present; however, the focus of the paragraph is his criticism of the public audiences “from the stalls” and the Press for not coming out and saying what they really feel. This is the point of the topic sentence and is supported within the paragraph, making (E) the correct choice. 33.  A Shaw seems to be most concerned with the idea that the public only comes to the theater in droves so they can see and be seen. In reality, the public is bored by theater and finds it tedious; nevertheless, they continue to attend so they can be seen in public. This fact makes (A) the correct answer for this question. 34.  B These lines are “I do not complain of this, though it complains very unreasonably of me. But I can take no more notice of it than Einstein of the people who are incapable of mathematics.” The best interpretation of these sentences is that Shaw cannot do anything about the attitude of the public and their ignorance any more than Einstein can worry that math‑challenged people will be unable to grasp the depth of his theories, (B). 35.  E Paragraph 4 basically says that despite all the fools who come to the theater, there are still a few theatergoers who make Shaw’s work worth doing. This makes choice (E) the best response for this question. 36.  A Anaphora (A) is the correct answer—­it is a series of phrases or clauses that begin with parallel openings. Apostrophe is an address to an inanimate object; assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds, usually in close proximity. Ambiguity has the ideas of

4/21/12 6:31 PM

74

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

multiple interpretations, and asyndeton is a series of phrases or clauses in succession without being connected by conjunctions. 37.  C Shaw says that sitting all night in the theater cannot be worse than sitting all night in the House of Commons. This indicates that Shaw does not have much admiration or affection toward the government and its institutions. That makes (C) correct. 38.  B Shaw’s use of the phrase “irreducible minimum” is preceded by “They can appreciate the first part of the play by their usual practice of arriving late. They can escape the epilogue by not waiting for it.” In other words, audiences need only spend the shortest time possible while attending a play. This makes (B) the best choice. 39.  E If people avoid the theater altogether, Shaw will lose money, and the audience will lose the opportunity to view plays. The other answers may be true but the specific lines do not convey those points. Therefore, (E) is the best response for the question. 40.  E References to purgatory and Aristotle are references to religion and to ancient philosophy. References to history, mythology, religion, etc. are all allusions. Therefore, (E) is correct. 41.  B Considering the passage as a whole, what Shaw is trying to say is that those who shun the theater, or those who attend it just for the social interaction, are missing something special. If given the opportunity, they might find theater worthwhile and actually rewarding. This makes (B) the correct response.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 74

Questions 42–54

Line (5)

(10)

(15)

(20)

(25)

(30)

(35)

It is now many years ago, my children, when I was quite a young woman, and your father, Freddy, was less than you are at present, that we lived in a village more than a hundred miles from here. It was a very pretty village, situated on the bank of a broad, beautiful stream, which added much to the fertility and loveliness of the whole country through which it passed. We had not always dwelt in so pretty a place; but your grandfather, thinking it would be better for his business, concluded to take up his abode there. About the time we removed, another family took a steerage passage in a vessel bound from Ireland to this country. There were seven of them altogether—­the father, mother, and five children. Their home had hitherto been a cabin, with a mud floor. A Bible, an iron pot, and a few wooden stools constituted their furniture; while their fare consisted of the scanty supply of milk afforded by one ill-­fed cow, with a few potatoes. Willing to labor, yet finding wages humbled so low that they were often obliged to go both weary and hungry to bed, they concluded, after many struggles, to leave kindred and friends and come to America. How often, when speaking of this unhappy country, is the sentence ‘Why don’t they emigrate?’ uttered with the greatest indifference. But to a warm Irish heart, this is often a severe trial. They are taxed, we might almost say, for the very air they breathe; yet how fondly they still cling to the soil of that island home, where nature must smile in spite of oppression; where the dust of their kindred repose; where are more loving hearts and words of warmer greeting than are to be met with elsewhere. No wonder the Irishman loves his country, crushed, trampled upon as she is. Her soil is among the most fertile, her sons among

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

(40)

(45)

(50)

(55)

(60)

(65)

(70)

(75)

the noblest, and the language of even her rudest children the most poetical of any on earth. Oh, Ireland, fair Ireland, would we might yet live to see thee take thy proper place among the nations, to see the period approach when thy children will not be forced to seek in other countries the bare sustenance denied them at home. The Nevilles, after many struggles to obtain means sufficient to defray the expenses of a passage, and after borrowing from several neighbors small sums, which they promised to repay with interest, found themselves in the steerage of a vessel on their way to this land of promise. I will pass over the first few weeks of their arrival—­strangers on a strange soil. Suffice it to say, that some one directed them to our village as a place where they could likely find steady employment. And here, one evening in early spring, cold, hungry, and penniless, they arrived. My husband, contrary to his usual custom, chanced to be abroad on that evening; and, as he was a devout believer in that blessed word which teaches that we may sometimes entertain angels unawares, on hearing the landlord refuse to keep them on account of their inability to pay, he brought them all home with him. I confess, I was taken a good deal by surprise at this unusual act; but, as it was his pleasure, I bade them welcome; and the heartfelt blessing which the poor strangers asked over the meal we prepared for them went far towards prepossessing me in their favor. The man, his wife, and the two little girls we accommodated in the house, while the three boys found lodgings among the fragrant hay in the well-­stored mow. These people, my children, were not particularly attractive as far as appearance was concerned; they all appeared healthy and good-­humored, and the little ones seemed uncommonly well-­mannered for children in their rank of life; but still I was in some way unaccountably interested in

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 75

(80)

(85)

(90)

(95)

(100)

(105)

(110)

(115)

(120)

75

them; and I have since thought God permitted this feeling in order that I might bestir myself in behalf of those who were undoubtedly his followers. At any rate, we were willing to accommodate them a few days until something could be done for them; and, at the expiration of that time, a quiet-­looking little cottage, with a willow tree before the door, standing just across the brook, was procured for them. I parted with several articles of furniture I could spare, in order to assist them in fitting out their new home; and my efforts among my neighbors procured them many other gifts of the same description. And now how happy was Mrs. Neville. Her husband had steady employment given him on a farm near by; her two eldest boys, of the ages of twelve and thirteen, both obtained good places; while the youngest boy, with the little girls, aged ten, eight, and six, were kept at home, where they were generally as busy as bees, for their mother held idleness to be the parent of all evil. I have often, on going in, been struck with the picture of neatness and humbled contentment their small kitchen presented. The furniture was of the coarsest and most common description, yet scrupulously neat and clean. Here the family were generally found, pursuing their evening avocations, seated before the quiet blaze of their own fireside; and truly, where its comforts are properly appreciated, there is nothing gives the heart a finer or more touching idea of enjoyment than this same calm, domestic light. Evening, too, is the period of time which may truly be called the poor man’s season of enjoyment; the implements of daily labor are laid aside, and it is then he may rest his wearied limbs and enjoy the prattle and playful wiles of his children, whose caresses sometimes lead him to forget the bitterness of his lot. The Nevilles were poor, very poor; the money they had borrowed from friends

4/21/12 6:31 PM

76

(125)

(130)

(135)

(140)

(145)

(150)

(155)

(160)

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

in Ireland, they had obligated themselves to return, and they were straining every nerve to accomplish this. It was ten months before they were able, by their united labor, with practicing the most rigid self-­denial, to realize this amount. At length, however, the sum was raised; and a benevolent gentleman inclosed and forwarded it in such a manner as it would be sure to reach its destination. They had, however, barely felt their minds relieved in this particular, when Mr. Neville was laid upon a bed of sickness. He had, perhaps, overworked himself and taken cold. His disease was inflammatory rheumatism. He lingered for a month, oftentimes suffering greatly; and then, after commending his wife and little ones to the care of that God who is the protector of the widow and the fatherless, strong in the hope of a blissful immortality, he died. As I told you before, my children, the Nevilles were pious people; and I could not but notice, in their mode of expression, a degree of intellectual refinement peculiar to those who make the Holy Scriptures an habitual study. “You will observe, my children,” said Mrs. Bruce, as she came to this portion of their discourse, “the unwavering faith which this poor woman possessed. She was a stranger in a strange land; there was no one upon whom she had any claim; yet I never heard her utter one repining word, or wonder how she was to get along without the assistance of her husband, there was so little selfishness in her grief. And although tears must flow at these sad sunderings of beloved ties, yet, when she did indulge in this outward exhibition of distress, she would almost immediately dry them, and give utterance to something which would discover how entire and unchanging was her trust in God. I was a great deal with her, and, I must say, after the last sad duties

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 76

(165)

(170)

(175)

(180)

(185)

were performed, I was astonished to see how energetically she set to work in order to support herself and her children. Her husband had often told me that all the fortune his wife had brought him was her religion, her energy, and her steady habits of industry, and that these had proved the blessing of his life. Now, too, she found ample exercise for these estimable qualities, and it was surprising how she could turn her hand to anything that offered; and, indeed, with the assistance the children were able to afford her, they managed to live very comfortably.” There, amid the far-­stretching forests, on a farm which in Europe might be called a principality, a wife and mother, she is spending her days in the enjoyment of all that heart can desire. I have now done with the history of this family; yet I would have you observe how fearlessly Christian parents may repose upon the strength of the promises of Him who holds the hearts of all men in his hand. The skeptic may laugh and the worldling may sneer, but an appeal may confidently be made to those who have noted the dealings of Providence as to whether any who have trusted in him have been confounded. From Godey’s Lady’s Book (1850)

42.  E If you look at these lines, you will find that they include an address to Ireland, an apostrophe ; a paradox, or contradiction, in that people who love their land still have to leave it; an anaphora, repetition of opening phrases or clauses; and personification of the home country. Therefore, litote, (E), understatement, is the correct answer. 43.  D Because the passage talks about how the Irish are so torn about leaving the land they love and the land that has brought them heartache, (D), is the correct response to this question.

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

44.  B The first part of this passage contains all of the different kinds of sentences except the imperative—­that is, a command or a directive, (B). Nowhere is there such a sentence within these lines. 45.  A The important word here is initially. You are to consider the very first impressions of the Neville family. No doubt they are devout in their religion/ faith. In addition, after reading the description of their situation, it is easy to see they are penurious, that is, destitute. This makes (A) the correct response to this question. 46.  B The Nevilles are easy to understand. The narrator finds them fascinating, and despite her initial surprise at their presence in her house, she is impressed by their strong character. This makes (B) the correct response. 47.  E Phrases and clauses in a series that do not use any conjunctions are asyndeton, that is, without “syn” (together) conjunctions. These lines do not present any of the other choices, so (E) is the correct response to this question. 48.  B Air is yet to be taxed by any country. Therefore, this is an exaggeration. Hyperbole, (B), is an exaggeration used for stylistic effect. None of the other choices is appropriate for this question.

77

Therefore, (A), to amass (collect/save), is the correct response. 51.  C The key to this entire section has to do with the word although. Basically, Mrs. Neville is saddened by her husband’s death, but her faith in Providence keeps her strong. This makes (C) the correct choice for this question. 52.  C Mrs. Neville is easily characterized as being able to pick up and move forward. This makes (C) the best response for this question. 53.  E Repining in this case means to comment in a negative way. Therefore, (E) is the correct response for this question. 54.  C The reader is likely to be aware of the concept of a “ladies’ book” written in the mid-1800s. Most of you will realize that this was an era in which piety and morals were highly valued. Although (D) may seem correct, the passage does not indicate that all families with hard-working matriarchs are happy. The author continually points to Mrs. Neville’s unwavering faith in God despite hardships; therefore, (C) is the correct response.

49.  D Rank in this situation has to do with socio­economic level. Therefore, (D), the children of the poor, were expected to be less well mannered than those of more economically successful parents. 50.  A “To realize” comes from the sentence before that talks about how poor the Nevilles were; nevertheless, straining and practicing self-­denial, they were able to realize the amount that the family owed back home.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 77

4/21/12 6:31 PM

78

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

Essay Question One: Political Correctness Analysis of Question One Students have a number of options available in what they may take from the source material provided and the direction they may wish to take in addressing the question itself. Given the fact that most teenagers have grown up in the age of political correctness, most students writing on this prompt will find it accessible, and most teenagers will definitely have an opinion (as they do on most everything!). As one looks at the sources, some more salient ideas bubble to the surface—the David Foster Wallace piece (Source A) makes a keen distinction that the dictates of politically correct speech conventions do not translate to politically correct attitudes. S. I. Hayakawa (Source B) offers the idea that usage and connotations of words like “bums” contribute to our attitude toward the groups identified. The excerpt from Nancy Mairs (Source C) is a startling rebuff of politically correct terminology in praise of claiming one’s own “crippled” identity and condition. Insightful readers will draw from Mairs’s referencing of George Orwell’s “The Politics of the English Language.” Source D offers the reference book rules on avoiding offensive language but is also careful to note the “ludicrous obfuscations” that may sometimes appear (“Snow White and the Seven Persons of Short Stature,” for example). Papers that respond to this aspect of political correctness will have much to go on with the “Glossary of Banned Words” provided by Diane Ravitch (Source F). Source E, as the nontextual source, provides some concrete numbers that students could use for either argument—a slim majority of respondents seem to favor restrictions on offensive speech toward religious and ethnic groups. When it comes to offensive lyrics, however, a slim majority believe that this “politically incorrect” expression is allowable as a First Amendment right. The important aspect of this sort of argument synthesis prompt is that you choose a position on the issue and use evidence that only supports your case. The Mairs piece (Source C), for example, would not be useful (and would have been egregiously misread) if a student held Mairs up as someone who used offensive terminology because she was politically incorrect and insensitive. Obviously, she’s not (“I would never refer to another person as a cripple”). Scoring Guide for Question One 9 Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for essays that are scored an 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument and synthesis* of cited sources or impressive in their control of language. 8 Effective Essays earning a score of 8 effectively take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that the campaign to promote the usage of nonoffensive language and politically correct terminology has been a successful agent for positive change and increased sensitivity. They successfully support their position by capably synthesizing and citing at

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 78

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

79

least three sources. The writer’s argument is convincing, and the cited sources support the writer’s position. The prose demonstrates an ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not flawless. 7 Essays earning a score of 7 fit the description of essays that are scored a 6 but are distinguished by more complete or more purposeful argumentation and synthesis of cited sources or a more mature prose style. 6 Adequate Essays earning a score of 6 adequately take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that the campaign to promote the usage of nonoffensive language and politically correct terminology has been a successful agent for positive change and increased sensitivity. They adequately synthesize and cite at least three sources. The writer’s argument is generally convincing, and the cited sources generally support the writer’s position, but the argument is less developed or less cogent than in the essays earning higher scores. Though the language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, generally the prose is clear. 5 Essays earning a score of 5 take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that the campaign to promote the usage of nonoffensive language and politically correct terminology has been a successful agent for positive change and increased sensitivity. They support their position by synthesizing at least three sources, but their arguments and their use of cited sources are somewhat limited, inconsistent, or uneven. The writer’s argument is generally clear, and the sources generally support the writer’s position, but the links between the sources and the argument may be strained. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the writer’s ideas adequately. 4 Inadequate Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that the campaign to promote the usage of nonoffensive language and politically correct terminology has been a successful agent for positive change and increased sensitivity. They attempt to present an argument and support their position by synthesizing and citing at least two sources but may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify either their own argument or the cited sources they include. The link between the argument and the cited sources is weak. The prose of 4 essays may suggest immature control of writing. 3 Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less understanding of the cited sources, less success in developing their own position, or less control of writing. 2 Little Success Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in taking a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that the campaign to promote the usage of nonoffensive language and politically correct terminology has been a successful agent for positive change and increased sensitivity. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from reading the sources rather than citing the sources themselves. These essays may misread

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 79

4/21/12 6:31 PM

80

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

the sources, fail to present an argument, or substitute a simpler task by merely responding to the question tangentially or by summarizing the sources. The prose of essays scored a 2 often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing, such as a lack of development or organization, grammatical problems, or a lack of control. 1 Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are especially simplistic or weak in their control of writing or do not cite even one source. 0 Essays earning a score of zero (0) are on-topic responses that receive no credit, such as those that merely repeat the prompt. – Essays earning a dash (–) are blank responses or responses that are completely off topic. *For the purposes of scoring, synthesis refers to combining the sources and the writer’s position to form a cohesive, supported argument and accurately citing all sources. student A’s Response to Question One

“The doorman, who spoke slowly and courteously in a Southern dialect, was especially deft in assisting differently abled residents to their taxis.” You wouldn’t realize it by an initial glance, but the sentence above would be considered offensive according to a list compiled by Diane Ravitch. Words such as “doorman,” “dialect,” “differently abled” in the first sentence should not be used. Instead a more gender-neutral term such as “door attendant” is more appropriate. The less ethnocentric “language” (Southern language?) is more appropriate. The less offensive “person with a disability” is more appropriate. How do we know what language to use and when? How do we know for sure if we are offending others? How do we know if what we’ve always been taught to say is or is not the “correct terminology”? In the above example, it is difficult to know sometimes what the current correct term is for a group or a person. But more often than not, we encounter situations where we do know what the acceptable term is. With all the concern for politically correct language, we should know the difference, and I think for the most part we do. But there are certain exceptions to any trend. Not everyone is on board. Not everyone thinks that thinking before speaking is such a big deal. For the most part, there is quite a large amount of evidence that shows that people are much more careful in their speech patterns—especially when it comes to naming different cultural and ethnic groups. I know when we had a unit on Native American literature, my teacher Ms. Zimmerman actually stopped herself a number of times when she said “Indians” and corrected herself—“I mean, Native Americans.” My question would be, was that really what she meant? Why doesn’t she always say “Native Americans” the first time? What Ms. Zimmerman means to say and what she actually says may be two different things. She means not to be offensive, but as it turns out, sometimes she “slips”

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 80

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

81

and says “Indian”—considered offensive by some. Ms. Zimmerman is a great example of someone who carefully considers her language. Her awareness and “heightened sensitivity in language is a statement of respect . . . and is a positive statement of rectifying the unequal social status between one group and another” (Source D). Native Americans have had a rough go of it since the Europeans landed, the least we can do is not give them an Asian misnomer. On the other hand, people make the news when they use language that is largely considered inappropriate. In Chicago, White Sox Manager Ozzie Guillen has recently come under fire for comments directed at Sun-Times columnist Jay Mariotti. Most news sources reported that Guillen, in one of his tirades, called Mariotti “an offensive term for homosexuals.” For the entire week more editorials were written concerning Ozzie’s insensitivity and apologies were demanded from gay and lesbian groups, and people were generally intolerant of a public figure such as Ozzie Guillen using an offensive term freely. This turned out to be a bigger story than the White Sox winning nine straight games at that time. This is certainly evidence that our overall level of tolerance of offensive terminology has changed, but still there is an offensive thought present here. Guillen used the term he did to strike at Mariotti’s manliness. To call someone a “f__” is to emasculate him in print. The offensive connection is still there. No matter how many sensitivity training classes Guillen may take, he thinks that homosexuality is bad. David Foster Wallace warns us that we should not confuse the functions of politically correct language—“usage conventions can function in two ways: On one hand they can be a reflection of political change, and on the other they can be an instrument of political change.” In Guillen’s case, his use of an offensive term reflected his political insensitivity. And what if Guillen ceases to use the offensive term because he is told to by Major League Baseball? Could such a mandate be the instrument of change? Wallace continues to say that the central fallacy of politically correct speech is the assumption that “a society’s mode of expression is productive of its attitudes rather than a product of those attitudes.” Politically correct language, it seems, may only mask real attitudes toward things. Perhaps it is better that we know where people really stand on issues of race, gender identity, and sexism rather than campaigning for labels. As much as we may encourage politically correct speech, tolerance and acceptance and changing attitudes must precede terminology and language policing. student b’s Response to Question One

In today’s society, there is a lot more concern about the way we talk to each other. Because we try to use more inoffensive language, we definitely have become more sensitive to other groups.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 81

4/21/12 6:31 PM

82

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

“Usage is political, of course, but it’s complexly political” (Source A). One should always remember that when using political language. When you see someone walking down the street and you’re not sure what to call that person, you should just ask. Sometimes people might want to be called something you don’t expect. Someone in a wheelchair might not want you to call them handicapped or disabled. “I am a cripple. I choose this word to name me” (Source C). In cases like this, it is often best to go with what they want, because it is what they want. You see, it’s all political. One thing many people understand about being careful with language is that some language is only allowed to be used by certain groups at certain times. “A ‘within the group’ rule often applies, which allows a member of the group to use terms freely that would be considered offensive if used by a nonmember of the group” (Source D). In my school we were talking about the use of the n-word in the book Huck Finn. But in the “Born to Trouble” video we watched, we saw comedians like Chris Rock and Bill Cosby use the term to get laughs. I would never use the term because I know how offensive it is. There is also survey proof that people are much more concerned about the political correctness of the language they use. Over one-half (53%) of those responding to a survey said that speech offensive to racial groups should not be allowed (Source E). Half of those surveyed also said speech offensive to religious groups should not be allowed (Source E). So you see there is definitely a positive change happening. So in using politically correct language, it’s always important to call people what they want to be called, to understand that some language should only be used by certain groups, and that most people do try to say and do the right thing when it comes to political correctness. Commentary on student Response A This essay would score at least an 8. Student A’s strength comes from her adept use of a personal example (Ms. Zimmerman) as well as an example that was in the news (Ozzie Guillen) to support her overall qualification of the claim that the campaign to promote politically correct speech has been a successful agent for positive change and increased sensitivity. Student A opens with a unique strategy—using a seemingly benign sentence that is actually loaded with terms that would be considered politically incorrect. She raises the issue about how we sometimes don’t know we’re being offensive and then turns her focus toward times when we do. The use of the Diane Ravitch source is most important here—all the offensive terms she used were lifted right from the glossary of offensive terminology. Note also the nice repetition of “is more appropriate” as a kind of politically correct refrain. Moving toward her two key examples, the student develops one situation with Ms. Zimmerman, who is very aware and careful of her speech—enough to correct herself when she thinks she “slips.”

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 82

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

83

Student A also develops an example where a speaker uses an offensive term with offensive intent. Here is where the analysis gets more complex—with the help of David Foster Wallace’s assertion. She synthesizes the Random House quote to show how Ms. Zimmerman is the careful language user. Guillen, in contrast, is the “loose cannon” using language indiscrim-inately but with incriminating consequences. One key aspect of Student A’s essay is that she chose to use the minimum three sources. There may have been opportunity to use other sources in the course of this response, but she opted for quality of development rather than quantity of sources. Because of the sophistication of her argument, Student A may even earn a 9. Commentary on student Response B Compared to Student A’s response, Student B’s is rather simplistic and inadequate. He attempts to do all that is asked of the prompt—he even uses more sources than Student A—but there is insufficient development and a lack of control in Student B’s prose. His essay would rate no higher than a 4 by an AP reader. Fatal mistakes in Student B’s prose begin with the worn-out “In today’s society” opening (which reads like fingernails on a chalkboard). He also falters by beginning his first body paragraph by abruptly jumping right into a quote without providing any context. The student has difficulty seamlessly integrating quotes from other sources—most seem plopped down and forced into the conversation. Student B is never able, it seems, to develop his ideas thoroughly in a cogent manner. The ideas are definitely there, but he limits himself to examples, not elaborating to convince a reader fully of his position. He seems limited to a simplified five-paragraph essay format—he fails to provide transitional elements between paragraphs, which makes for abrupt shifts. The conclusion is an obvious rehashing of what has already been said. No “signature stamp” is given to defend or assert his position. Student B finishes with the same old same old.

Essay Question Two: Obstetrics Analysis of Question Two This is a very interesting and challenging passage from For the Time Being by Annie Dillard. It is intriguing because Dillard’s description and reactions to the obstetrics ward seem almost blasphemous to the reader. The passage offers stimulating imagery and interesting word choice. If you are faced with a passage such as this, just take it for what is in front of you. Do not get upset or critical of the narrator’s stance. You have been asked to deal with what is on the page—­no more. Student response to this passage is always interesting and varied. You will see that the two student samples, albeit overlapping in a couple of ideas, are also quite different.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 83

4/21/12 6:31 PM

84

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

Scoring Guide for Question ­Two 9 Essays meet all of the criteria for 8 papers and, in addition, are especially full or apt in their analysis or demonstrate particularly impressive composition skills. 8 Essays successfully analyze the rhetorical and stylistic strategies Annie Dillard employs to convey her attitude about newborns and the obstetrics ward. They refer to the passage directly or indirectly and explain convincingly how specific strategies, such as imagery, tone, and figurative language, contribute to an understanding of the writer’s attitude. Their prose controls a wide range of effective writing but is not flawless. 7 Essays fit the description of 6 essays but employ more complete analysis or demonstrate a more mature prose style. 6 Essays adequately analyze how the stylistic devices Dillard employs in this passage reveal her attitude about the obstetrics ward and the newborns. They refer to the passage directly or indirectly, and they recognize the narrator’s attitude and how she conveys it by utilizing strategies such as choice of detail, tone, or figurative language. A few lapses in diction or syntax may be present, but generally the prose of 6 essays is clear. 5 Essays analyze Dillard’s rhetorical techniques, but the development of those techniques and how they reveal Dillard’s attitude is limited or too simplistic. These essays may treat techniques superficially or develop ideas about the narrator’s attitude inconsistently. A few lapses in diction or syntax may appear, but the prose in these essays usually conveys the writers’ ideas adequately. 4 Essays inadequately respond to the task of the prompt. They may misrepresent Dillard’s attitude or analyze rhetorical strategies inaccurately or with little understanding of how strategies reveal her attitude. Sometimes these writers will paraphrase and/or summarize more than analyze. Often the prose of these essays suggests immature control over organization, diction, or syntax. 3 Essays meet the same criteria as essays with a score of 4 but are less perceptive about how rhetorical strategies convey attitude or are less consistent in controlling the elements of writing. 2 Essays are unsuccessful in analyzing how stylistic strategies convey Dillard’s attitude about the obstetrics ward and the newborns. These essays tend to pay little or cursory attention to the specific features, and they may generalize or simplify about attitude and tone. They may simply paraphrase or comment on the passage without analyzing technique. The prose of 2 papers often reveals consistent weaknesses in writing, such as a lack of development or organization, grammatical problems, or a lack of control. 1 Essays meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are especially simplistic in their discussion or weak in controlling elements of language.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 84

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

85

Student A’s Response to Question ­Two

Childbirth and newborns have always been perceived as the miracle of life and a joy and privilege to every parent. Annie Dillard uses nurse Pat Eisberg and her job to show how all the joy of such a wonderful event is vanishing. Dillard uses a deliberate word choice to develop her tone to relate how childbirth and the immediate events following have become so efficient as to become an assembly line. Her attitude is one of regret. She laments our society’s loss of wonder for the phenomenon of bringing new life into the world. At the very beginning of the passage she sets the tone by comparing the babies to dishes. By saying that a nurse spends most of the eight-­hour shift at the sink, she involves images of a factory worker mindlessly working at the cleaning station of an assembly line. In all that nurse Eisberg does, she demonstrates no emotion. Only a comment in a warm voice, “Now you” expresses her reaction to what she is doing. If anything it expresses the boredom and monotony of one who is stuck doing the same thing hour after hour, day after day. Dillard likens the boy’s limbs to worms, implying that there is no tenderness or joy in this job. The nurse grabs one arm and deliberately turns him over. Again, no tenderness. The chosen method of turning him over is similar to the description one might use to describe handling a small dog or a large baby doll, or a newly caught fish with a dorsal fin. In the sixth paragraph, she changes tactics a bit. She mentions Allah and the Qur’an. Here she mentions the creation of man from near nothing. The spiritual wonder of such a feat is soon canceled in the following sentence when she introduces the image of a clown twisting a few skinny balloons into a dog, a giraffe (or a child?). This seems to be Dillard’s main tactic in this passage: just when she suggests the “miracle” she cancels it with an antithesis of the clown. By mentioning the clown and his balloons she belittles the creation—­Allah’s sacred breath becomes “lickety-­split.” Nothing is sacred on this obstetrics ward. It’s just another job in another type of factory. After Eisberg finishes washing the babies, they are left on the counter until someone comes to collect them, one at a time. The coldness of this assembly line process reminds me of the clinical, matter-­of fact tone of Brave New World. Even in wrapping the babies there is standardization. Do it correctly and the child is restrained and kept warm. Throughout the piece, the wrapped child is compared to a Thermos. The comparison emphasizes the idea of mass production of an object, with most feelings gone. Even with the parents, their reaction seems automatic, not heartfelt. They “involuntarily” say “hi!” It seems an impulse, not an act of love. Throughout the piece, Annie Dillard’s use of diction and the nurse Pat Eisberg’s (iceberg’s?) actions show that the production of children and their subsequent care have lost the tenderness, and possibly the love, we would expect in exchange for the cold, mass-­produced assembly line. The magic of the process has been replaced by the tedium of the job.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 85

4/21/12 6:31 PM

86

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

Student B’s Response to Question ­Two

In this passage, Annie Dillard conveys a slightly disturbed attitude towards her experience in an obstetrical ward. She sees the process of cleaning the newly-­born children as almost industrial, and uses diction, antithesis and imagery to effectively convey her opinions. When describing the process of washing the infant, Dillard opts for cold, scientific words regarding the baby’s anatomy. Words such as dorsal and anus are most certainly not what one would expect to describe the fragility and innocence of infants. Dillard also compares the child’s newly severed umbilical cord to a jumper cable. This in addition to her previously mentioned word choices, creates a factory-­like atmosphere. This creation of a “birthing factory” very clearly conveys Dillard’s view of American obstetrics as cold and uncaring. Dillard’s view of Americans is also conveyed in the ninth paragraph through her use of antithesis. She states, “Americans place infants on their backs now. . . lest they choke and die.” Dillard, throughout the passage, seems to view the events as not only an observer, but an outsider. Through this statement we can infer that some of her sense of isolation may come from the fact that she is possibly a foreigner. Through her use of antithesis, one can examine her confusion over American practices and their swiftly changing nature. Much of the mood in this passage is set up by the visuals Dillard creates. In the first sentence of the first paragraph, a sterile metal sink is described as the common kitchen variety. These cold images are carried throughout the passage. Examples include the reference to the jumper cable in paragraph 4 and the “wormy” limbs in paragraph 5. Even the reference to Allah and humankind’s divine origins is quickly demeaned by something as trite as a clown’s balloon animals. The final image in the passage, one of a blasé nurse, brings about the realization that the sterility seen in the sinks and equipment has transcended to the people who work with the infants. Dillard’s view of this event as an outsider definitely increased her awareness of the situation, and through this she effectively conveys her views through her word choice, rhetorical devices, and imagery. Commentary on Student Response A Without a doubt, this student has successfully understood the prompt, read and understood the passage, and written a strong composition. This writer has a good vocabulary and uses it well. In addition, the examples from the passage he has chosen to include are ample and apt. The focus of this response is actually the antithesis of Allah and the clown. This is the crux of the problem, as this student rightly sees it. Birth is no longer something special. It’s just another day of work in the obstetrics factory—wormy limbs, dorsal fins, clowns, and all.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 86

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

87

The student has identified the iceberg nurse accurately, and it is her attitude that seems to pervade the entire nursery. The reference to Brave New World is apt, and with more time, this might have been an interesting analogy to pursue. This is a very well-written essay. Errors are minimal. Yes, it is five paragraphs, but nowhere do you have the feeling of an essay written on an assembly line. The ideas flow between the paragraphs, and excellent composition skills are demonstrated. No doubt this response will receive many 8s from readers. Perhaps some may think it needs a bit more bulk and give it a 7. However, given the limited time and the tightness of the essay, this is a very successful response to a challenging question. Commentary on Student Response B This is an adequate analysis of Annie Dillard’s passage. This student cites many different aspects of the essay in support of what she says. However, it is not as successful as Student Response A, and this is a good pair for you to look at. Response B includes many of the same concepts mentioned in A, such as the lack of emotion, factory-­like nature, mechanical handling of the newborns, and others. However, it is easy to see that the first response is better written; there is a tightness to it. You would not necessarily be graded down because of the misconception of Annie Dillard’s being an outsider or perhaps a foreigner. The misunderstanding of the comments about whether babies should be placed on their backs or on their stomachs is included mostly to remind us how the “rules” that govern child rearing are constantly changing. This student is not too sure about the meaning of this. Notice, however, Response A doesn’t mention it at all. Such a minor misunderstanding won’t gravely affect one’s grade, but to have made such a point of this paragraph, and then do so incorrectly, is going to affect the score somewhat. Overall, this is an acceptable response to the Annie Dillard question. It would be scored a 6. A few readers might be disturbed enough about the multiple inaccuracies found in paragraph 3 that they might award this response a 5. No doubt, however, this student understands the task of the prompt and most of the passage and has responded with an adequate composition.

Essay Question Three: Thoreau Analysis of Question Three This passage is, of course, from Thoreau’s Walden. It is readily accessible, although some find it less than exciting to read and “get into.” However, those who give it a chance will find that Thoreau’s wonderful language and rich imagery offer an easy passage to respond to.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 87

4/21/12 6:31 PM

88

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

Scoring Guide for Question Three 9 Essays meet all of the criteria for 8 papers and, in addition, are especially full or apt in their analysis or demonstrate particularly impressive composition skills. 8 Essays successfully analyze the rhetorical and stylistic strategies Thoreau employs to convey his attitude about nature and the onset of spring. They refer to the passage directly or indirectly and explain convincingly how specific strategies, such as imagery, tone, and figurative language, contribute to an understanding of the writer’s attitude. Their prose controls a wide range of effective writing but is not flawless. 7 Essays fit the description of 6 essays but employ more complete analysis or demonstrate a more mature prose style. 6 Essays adequately analyze how the stylistic devices Thoreau employs in his passage reveal his attitude about nature and springtime. They refer to the passage directly or indirectly, and they recognize the narrator’s attitude and how he conveys it by utilizing strategies such as choice of detail, tone, or figurative language. A few lapses in diction or syntax may be present, but generally the prose of 6 essays is clear. 5 Essays analyze Thoreau’s rhetorical techniques, but the development of those techniques and of the understanding of Thoreau’s attitude is limited or too simplistic. These essays may treat techniques superficially or develop ideas about the narrator’s attitude inconsistently. A few lapses in diction or syntax may appear, but the prose in these essays usually conveys the writers’ ideas adequately. 4 Essays inadequately respond to the task of the prompt. They may misrepresent Thoreau’s attitude or analyze rhetorical strategies inaccurately or with little understanding of how strategies reveal his attitude. Often the prose of these essays suggests immature control over organization, diction, or syntax. 3 Essays meet the criteria for the score of 4 but are less perceptive about how rhetorical strategies convey attitude or are less consistent in controlling the elements of writing. 2 Essays are unsuccessful in analyzing how stylistic strategies convey Thoreau’s attitude about spring. These essays tend to pay little or cursory attention to the specific features, and they may generalize or simplify about attitude and tone. They may simply paraphrase or comment on the passage without analyzing technique. The prose of 2 papers often reveals consistent weaknesses in writing, such as a lack of development or organization, grammatical problems, or a lack of control. 1 Essays meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are especially simplistic in their discussion or weak in controlling elements of language. Student A’s Response to Question Three

Thoreau uses devices such as imagery, diction, and anaphora to convey his awe of nature and his happy and contented attitude.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 88

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

89

The speaker in this passage is euphoric at the dawn of springtime. He sees a “graceful” and “beautiful” hawk soar through the air and he feels that everything in the world is connected. He asks, “or was its native nest made in the angle of a cloud . . . from the earth?” (lines 18– 20). All at once the speaker feels like Nature’s kindred spirit and he begins to feel, see, and understand the true beauty of nature. He sees “a rare mess of golden and silver and bright cupreous fishes” (line 21). He notices that Nature is life and death, and in that way all things are immortal. He realizes that “Poison is not poisonous after all, nor are any wounds fatal” (lines 49–50). Suddenly it all falls into place for the narrator: Nature is important to us because it is us, and we are nature. Thoreau expresses his journey to this realization with a succession of images. He uses similes and metaphors to help the reader see what he sees. The hawk “sported” in the “fields of air,” “turning over and over like a kite.” The reader has a clear image of this playful hawk, as well as the fishes “which looked like a strand of jewels.” Likewise, the reader can see “tadpoles which herons gobble up, and tortoises and toads run over in the road, and [it seems] that sometimes it has rained flesh and blood.” But the death is as much a part of nature as the beautiful life. All is one, and the narrator challenges: “death where is thy victory now?” The reader is able to feel these effects through the pace of the passage as well. As the speaker becomes more engrossed in the actions of the hawk, his tone becomes more animated and the narrator starts to use words in pairs, as if to emphasize the glory he sees and the excitement he feels. The hawk mounts the air “again and again” and turns “over and over.” At the climax of the passage, the speaker jumps “from hummock to hummock, from willow root to willow root,” and the author feels the energy and the warmth of the bright sunlight. The pace slows when the speaker contemplates death’s role in nature. However, this is not because of sadness or regret but to emphasize to us that because we are one with nature, we have nothing to fear. The author successfully conveys his blissful tone and opinions of nature to the reader through vivid imagery, very connotative diction, and other stylistic devices. He “refreshes” the reader with his account of the “inexhaustible vigor” of nature. Student B’s Response to Question Three

Thoreau uses various methods to express his awe with nature. His tone is somewhat poetic in the middle of the passage. He describes the Merlin’s (hawk’s) wings as “satin ribbons in the sun” and “the pearly inside of a shell.” He also states that he does not care about the name of the animal. He is so awestruck by simply how it looks and flies through the air that nothing else matters. He even describes how, though the bird is alone, it is not lonely, but the world is lonely beneath it. He implies that the hawk is so divine that without its presence the earth is incomplete.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 89

4/21/12 6:31 PM

90

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

In the second paragraph Thoreau begins by describing a school of fish in a river. When he sees the meadow beyond the river, he tells of how the sunlight on it “would have waked the dead.” He says that anything in such a light has to be immortal, and he challenges death with a hypothetical question: “Oh Death where was thy sting? O grave, where was thy victory then?” He is completely enveloped in the greatness of nature and describes it again (like the bird in paragraph one) as if it is completely above his world. In nature’s cycle things constantly die and are reborn, so in reality there is no death. In the final paragraph the author brings forth the point that people need nature to be beyond their realm of thinking. Finally completing his description, he describes it as though nature were not as it is, the world would cease to spin on its axis! People need to see the beauty of nature in order to live. Thoreau brings the passage to a close by telling about the beauty of the cycle of the environment. He is overjoyed to see that the carcasses of dead animals still fuel the whole of nature and sustain life, which sets the readers up for his ending statement: “Poison is not Poison after all. . . .” He is completely fulfilled to see that the death of great beasts is never a waste in such an environment. Commentary on Student Response A This essay is very well executed. Not only does it demonstrate all the characteristics of a strong writer, it also demonstrates an excellent understanding of both the task of the prompt and the passage being analyzed. The introduction is brief and to the point. It shows no special insight, but nevertheless it permits the writer to move right to her points. In fact, the first body paragraph is the controlling point of the entire passage: the epiphany of the narrator understanding that man and nature are one and that there is hope to be had in this—­although not everything is alive and vibrant, even death is a part of the vibrancy. In her next paragraph, she explores the animated imagery of the passage. The essay provides numerous examples of these images, explaining them where necessary. The following paragraph discusses the syntax of the passage. The writer has cleverly connected the syntax with the nearly effervescent tone of the passage. There is no doubt that Thoreau is deliriously excited by the coming of spring; this student has captured the essence of this with her mention of specific details and pace, and she brings good examples in for support. Finally, the conclusion ties it all together. If the introduction had been longer, the conclusion may have seemed like only an echo of the beginning. Here, however, the writer has managed to pull together all the ideas developed in the passage. Readers no doubt would award this essay a score of 8.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 90

4/21/12 6:31 PM

Part T wo: Diagnostic Test Diagnostic Test Answers and Explanations

91

Commentary on Student Response B This student has some great ideas and insights. Although many of the comments are very accurate, this writer does not go into detail about any of the specific stylistic devices that the writer uses. Many of the references to style are implied; however, the specific examples are quite apt and numerous. The student no doubt has a good grasp on the significance of the passage and the task of the prompt. This is one of those responses that needs a rewrite. Unfortunately, however, there are no such opportunities on this AP exam. Too much is told without being shown directly through examples. This student clearly has a handle on the task at hand. Unfortunately, he was unable to pull enough together to earn an upper-half score. This response is on target for the understanding of the passage but less than successful with the presentation. Because of the limited development of specific ideas and scarcity of examples, this essay would most likely earn the score of 5.

How to Make This Book Work for You Based on the Results of Your Diagnostic Your score on the Diagnostic will go a long way toward helping you perform well by helping you identify areas in which you need further study. The answer explanations for questions you got wrong can steer you to specific chapters of this book on which you should focus or to specific areas of literature in which you show weakness. To score well on the AP exam, you’ll need to do your homework. Don’t just skim over what you read; try to apply it to other contexts and to connect it to what you already know.

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 91

4/21/12 6:31 PM

02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 92

4/21/12 6:31 PM

112

Part three: The AP English Language and Composition Exam Chapter 4

Don’t Forget When you read the body of a passage, pay particular attention to the connotations of words and nuances of the tone words the author has chosen and how they are presented. Is the author’s/narrator’s attitude detectable from the diction or tone?

key point In addition to words, as you read, you also want to be aware of individual sentences, groups of sentences, and paragraphs. Just how is the passage put together? What makes it work (or not work, as the case may be)?

Finally, you must not overlook the conclusion of a passage. Sometimes most of what you need to know can be gleaned from the last paragraph or last several sentences of a passage. Successful writing tends to have a summarizing quality at the end of a passage. It is this quality that evokes satisfaction from the reader. However, rarely will a well-written passage merely reiterate what has already been said. Instead, a successful writer will give the reader a bit extra. That’s what makes a piece meaningful. Often successful closings will not hold up out of context. They need the entire piece to provide them with significance. Take a look at the following passage, a reproduction of Abraham Lincoln’s “Second Inaugural Address,” given one month before the end of the Civil War. It is the shortest presidential inaugural address ever given. This address appeared as a passage in one of the essays on a past AP English Language and Composition exam. At this second appearing to take the oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then, a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new would be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured. On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it, all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, urgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war—seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came.

04_APEngLangComp_Ch04.indd 112

4/2/12 4:08 PM

Part three: The AP English Language and Composition Exam Reading for Understanding

113

One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war; while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered. That of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. “Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom offense cometh.” If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said “the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.” With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.  (March 4, 1865)

Applying the How-What Approach Go through the questions methodically, and mark the passage to help you keep track of your answers.

What is Lincoln’s main idea? They must bind up the nation’s wounds and as a union work together to make amends and move forward with a minimum of recrimination from either side.

04_APEngLangComp_Ch04.indd 113

4/2/12 4:08 PM

114

Part three: The AP English Language and Composition Exam Chapter 4

How does he do it? Lincoln appeals to the common decency of both sides. He assures them that neither shall be held at fault and that the nation cannot move forward without both.

What is the underlying structure? He begins by recalling his inauguration of four years ago and the imminence of disaster that loomed. The North and the South, each believing it had justice on its side, consequently moved forward. Lincoln highlights a few things in the middle of his speech, including the subject of slavery, but notice how he always returns to the commonality of both sides—for instance, both sides reading the same Bible and believing in the same God, both suffering losses, both leaving loved ones behind. He builds up to his brilliant conclusion, his fervent appeal to all: “With malice toward none and charity for all.”

How does the narrator create an effect? Mostly Lincoln appeals to mankind’s common feelings of doing the right thing and wanting the horror and waste to be over. Without dwelling on particular details, Lincoln refers to the horrors of the war and the damage—the numbers lost and the morale destroyed, both for those fighting and for the bereft back home. He reminds his audience that both sides read the same Bible and believed in what they were doing. He takes special pains to not point the finger of blame at anyone. All listeners would have felt cared about as a result of hearing this speech. Not only does it persuade listeners to go along with him, but it lauds them for all that they have done or endured.

What are his qualifications? Not all answers are this easy. This was the onset of a second term for this president. Not only had he been deemed an outstanding leader, he was an intelligent person who had studied much and seemed to know about the basic psychology of the masses.

How can you best identify the most pertinent information? Luckily for us, Lincoln was a good statesman. He knew how to appeal to the people’s better conscience by appealing to the common man in us all. He is straightforward with his words, and he pulls no punches. The challenge is to uncover within the simplicity of his lines and his words the great depth and richness of what he says.

04_APEngLangComp_Ch04.indd 114

4/2/12 4:08 PM

Part three: The AP English Language and Composition Exam Reading for Understanding

115

Sample Annotations Observe the following annotations; yours should look fairly similar. Critics and historians have spent decades studying every nuance of this speech. Some of the most obvious points have been noted here. Hopefully, you found these and others as well.

tells us it will be short

euphemism/ understatement

1st inaugural

At this second appearing to take the oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then, a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new would be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured. On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it, all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, urgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war—seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came. One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war; while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be

04_APEngLangComp_Ch04.indd 115

That was then, this is now nice phrase

inevitable end

parallelism

Everyone dreaded it; no one wanted it, but one side would make war

clunky-sounding

separate together

4/2/12 4:08 PM

116

Part three: The AP English Language and Composition Exam Chapter 4

archaic language

much use of religious reference; compare Obama’s inaugural?

answered. That of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. “Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom offense cometh.” If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said “the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.” With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.  (March 4, 1865)

this will pass— nation move forward together

parallel—anaphora?

similar sounds

While most of the notation has to do with the What of the passage, some of the marks and comments relate to the How of the passage. Some quick conclusions are obvious: Lincoln used a lot of parallelism—yes, it makes good copy, but more importantly, he was trying to align two antagonistic parts of the country. How better than to use parallelism in his speech as well? A very strong religious sense pervades this speech. Perhaps today’s audiences would object to such a thing, but Lincoln held strong religious beliefs in common with the vast majority of the nation’s citizens. Of course, the United States at the time of the Civil War was a much different country than it is today. Concepts of God and religion were strong influences on our forebearers and the shaping of the nation, and to understand what they were saying and doing, we have to be mindful of the context in which they spoke and acted. This should give you an idea of the things you need to be seeing and thinking about as you read. What you see here is the beginning of a “dialogue” between you and the passage. As mentioned before, close reading skills are not developed overnight. This is something you must work on long before your AP test.

04_APEngLangComp_Ch04.indd 116

4/2/12 4:08 PM

Loading...

diagnostic test - Prismic

Part Two DIagnostic Test 02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 31 4/21/12 6:30 PM 02a_APEngLangComp_DiagT.indd 32 4/21/12 6:30 PM Diagnostic Test Answe...

1MB Sizes 0 Downloads 0 Views

Recommend Documents

Diagnostic Test
9 What does the L stand for in the FDA's ALERT tool? A Listen. B Leave. C Limit. D Look !0 What practice can help preven

Diagnostic Test - XAMonline
developed by XAMonline and reflect content similar to that on real tests; however, they are not former tests. XAMonline

ASSESSMENT & DIAGNOSTIC TEST - SPANISH
(b) habían sido. (c) eran. (d) son. 53. Dile a Miguel que por favor ............... aquí. (a) venga. (b) ven. (c) vien

Irlande - Prismic
Les conséquences sur les relations accompagnant-accompagnée et médecin-patiente ...... L'OMS a par ailleurs souligné que

Diagnostic Test 1 - Welcome - iTEP
Diagnostic Test 1. Please contact iTEP at [email protected] to receive your Diagnostic Test access codes a

Grade 5 Diagnostic Test - MyMusicTheory
Grade 5 Diagnostic Test - £10. If you are not sure whether you are ready to take your Grade Five Music Theory exam or n

Diagnostic Test MAPEH 10 - Documents - Docslide
Nov 8, 2015 - Republic of the Philippines Region IV-A Division of Laguna District of Alaminos Alaminos National High Sch

Practice Tests And Answer Keys Diagnostic Test
Diagnostic Test. Instructions for Using the Diagnostic Test Prior to Classroom Instruction. Teaching the entire content

Diagnostic Test MAPEH 10 - Documents - docslide.us
Nov 8, 2015 - Republic of the Philippines Region IV-A Division of Laguna District of Alaminos Alaminos National High Sch

Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) - World Health Organization
in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Sug